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CDE 232 Chapter 12

by: Jordan R

CDE 232 Chapter 12 CDE 232

Jordan R
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Human Development
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This 63 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Ladd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child Development at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter 12
 r Emotional and Social Development in B E Adolescence r a L n i d E i T n e p e e D a s i g r l x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion
 (Process of Exploration and Commitment) r B E u Identity L Role Confusion n ▪ Defining who you are, Lack of direction and i ▪ E what you value, and self-definition i your direction in life t ▪ Earlier psychosocial e ▪ Drives search for & conflicts not resolved p v commitments to ▪ Society restricts choices D vocation, relationships, a ▪ Unprepared for e sexual orientation, L ethnic group, ideals challenges of adulthood r p ▪ Exploration, resolution E of “identity crisis” Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Concept in Adolescence e . a u L Unifies separate traits into more n ▪ i E abstract descriptors i T ▪ May describe
 n m contradictory traits l v D ▪ Gradually combines
 a e traits into organized
 L i l system x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Esteem in Adolescence e ▪ Continues to gain new . a dimensions: a • ▪ close friendship o d ▪ romantic appeal E h ▪ job competence t e ▪ Rises, but drops temporarily p e at school transitions D n ▪ Parenting style affects s quality and stability of
 i g self-esteem o x ▪ Authoritative parenting E ▪ Teacher support Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Identity Statuses e . a a Commitment • (to values, beliefs, goals) o d E High Low h t Ex e identity identity p pl High e achievement moratorium D or n s identity identity
 i ati Low g foreclosure diffusion o on x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Identity Status, Cognitive Style, and Psychological Well-Being k e . E u L • Identity-achieved i Information-gathering i (higher esteem, sense of control) E Moratorium i T n Foreclosure Dogmatic, inflexible e o (fear rejection by those they depend on e Diffusion for affection, self-esteem) e n p Diffuse-avoidant f L (avoid dealing with personal decisions; n Long-term diffusion “live in the moment”; pleasure seeking; o p hopelessness about future) E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors That Affect
 Identity Development r B E u ▪ Personality L • ▪ Openness to experience, relationships; i d tolerance for uncertainty d h ▪ Child-rearing practices: t Degree of attachment vs. autonomy from e ▪ p parents e e ▪ Peers, friends n p ▪ Close ties, exploration of relationship f issues L i ▪ Schools, communities l E ▪ Opportunities for role exploration ▪ Culture, societal forces Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kohlberg: Stages of Moral r Reasoning & Judgment B E r • Clinical interviews about various moral dilemmas; a • • Reasoning more important than content of o i responses E • 10- 16 yr. olds followed longitudinally for 20 yrs. i T • Looked at younger children too n m • Heinz dilemma o v • Theory: reasoning advances due to struggling with D n moral issues; gains in perspective taking s • Stages capture changes from preschool to i g adolescence r p E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Reasoning & Judgement k e Stage 1: Punishment and obedience . E (fear authority, avoid punishment; overlook intentions) u Preconventional level L Stage 2: Instrumental purpose • i (right flows from self interest; simple reciprocity) i E Stage 3: “Good boy–good girl” i (right maintains social ties & cooperation; ideal T reciprocity: concern for other = same as for self) n Conventional level e Stage 4: Social-order-maintaining o e (rules same for all; equal justice preserves social e order) n p Stage 5: Social contract f (rules = flexible instruments; fair/just when consistent L n with individual rights, interests of the majority) o Postconventional p or principled level Stage 6: Universal ethical principle E (self-chosen ethical principles of conscience, regardless of law or social agreement) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Research on
 r Kohlberg’s Theory B E r a • ▪ Few people reach postconventional o i morality E i ▪ Stages 1 and 2 decrease in T adolescence; 3 increases then declines, n m and 4 often not achieved until college o v ▪ For most people, Stage 4 reflects D morally mature reasoning n s ▪ In real life, people often reason below i g actual capacity r p E © arek_malang/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sex Differences in 
 e Moral Reasoning? . a a • o ▪ Kohlberg: emphasis on rights and d justice orientation E h t ▪ Gilligan: emphasis on “ethic of e p care” orientation e D ▪ Each sex uses both orientations, n s but females may stress care more, i g because of greater involvement in o x activities involving care and E concern for others Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Influences on 
