CDE 232 Chapter 10
CDE 232 Chapter 10 CDE 232
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Ladd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood Quiz Principles and Rules • 1. Each in-class quiz is an evaluation of YOUR personal mastery of this course’s content. – Each quiz should be your own work and no one else's. • It is NOT acceptable to help others or share answers during a quiz, or submit work under another person’s name. – Only those present for the lecture are eligible to take a quiz. • 2. The quiz and your answers are not to be discussed with anyone while you take the quiz, and before you turn it in. • 3. The notes you have taken in class can be used while working on a quiz. Erikson’s Theory: Industry vs. Inferiority Industry Inferiority • Developing a sense • Pessimism and lack of of competence at confidence in own ability to do things well useful skills and • Negative responses tasks from family, teachers, • School provides and peers can many opportunities contribute to negative feelings Changes in Self-Concept During Middle Childhood • “What am I like?” – Shift from self observation to social comparisons with peers • Inferred from comparisons: “ideal” self; deviations = “real” self – Focus shifts from obvious characteristics to skills, competencies • These changes linked with growth in perspective taking, culture of schooling • More balanced, fewer all-or-none descriptions • References social groups • Cultural variations Hierarchical Structure of Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood Figure 10.1 Images/Photolibrary) right: © Mary Kate Denny/PhotoEdit; © Tom Pannell/Corbis; © Mitch Wojnarowicz/The Image Works; Radius Self-Esteem and Factors that Shape Self Esteem • Self is evaluated hierarchically, in multiple \domains – Domains are distinguished by schools, peers, parents; variations in competence are perceived as stable dispositions • General, overall esteem: a cross-domain evaluation – Perceived self competence across valued domains • Influences on Self Esteem – Entrance into formal schooling • Esteem declines at school transitions – Culture, gender: Which domains are most valued? – Child-rearing practices: Parenting styles – Achievement-related attributions**: • mastery-oriented(effort vs. ability) (encourage children to be successful) • learned helplessness **(video of fish, dogs, and children research) Role of Parenting in Self-Esteem • ____________ style is best • Risks of ________ parenting: low self- esteem, aggression, and antisocial behavior • Risks of _______ parenting: unrealistically high self-esteem, lashing images challenges to overblown self- • Encourage worthwhile goal-setting to boost self-esteem Achievement-Related Attributions Reason for Reason for Failure Success Controllable factors that can be Mastery-oriented Ability overcome by effort Learned External factors Ability, which cannot helplessness be changed by effort Influences on Learned-Helpless Attributions • Parents – believe child incapable – Make trait statements • Gender differences • SES, ethnic differences © tmcphotos/Shutterstock Emotional Development in Middle Childhood • Emotional understanding: – explains emotion using internal states – Understands mixed emotions – Empathy increases • Emotional self-regulation: – motivated by self-esteem and peer approval – emotional self-efficacy Coping Strategies (emerging by age 10) Problem-Centered Emotion-Centered Coping Coping •Appraise situation •Use when problem- as changeable centered coping does not •Identify difficulty work •nternal, private, and •Decide what to do aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about outcome •Emotional self-efficacy Changes in Moral Understanding • A more flexible view of moral rules – Lying not always bad/truthfulness not always good • Moral evaluations based on perception of person’s intentions, contexts of their actions – Consideration of person’s prosocial and antisocial intentions • Cultural similarities/differences – What is fair, right? Moral reasoning is similar around the world – Limits on authority, personal choice: typically deciding in favor of kindness and fairness Understanding Diversity and Inequality • By the early school years – Power, privilege associated with white people – Poverty, inferior status attributed to minorities • In- and Out-group biases – Ages 5 - 7: In-group favoritism ; out-group prejudice ; out-group favoritism • With age, overt prejudice declines: – After ages 7 -8: more attention to inner traits; negative attitudes toward out-groups decline – subtle prejudice may persist Individual Factors Contributing to Prejudice • Fixed view of personality traits • Overly high self-esteem • Social world in which people are © Monkey Business Images/Shsorted into groups Reducing Prejudice • Long-term intergroup contact: –neighborhoods – schools – communities • Fostering belief in changeability of human traits • Volunteering © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Peer Groups • Organize on basis of