CDE 232 Chapter 12
CDE 232 Chapter 12 CDE 232
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Chapter 12 r Emotional and Social Development in B E Adolescence r a L n i d E i T n e p e e D a s i g r l x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Process of Exploration and Commitment) r B E u Identity L Role Confusion n ▪ Defining who you are, Lack of direction and i ▪ E what you value, and self-definition i your direction in life t ▪ Earlier psychosocial e ▪ Drives search for & conflicts not resolved p v commitments to ▪ Society restricts choices D vocation, relationships, a ▪ Unprepared for e sexual orientation, L ethnic group, ideals challenges of adulthood r p ▪ Exploration, resolution E of “identity crisis” Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Concept in Adolescence e . a u L Unifies separate traits into more n ▪ i E abstract descriptors i T ▪ May describe n m contradictory traits l v D ▪ Gradually combines a e traits into organized L i l system x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Esteem in Adolescence e ▪ Continues to gain new . a dimensions: a • ▪ close friendship o d ▪ romantic appeal E h ▪ job competence t e ▪ Rises, but drops temporarily p e at school transitions D n ▪ Parenting style affects s quality and stability of i g self-esteem o x ▪ Authoritative parenting E ▪ Teacher support Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Identity Statuses e . a a Commitment • (to values, beliefs, goals) o d E High Low h t Ex e identity identity p pl High e achievement moratorium D or n s identity identity i ati Low g foreclosure diffusion o on x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Identity Status, Cognitive Style, and Psychological Well-Being k e . E u L • Identity-achieved i Information-gathering i (higher esteem, sense of control) E Moratorium i T n Foreclosure Dogmatic, inflexible e o (fear rejection by those they depend on e Diffusion for affection, self-esteem) e n p Diffuse-avoidant f L (avoid dealing with personal decisions; n Long-term diffusion “live in the moment”; pleasure seeking; o p hopelessness about future) E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors That Affect Identity Development r B E u ▪ Personality L • ▪ Openness to experience, relationships; i d tolerance for uncertainty d h ▪ Child-rearing practices: t Degree of attachment vs. autonomy from e ▪ p parents e e ▪ Peers, friends n p ▪ Close ties, exploration of relationship f issues L i ▪ Schools, communities l E ▪ Opportunities for role exploration ▪ Culture, societal forces Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kohlberg: Stages of Moral r Reasoning & Judgment B E r • Clinical interviews about various moral dilemmas; a • • Reasoning more important than content of o i responses E • 10- 16 yr. olds followed longitudinally for 20 yrs. i T • Looked at younger children too n m • Heinz dilemma o v • Theory: reasoning advances due to struggling with D n moral issues; gains in perspective taking s • Stages capture changes from preschool to i g adolescence r p E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Reasoning & Judgement k e Stage 1: Punishment and obedience . E (fear authority, avoid punishment; overlook intentions) u Preconventional level L Stage 2: Instrumental purpose • i (right flows from self interest; simple reciprocity) i E Stage 3: “Good boy–good girl” i (right maintains social ties & cooperation; ideal T reciprocity: concern for other = same as for self) n Conventional level e Stage 4: Social-order-maintaining o e (rules same for all; equal justice preserves social e order) n p Stage 5: Social contract f (rules = flexible instruments; fair/just when consistent L n with individual rights, interests of the majority) o Postconventional p or principled level Stage 6: Universal ethical principle E (self-chosen ethical principles of conscience, regardless of law or social agreement) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Research on r Kohlberg’s Theory B E r a • ▪ Few people reach postconventional o i morality E i ▪ Stages 1 and 2 decrease in T adolescence; 3 increases then declines, n m and 4 often not achieved until college o v ▪ For most people, Stage 4 reflects D morally mature reasoning n s ▪ In real life, people often reason below i g actual capacity r p E © arek_malang/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sex