Psyc 3560 (abnormal psyc) lecture 2 notes
Psyc 3560 (abnormal psyc) lecture 2 notes PSYC 3560
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3560 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Fix in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Outline for Today • General Issues and Terminology • Etiological Models • Viewpoints and Causal Factors • Biological • Psychological • Behavioral • Cognitive-Behavioral • Sociocultural General Issues and Terminology • Studying causes of abnormal behavior, or psychopathology, is very difficult. • There is generally not one sole cause for a disorder. • Often competing theories about what causes a disorder. • Some theories may work better for certain mental health problems • Terminology • Etiology • The study of causation, or origination of (psychological) factors • Types of Causal Factors • Necessary Cause • Some that HAS to happen in order for something else to occur; NOT enough on its own • Examples: • Water is necessary for humans to live, but is not sufficient • Being awake while taking an exam is necessary, in order for you to pass, but it is not sufficient • Sufficient Cause • Enough to get the job done. Without more information you can’t assume that its a requirement. Not the only way that it can happen • Examples: • Taking a limo to campus is sufficient to get you there. However you can take some other form of transportation • Decapitation is sufficient to cause death, however there are other causes of death • Necessary/Sufficient Causes • Examples: • Completing all the requirements of your degree program is necessary & sufficient for earning your degree • Contributory Cause • A lot of different factors Increase the probability of a disorder developing but is not necessary or sufficient for someone to have a disorder • Most studied within psychology • Example: • Family history of alcohol use predicting alcohol dependence • Heavy smoking predicting lung cancer • Abuse predicting PTSD • Distal • Casual factors that occur a while before the onset of the disorder • Example: • Malnutrition as an infant Is associated with attention problems in adulthood • Proximal • Casual factors that occur shortly prior to the onset of a disorder • Example: • Severe marital problems leading to the onset of depression • The relationships between causal factors and psychopathology are reciprocal. • Goals of etiological research • Identify factors that can help improve treatment or prevention • Figure out what to target in treatment Etiological Models • Diathesis-Stress Model • Many disorders are believed to develop as the result of some kind of stressor operating on a person with a diathesis, or vulnerability, for that disorder • Example: someone has the gene for bipolar disorder something stresses them out and triggers the symptoms for the disorder. Diathesis Disorder (vulnerability) Stress • Bio-psycho-social Model • COMPLEX interaction of biological, psychological, and social/cultural factors Mental Genes/chemical Ways of Thinking Social Roles/ Health imbalances /Stress Levels relationships Disorder Viewpoints and Causal Factors • Biological Viewpoint • Disorders are diseases of the nervous and endocrine systems that are inherited or caused by some pathological process. • Disorders are the result of neurological abnormalities. • Biological factors interact with psychological and sociocultural factors. Biological Causes • Neurotransmitter Abnormalities • Hormonal Abnormalities • Genetic Vulnerabilities • Epigenetics • Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticity • Neurotransmitter Abnormalities • Abnormalities in the communication between neurons • Types of abnormalities • Too much production • Dysfunctions in deactivation • Too long/short in synapse • Problems with receptors • Too sensitive • Not recognizing neurotransmitter • Hormonal Abnormalities • Endocrine system influences nervous system • Sex hormones are also implicated • Testosterone, estrogen, progesterone • Influences of hormones on developing nervous system partially explain sex differences in behavior • Men are more aggressive due to testosterone • Genetic Vulnerabilities • Chromosomal abnormalities • Most disorders not related to chromosomal abnormality • Gene Abnormalities • Vulnerability for mental disorders almost always polygenic • Genetic vulnerabilities • Many genes contribute to disorders, not one genes decided whether you have it or not • Genotype (genetic code)-environment correlation • Passive effect • Parent & child genetically similar • Example: • Parent is very intelligent and has an intelligent child, maybe the parent is providing a richer environment, giving them more opportunities for advanced education, enrolling them in music lessons, things all children may not have access too, • Evocative effect • Others respond differentially • Example: • Child is 6 with an amazing athletic ability. Going to be the all-star, getting more attention from coach and more “play time” (being on court/field). Even from the age of 6 the kid will have more advantages due to his natural athletic ability. But someone else might also be really but because they were shy they didn’t get that same attention because they didn’t have the evocative effect. • Different effects evoke different responses for individuals which shapes how someone develops • Active effect • Child seeks out certain environments • Example: • Father really wants his kid to be into sports but the kid is really into art/drawing so they might stay after class to hang out with art teacher, going out of his way, finding time to do what he likes Twin Studies • Monozygotic Twins raised together o Share 100% of their DNA o Same environment growing up • Dizygotic Twins raised together o Share 50% of their DNA o Same environment growing up • Concordance = percentage of twins sharing disorder or trait • Disorder entirely due to genetics (chromosomal abnormality) • Monozygotic twins should be 100% concordant • Dizygotic twins ~50% concordant • If a disorder is entirely due to environment • MZ twins and DZ twins should about equally concordant • If genes & environment play a role • MZ twins will have higher concordance than DZ twins (e.g., 50% vs. 10%) Biological Causes • Temperament • Infant personality, how will they generally behave when they’re older • A child’s characteristic emotional and arousal response to various stimuli • If a baby is smiley all the time they’ll have a positive nice response, causing them to continue to act like that as they grow • Believed to be biologically based • May form the basis of our future personality. • Interacts with our environments • Environment still makes a big difference • Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticity • Subtle deficiencies in certain brain structures or function have been linked to various disorders • Getting into a car accident, having a brain injury and suddenly becoming paranoid and anxious all the time • Neural Plasticity • Flexibility of the brain in making changes in organization and/or function in response to pre- and post-natal experiences, stress, diet, drugs, etc… • Brains are constantly evolving • Neural plasticity à Rats raised in enriched environments (toys to play with, variety of foods, friends) show heavier and thicker cell development, and more synaptic connections than impoverished environment rats (food, water, by themselves in a cage) • Epigenetics • DNA expression changes based on experience • Molecules attach/influence DNA • DNA passed on to offspring may have molecules attached to it (with changes from parent experience) • Cherry blossom example
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