proximity, similarity • Peer culture: – vocabulary, dress code, gathering place – aggression andlational © Blend Images/Shutterstock exclusion Friendship in Middle Childhood • Personal qualities, trust become important • More selective in choosing friends: – tends to select friends similar to self • Friendships fairly stable, can last several years • Type of friends affects development: – aggressivfriends often magnify antisocial acts Categories of Peer Acceptance ■ popular-prosocial Popular ■ popular-antisocial ■ rejected-aggressive Rejected ■ rejected-withdrawn Controversial Neglected Bullies and Victims Bullies Victims • Most are boys • Passive when active • Physically, verbally, behavior expected relationally • Lack defenders aggressive • Inhibited temperament • Socially prominent, powerful • Physically frail • Overly protective, controlling parents Cyber Bullying » Overt or covert behaviors using digital technology » Can happen at any time, more difficult to intervene » Cyber bullying behaviors include: » abusive or hurtful texts, emails, or social media posts, images, or videos » deliberately excluding others online » gossip or rumors » imitating other online or using their log-in 20 Helping Rejected Children • Coach positive social skills. • Promote perspective taking and social problem solving. • Alter peers’ negative opinions. • Intervene in negative © Dawn Shearer-Simonetti/Shutterstock parenting practices. Gender Typing in Middle Childhood • Gender stereotypes: – extended to include personalities and school subjects –More flexible views of what males and females can do • Gender identity (third–sixth grade): – boys’ “masculine” identification strengthens – girls become more androgynous Gender Identity • Self-evaluations affect adjustment: –gender typicality – gender contentedness – felt pressure to conform © Elaine Willcock/Shutterstockgender roles Family Relationships • Parents: • co-regulation • Siblings: – rivalry – companionship and assistance © Andresr/Shutterstock – parental encouragement of warm sibling ties is vital Only Children • High in self-esteem, achievement motivation • Closer relationships with parents: – greater pressure for mastery • Peer acceptance tends © tokyoimagegroups/Shutterstock to be less favorable: – lack of practice in conflict resolution International Divorce Rates Figure (Adapted from U.S. Census Bureau, 2012b.) Consequences of Parental Divorce Long-Term Immediate – Drop in income – Improved adjustment – Parental stress, after two years disorganized – Multiple divorces home life associated with greater adjustment difficulties – Child reactions – Father’s involvement vary with age, sex, and effective temperament coparenting improve adjustment Helping Families Through Divorce • Shield children from conflict. • Provide continuity in daily life. • Explain the divorce. • Emphasize permanence of situation. • Sympathize with children’s feelings. • Use authoritative parenting. • Promote relationship with both parents. © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Blended Families Mother–Stepfather Father–Stepmother • Most common • Often leads to reduced father–child contact • Boys tend to adjust • Children in father quickly • Girls often adapt less custody often react favorably negatively • Older children and • Girls and stepmothers adolescents of both slow to get along at sexes display more first, gradually adapt adjustment problems favorably Maternal Employment and Child Development ▪ Benefits: ▪ higher self-esteem ▪ positive family and peer relations ▪ fewer gender stereotypes ▪ better grades ▪ more father involvement ▪ Drawbacks: ▪ heavy employment demands associated with ineffective © c12/Shutterstock parenting Fears and Anxieties in Middle Childhood • Common fears include – poor academic performance – peer rejection – personal harm – threats to parents’ health – frightening media events • School phobia: – 5–7 years: maternal separation – 11–13: particular aspects of school • Harsh living conditions promote severe anxieties Ethnic and Political Violence • Chronically dangerous environments: – loss of sense of safety – desensitization to violence – impaired moral reasoning © ZouZou/Shutterstock – pessimistic view of future • Parents, communities, schools must provide reassurance, security, intervention: – preserve physical, psychological, educational well-being Child Sexual Abuse Characteristics ▪ More often girls Of victims ▪ Most cases reported in middle childhood ▪ Usually male Characteristics ▪ Usually a parent or known by parent Of abusers ▪ Internet and mobile phones used to commit abuse ▪ Emotional, physical, and behavioral reactions Consequences ▪ May persist for years Prevention and ▪ Prevention: education treatment ▪ Treatment: long-term therapy Factors Related to Resilience • Personal characteristics: – easy temperament – mastery orientation • Warm parental © Sascha Burkard/Shutterstockship • Supportive adult outside family • Community resources
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