Differences in e Moral Reasoning? . a a • o ▪ Kohlberg: emphasis on rights and d justice orientation E h t ▪ Gilligan: emphasis on “ethic of e p care” orientation e D ▪ Each sex uses both orientations, n s but females may stress care more, i g because of greater involvement in o x activities involving care and E concern for others Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Influences on Moral Reasoning k e . a u ▪ Child-rearing practices: L n ▪ Caring, supportive parenting t ▪ Empathy, perspective-taking d d ▪ Families that discuss & debate moral concerns h t ▪ Schooling e ▪ Higher education (tolerance; perspective-taking) p l ▪ Peer interaction e D ▪ Moral discussion, critique/conflict, cross-group interaction a ▪ Culture e L ▪ Kids in western nations move through stages faster g r ▪ In collectivist nations, kids place more emphasis on care, p concern for others E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Moral Reasoning and Behavior e . Factors influencing behavior include a a ▪ maturity of moral reasoning • o ▪ emotions: empathy, sympathy, guilt d E ▪ temperament h t ▪ cultural experiences and beliefs e p ▪ moral identity e D ▪ parenting practices: inductive discipline, n s moral standards i g ▪ schooling: just-community schools or o x educational environments E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Religious Involvement and Morality ▪ Religion important to US families r B ▪ 66% American families engage in religious practices E ▪ Canada: 50% u L ▪ Britain, Italy: 33% • ▪ Elsewhere in Europe: less than 33% to near zero i d ▪ Formal religious involvement declines in adolescence d h ▪ Mature believers: Personal identity, meaning, esteem less t likely to be defined in self-focused ways (personal pleasure, e p profiting over others; consumerism) e ▪ Greater commitment to loving, helping, caring for others e n ▪ Religious involvement linked to: p f ▪ Moral maturity; helping others; community service L i ▪ Trust in interpersonal relationships l E ▪ Responsible academic, social behavior ▪ Less misconduct Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pragmatic Approach e to Morality . a a • o ▪ Claims Kohlberg’s stages inadequately d E account for behavior in everyday life h t e ▪ Moral judgments are practical tools that p e ▪ depend on current context and motivation D n ▪ are frequently directed at self-serving goals s i g ▪ Critics: People often rise above self- o x interest to defend others’ rights E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gender Intensification in Adolescence k B Increased gender stereotyping of E ▪ r attitudes and behavior L • ▪ Movement toward more traditional t E gender identity r T ▪ Not universal, more common in girls n m Biological, social, and cognitive l ▪ e influences n p ▪ Pubertal changes; beliefs about dating i g & attractiveness; parent’s gender-role r p beliefs E ▪ Declines by late adolescence Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parent–Child Relationships in Adolescence r▪ Autonomy seeking increases B ▪ Creates tension: adolescents need to balance closeness with parents vs. E r autonomy—desire to become a self-governing individual a •▪ What triggers distancing from parents? o ▪ Puberty, de-idealizing parents, family conflict, peer pressure i ▪ Conflict signals parents to adjust parenting style E i▪ Is guidance still needed? T n ▪ Authoritative parenting: balancing autonomy-granting with monitoring; m providing support coupled with maturity pressure o v ▪ Coercion, over-control backfires D ▪ Low esteem, drug use, antisocial behavior n s▪ Push for autonomy can challenge immigrant parents i g ▪ Especially when culture of origin values family closeness, obedience to r authority p E ▪ Bi-cultural adolescents experience resentment, separation, acculturative stress Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Family Influences on e Adolescents’Adjustment . a a • ▪ Family circumstances that facilitate o d appropriate autonomy-granting: E h ▪ Financial security t e ▪ Lower parental work pressures, hours p e ▪ stable marriages D n s ▪ Sibling relationships: i g ▪ less intense, in both positive and negative o feelings x E ▪ attachment remains strong in most cases Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Characteristics of Adolescent Friendships r B E u ▪ On average, number of “best