 Moral Reasoning k e . a u ▪ Child-rearing practices: L n ▪ Caring, supportive parenting t ▪ Empathy, perspective-taking d d ▪ Families that discuss & debate moral concerns h t ▪ Schooling e ▪ Higher education (tolerance; perspective-taking) p l ▪ Peer interaction e D ▪ Moral discussion, critique/conflict, cross-group interaction a ▪ Culture e L ▪ Kids in western nations move through stages faster g r ▪ In collectivist nations, kids place more emphasis on care, p concern for others E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Moral Reasoning and Behavior e . Factors influencing behavior include a a ▪ maturity of moral reasoning • o ▪ emotions: empathy, sympathy, guilt d E ▪ temperament h t ▪ cultural experiences and beliefs e p ▪ moral identity e D ▪ parenting practices: inductive discipline, n s moral standards i g ▪ schooling: just-community schools or o x educational environments E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Religious Involvement and Morality ▪ Religion important to US families r B ▪ 66% American families engage in religious practices E ▪ Canada: 50% u L ▪ Britain, Italy: 33% • ▪ Elsewhere in Europe: less than 33% to near zero i d ▪ Formal religious involvement declines in adolescence d h ▪ Mature believers: Personal identity, meaning, esteem less t likely to be defined in self-focused ways (personal pleasure, e p profiting over others; consumerism) e ▪ Greater commitment to loving, helping, caring for others e n ▪ Religious involvement linked to: p f ▪ Moral maturity; helping others; community service L i ▪ Trust in interpersonal relationships l E ▪ Responsible academic, social behavior ▪ Less misconduct Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pragmatic Approach
 e to Morality . a a • o ▪ Claims Kohlberg’s stages inadequately d E account for behavior in everyday life h t e ▪ Moral judgments are practical tools that p e ▪ depend on current context and motivation D n ▪ are frequently directed at self-serving goals s i g ▪ Critics: People often rise above self- o x interest to defend others’ rights E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gender Intensification in Adolescence k B Increased gender stereotyping of E ▪ r attitudes and behavior L • ▪ Movement toward more traditional t E gender identity r T ▪ Not universal, more common in girls n m Biological, social, and cognitive l ▪ e influences n p ▪ Pubertal changes; beliefs about dating i g & attractiveness; parent’s gender-role r p beliefs E ▪ Declines by late adolescence Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parent–Child Relationships in Adolescence
 r▪ Autonomy seeking increases B ▪ Creates tension: adolescents need to balance closeness with parents vs. E r autonomy—desire to become a self-governing individual a •▪ What triggers distancing from parents? o ▪ Puberty, de-idealizing parents, family conflict, peer pressure i ▪ Conflict signals parents to adjust parenting style E i▪ Is guidance still needed? T n ▪ Authoritative parenting: balancing autonomy-granting with monitoring; m providing support coupled with maturity pressure o v ▪ Coercion, over-control backfires D ▪ Low esteem, drug use, antisocial behavior n s▪ Push for autonomy can challenge immigrant parents i g ▪ Especially when culture of origin values family closeness, obedience to r authority p E ▪ Bi-cultural adolescents experience resentment, separation, acculturative stress Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Family Influences on e Adolescents’Adjustment . a a • ▪ Family circumstances that facilitate o d appropriate autonomy-granting: E h ▪ Financial security t e ▪ Lower parental work pressures, hours p e ▪ stable marriages D n s ▪ Sibling relationships: i g ▪ less intense, in both positive and negative o feelings x E ▪ attachment remains strong in most cases Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Characteristics of
 Adolescent Friendships r B E u ▪ On average, number of “best friends” declines from 6 to 4 L • ▪ Friendship expectations: i ▪ Adolescents emphasize intimacy, mutual understanding, loyalty d d ▪ Self disclosure in friendships rises, as does mutual cooperation, h affirmation, sensitivity to needs t e ▪ Possessiveness (vs. autonomy granting), jealousy decline p e ▪ Friends tend to be similar: e n ▪ identity status (choose people like emselves) p ▪ educational aspirations f L ▪ political beliefs i l ▪ deviant behavior E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sex Differences in
 e Adolescent Friendships . a a • o Girls Boys d E ↑ Emotional closeness ▪ ↑ Activity focused, shared h ▪ t activities e ▪ Get together to
 p ▪ Focus on status, e “just talk” D accomplishments n ▪ ↑ Self-disclosure, s ▪ ↑ Competition, conflict i support g o x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Disclosure in Relationships k e . E r L • n t d d i T n e p l v D a s f L n r p E Figure 12.1 (From D. Buhrmester, 1996, “Need Fulfillment, Interpersonal Competence, and the Developmental Contexts of Early Adolescent Friendship,” in W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup [Eds.], The Company They Keep: Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence, New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 168. Reprinted with permission of Cambridge University Press.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Friendship Risks e . a ▪ Co-rumination (esp. for girls) : u ▪ anxiety, depression L n ▪ Relational aggression: i E ▪ girls’ closest friendships
 i T of shorter duration n ▪ More risk for psychological harm? m l ▪ Internet communication: v D ▪ racial and ethnic slurs a e ▪ sexual obscenity L i ▪ harassment l x ▪ reduced quality of face-to-face interaction E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. U.S. Teenagers’ Daily Use 