friends” declines from 6 to 4 L • ▪ Friendship expectations: i ▪ Adolescents emphasize intimacy, mutual understanding, loyalty d d ▪ Self disclosure in friendships rises, as does mutual cooperation, h affirmation, sensitivity to needs t e ▪ Possessiveness (vs. autonomy granting), jealousy decline p e ▪ Friends tend to be similar: e n ▪ identity status (choose people like emselves) p ▪ educational aspirations f L ▪ political beliefs i l ▪ deviant behavior E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sex Differences in e Adolescent Friendships . a a • o Girls Boys d E ↑ Emotional closeness ▪ ↑ Activity focused, shared h ▪ t activities e ▪ Get together to p ▪ Focus on status, e “just talk” D accomplishments n ▪ ↑ Self-disclosure, s ▪ ↑ Competition, conflict i support g o x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Disclosure in Relationships k e . E r L • n t d d i T n e p l v D a s f L n r p E Figure 12.1 (From D. Buhrmester, 1996, “Need Fulfillment, Interpersonal Competence, and the Developmental Contexts of Early Adolescent Friendship,” in W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup [Eds.], The Company They Keep: Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence, New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 168. Reprinted with permission of Cambridge University Press.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Friendship Risks e . a ▪ Co-rumination (esp. for girls) : u ▪ anxiety, depression L n ▪ Relational aggression: i E ▪ girls’ closest friendships i T of shorter duration n ▪ More risk for psychological harm? m l ▪ Internet communication: v D ▪ racial and ethnic slurs a e ▪ sexual obscenity L i ▪ harassment l x ▪ reduced quality of face-to-face interaction E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. U.S. Teenagers’ Daily Use r of Social Media B E r a L n i d E i T n Figure 12.2 e p e e D a s i g r l Cell phone: 75% of 12 -17 yr. olds have one x E Social media: 45% of older children and adolescents send >50 texts per day 70% use social media for average of 37 minutes per day Benefits of e Adolescent Friendships . a a • ▪ Opportunities to explore o d self E h ▪ Opportunities to deeply t e understand another p e ▪ Foundation for future D n intimate relationships s i ▪ Help in managing stress g o x ▪ Improved school attitudes E and involvement © oliveromg/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cliques and Crowds r ▪ Cliques: B E ▪ small groups: 5 – 7 good friends u L ▪ Similar in family background, attitudes, and values • i ▪ Crowds: d d ▪ larger: sometimes contain several cliques h ▪ Based on members’ reputations or stereotype t e ▪ Niche-seeking: members control admission p ▪ Belonging is linked to adolescents’ self-perceptions and self- e esteem e n ▪ Seekers’ motivation: membership provides an “identity” p ▪ “Outsiders” tend to have lower self-esteem f L ▪ Study of 8,000 9 to 12 graders: th i l ▪ Adolescents who reported having parents with authoritative E styles were more likely to belong to specific crowds: “popular,” “brains,” “jocks” ▪ Changes in Dating During Adolescence e . ▪ Causes, onset of dating a u ▪ Hormonal changes →sexual interest L ▪ Timing of dating → cultural mores, parental values n i ▪ Origins, contexts for dating E ▪ Mixed-sex cliques prepare teenagers for dating (friendship become i T relationships) n ▪ Dating goals change with age: m l ▪ early adolescence: recreation, peer status, increase v D status a e ▪ late adolescence: intimacy, compatibility, affection, social L support i l ▪ Relationships with parents and friends contribute to quality, x security, satisfaction with romantic ties E ▪ Prior attachment status & working models ▪ prior friendships, history of friendship maintenance and quality Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Dating Problems r B▪ Too-early dating: E u ▪ Related to drug use, sex, delinquency L • ▪ especially for girls (11-12 yrs old) i ▪ poor academic achievement d d ▪ dating violence h t ▪ 10 – 20% of adolescents report being physically or sexually e abused by dating partners p ▪ Abuse of this type linked to anxiety, depression, suicide attempts e e▪ For gay and lesbian youths: n p ▪ Greater difficulty finding partners f L ▪ Fear of peer harassment, rejection i l▪ Later, normatively-timed dating E ▪ Can be a positive influence on adolescents’: ▪ Relationship skills; sensitivity, empathy, self-esteem, identity development Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Depression in Adolescence r ▪ Nature of depression during adolescence B ▪ Feeling sad, helpless; loss of pleasure in activities E r ▪ Attention/concentration difficulties a ▪ Sleep problems • o ▪ Common psychological problem In Western cultures i E ▪ G ains apparent in 12 to 16 yr. olds; mostly in western nations i ▪ 15–20% have had one or more major episodes T n ▪ Twice as common for girls as boys: m o ▪ Especially early-maturing girls (hormonal balance; socially off-time) v ▪ unlike in western nations; boys show similar/higher levels of depression in D non-industrialized cultures n s ▪ Influential factors: i g ▪ Heredity/genes; brain neurotransmitters r ▪ Onset of puberty; hormonal changes=more stress and sexual pressure p E ▪ Parental depression (genes, parenting effects) ▪ Gender-typed coping styles ▪ Girls: gender intensification (increases in passivity, feminine role) Adolescent Suicide ▪ Suicide rate jumps sharply at adolescence r ▪ 3 leading cause of deaths in adolescents B E ▪ Large differences by country; causes unknown r a ▪ Gender • ▪ Boys > girls by 3: or 4: 1 o i ▪ Ethnicity E ▪ Native Americans highest (2 to 6 times national average) i T ▪ Historically: African American, Hispanics lower; recently: rising among African n American males m o ▪ Sexual orientation v D ▪ Risk of suicide is 3 times higher than the average n ▪ Causes s i ▪ Family environment, high life stress; parental blaming g ▪ Personality & suicide attempts: r p ▪ More common in 2 types E ▪ intelligent & withdrawn; antisocial (inward anger/ blame themselves) ▪ Triggering: negative events, contagion (?) Preventing Suicide e . a u ▪ Attend to warning signs L n ▪ Provide adult and peer support i E i ▪ T each coping strategies T n ▪ Remove access to means m l ▪ Suicide-proof environments v D ▪ Gun control legislation a e L i l x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Delinquency k B E ▪ Widespread in early and middle r L adolescence, then declines • t ▪ Related factors: E r ▪ gender T n ▪ SES, ethnicity m l ▪ difficult temperament e n ▪ low intelligence, poor school performance p i ▪ peer rejection, association with antisocial g peers r p family characteristics E ▪ ▪ neighborhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Adolescent Delinquency r B ▪ Police arrest statistics E r ▪ 12- 17 yr. olds are 8% of US population; account for 14% of all a arrests • ▪ Girls are the target of only 1 in 5 arrests o i ▪ Boys are responsible for more violent crimes E ▪ delinquency is higher among low SES, minority youth i T ▪ Following arrest: Low SES, minorities charged more often than n Caucasian youth m o ▪ Early-onset: behavior begins in childhood: v D ▪ biological risks plus inept parenting n s ▪ linked to later, serious antisocial activity i g ▪ Late-onset: behavior begins around puberty r p ▪ Driven more by peer influences E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Early Onset: Path to Chronic Delinquency r B . a u L • o i E r h t e m l v e n p e Figure 12.3 L g r l E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Preventing Adolescent Delinquency e . a a • o ▪ Positive family relationships d E ▪ Engagement in school;High- h t quality teaching e p ▪ Communities with healthy e D economic and social n s conditions i g ▪ Multisystemic therapy o x E ▪ Zero tolerance policies are inconsistent, ineffective Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Biological Aging (senescene) ▪ declines in development ▪ Influences ▪ sanitaion and medicine has increased life Theories of Biological Aging ▪ DNA Cellular level ▪ family history affects life expectancy ▪ Organ/Tissue level ▪ affects organ functions, tissue becomes less elastic, Cardiovascular and respiratory changes ▪ Heart ▪ hearts ability to reach O2 requirements doesn't change much in adulthood; strenuous exercise becomes more difficult as gets older and affects heart ▪ less smoking, better treatment of heart cancer ▪ Lungs ▪ 10% declined per decade after 20 yrs Motor Performance ▪ Athletic skills ▪ as get older are less likely to exercise ▪ Continued training Immune System ▪ ability to fight disease declines after 20 ▪ stress can affect immune system Reproductive Capacity ▪ ideal time is during 20s cause lower risk of miscarriage and chromosomal disorders; increase when 30 ▪ has been improved ▪ mens fertility issues affect sperm quality and volume Variations in Health ▪ US has higher death rates than other nations ▪ obesity and gun control policy ▪ SES variations ▪ poverty ▪ lack of health care ▪ pollution ▪ lack of social support Causes of Overweight and Obesity ▪ heredity ▪ ethnicity ▪ decrease of physical activity Consequences of Obesity ▪ Health problems ▪ heart disease ▪ diabetes ▪ Social discrimination ▪ housing ▪ Mistreatment Treating Obesity Lifestyle changes ▪ Exercise ▪ over half of Americans are inactive ▪more women than men ▪Low SES ▪ less cable of going out ▪ not support system to help keep on track ▪ Recommendations ▪30 min a day exercise Substance Use in Early Adulthood ▪ peaks at 19-25 years then declines ▪ up to 12% of men and 6% of women ▪ not everyone who smokes and drinks will abuse the drugs Cigarette Smoking ▪ About 19% of US adults smoke cigarettes ▪ numbers are slowly declining ▪ deadly health risks ▪ campaigns to stop smoking ▪ no smoking on campus has reduced smoking ▪ hard to quit: most treatment programs are not using effective strategies Alcohol Abuse in Early Adulthood ▪ 10% of men, 3% of women are heavy drinkers ▪ costs to society of heavy drinkers ▪ improving research to understand these processes ▪ focusing on twin and adoption studies ▪ more likely if family drinks, not good coping environment ▪ treatment is difficult Heterosexual Attitudes and Behavior ▪ most have intercourse by age 25 ▪ gender and SES differences even out during this time Homosexual Attitudes and Behavior ▪ estimates 3.5% of US population are homosexual or bisexual increasing as people feel more comfortable ▪ ▪ homosexual attituedes and behavior are very similar to heterosexual ▪ tend to live in larger cities or college towns ▪ more liberal areas Sexual Coercion ▪ Rape: 18% of US women ▪ 45% women have experienced other forms of sexual aggression ▪ STDs ▪ physical injury ▪ consequences in book Preventing and Treating Rape and Abuse ▪ community service ▪ routine screening during regular health care visits Psychological Stress ▪ Related to ▪ daily hassles ▪ Caused or worsened by low SES ▪ associated with ▪ overweight and obesity ▪ diabetes Cognitive Changes in Early Adulthood Piaget ▪ Development of Epistemic Cognition ▪ the way that we came to facts and ideas ▪ reflect more and engage in these types of thinking ▪ dualistic thinking=right vs wrong ▪ relativistic thinking= aware of diversity of opinion and more capable/ willing of acceptation the idea of multiple truths ▪ importance of peer interactions with reflections Development of Pragmatic Thought ▪ Theorists ▪ logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems (be more solution focused in thoughts) ▪ Adulthood brings: ▪ more wiling to understand others perspectives ▪ increase in cognitive-affective complexity: Expertise and Creativity ▪ Expertise ▪ made possible by structures in brain ▪ acquistion of extensive knowledge in a fleild ▪ Essential for creativity: College Experience formative, influential ▪ ▪ important time period for shaping who you will become ▪ 1st time for most that can be independent and can discover who are ▪ depends on participation in campus life ▪ exposed to new ideas and perspectives ▪ more liberal cause more ideas ▪ have the cognitive capacity to engage in info Dropping out of college ▪ US dropout rates: ▪ 44% at two year schools ▪ 32% at four year schools ▪ Personal factors ▪ motivation ▪ Institutional factors ▪ few support service ▪ selection affect: more likely to attend 2 year is more likely to leave early ▪ admission requirements are less ▪ early support is crucial Periods of Vocational Development ▪ fantasy period= early and middle childhood ▪ tentative period= 11-16yrs start thinking about careers n more complex ways; ▪ realistic period= late teens-early 20s ▪ exploration Factors Influencing Vocational Choice ▪ Personality ▪ Family influences ▪choose close to parents ▪do what parents want ▪ Teachers ▪ gender stereotypes (decreasing) Vocational Preparation of Non college bound youth adults ▪ US high school graduates poorly prepared for skilled occupations lack of vocational placement, counseling services ▪ ▪ work-study apprenticeships can help: ▪ European model program ▪ rare in the US
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