 r of Social Media B E r a L n i d E i T n Figure 12.2 e p e e D a s i g r l Cell phone: 75% of 12 -17 yr. olds have one x E Social media: 45% of older children and adolescents send >50 texts per day 70% use social media for average of 37 minutes per day Benefits of 
 e Adolescent Friendships . a a • ▪ Opportunities to explore o d self E h ▪ Opportunities to deeply t e understand another p e ▪ Foundation for future D n intimate relationships s i ▪ Help in managing stress g o x ▪ Improved school attitudes E and involvement © oliveromg/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cliques and Crowds r ▪ Cliques: B E ▪ small groups: 5 – 7 good friends u L ▪ Similar in family background, attitudes, and values • i ▪ Crowds: d d ▪ larger: sometimes contain several cliques h ▪ Based on members’ reputations or stereotype t e ▪ Niche-seeking: members control admission p ▪ Belonging is linked to adolescents’ self-perceptions and self- e esteem e n ▪ Seekers’ motivation: membership provides an “identity” p ▪ “Outsiders” tend to have lower self-esteem f L ▪ Study of 8,000 9 to 12 graders: th i l ▪ Adolescents who reported having parents with authoritative E styles were more likely to belong to specific crowds: “popular,” “brains,” “jocks” ▪ Changes in Dating 
 During Adolescence e . ▪ Causes, onset of dating a u ▪ Hormonal changes →sexual interest L ▪ Timing of dating → cultural mores, parental values n i ▪ Origins, contexts for dating E ▪ Mixed-sex cliques prepare teenagers for dating (friendship become i T relationships) n ▪ Dating goals change with age: m l ▪ early adolescence: recreation, peer status, increase v D status a e ▪ late adolescence: intimacy, compatibility, affection, social L support i l ▪ Relationships with parents and friends contribute to quality, x security, satisfaction with romantic ties E ▪ Prior attachment status & working models ▪ prior friendships, history of friendship maintenance and quality Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Dating Problems r B▪ Too-early dating: E u ▪ Related to drug use, sex, delinquency L • ▪ especially for girls (11-12 yrs old) i ▪ poor academic achievement d d ▪ dating violence h t ▪ 10 – 20% of adolescents report being physically or sexually e abused by dating partners p ▪ Abuse of this type linked to anxiety, depression, suicide attempts e e▪ For gay and lesbian youths: n p ▪ Greater difficulty finding partners f L ▪ Fear of peer harassment, rejection i l▪ Later, normatively-timed dating E ▪ Can be a positive influence on adolescents’: ▪ Relationship skills; sensitivity, empathy, self-esteem, identity development Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Depression in Adolescence r ▪ Nature of depression during adolescence B ▪ Feeling sad, helpless; loss of pleasure in activities E r ▪ Attention/concentration difficulties a ▪ Sleep problems • o ▪ Common psychological problem In Western cultures i E ▪ G ains apparent in 12 to 16 yr. olds; mostly in western nations i ▪ 15–20% have had one or more major episodes T n ▪ Twice as common for girls as boys: m o ▪ Especially early-maturing girls (hormonal balance; socially off-time) v ▪ unlike in western nations; boys show similar/higher levels of depression in D non-industrialized cultures n s ▪ Influential factors: i g ▪ Heredity/genes; brain neurotransmitters r ▪ Onset of puberty; hormonal changes=more stress and sexual pressure p E ▪ Parental depression (genes, parenting effects) ▪ Gender-typed coping styles ▪ Girls: gender intensification (increases in passivity, feminine role) Adolescent Suicide ▪ Suicide rate jumps sharply at adolescence r ▪ 3 leading cause of deaths in adolescents B E ▪ Large differences by country; causes unknown r a ▪ Gender • ▪ Boys > girls by 3: or 4: 1 o i ▪ Ethnicity E ▪ Native Americans highest (2 to 6 times national average) i T ▪ Historically: African American, Hispanics lower; recently: rising among African n American males m o ▪ Sexual orientation v D ▪ Risk of suicide is 3 times higher than the average n ▪ Causes s i ▪ Family environment, high life stress; parental blaming g ▪ Personality & suicide attempts: r p ▪ More common in 2 types E ▪ intelligent & withdrawn; antisocial (inward anger/ blame themselves) ▪ Triggering: negative events, contagion (?) Preventing Suicide e . a u ▪ Attend to warning signs L n ▪ Provide adult and peer support i E i ▪ T each coping strategies T n ▪ Remove access to means m l ▪ Suicide-proof environments v D ▪ Gun control legislation a e L i l x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Delinquency k B E ▪ Widespread in early and middle r L adolescence, then declines • t ▪ Related factors: E r ▪ gender T n ▪ SES, ethnicity m l ▪ difficult temperament e n ▪ low intelligence, poor school performance p i ▪ peer rejection, association with antisocial g peers r p family characteristics E ▪ ▪ neighborhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Adolescent Delinquency r B ▪ Police arrest statistics E r ▪ 12- 17 yr. olds are 8% of US population; account for 14% of all a arrests • ▪ Girls are the target of only 1 in 5 arrests o i ▪ Boys are responsible for more violent crimes E ▪ delinquency is higher among low SES, minority youth i T ▪ Following arrest: Low SES, minorities charged more often than n Caucasian youth m o ▪ Early-onset: behavior begins in childhood: v D ▪ biological risks plus inept parenting n s ▪ linked to later, serious antisocial activity i g ▪ Late-onset: behavior begins around puberty r p ▪ Driven more by peer influences E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Early Onset:
 Path to Chronic Delinquency r B . a u L • o i E r h t e m l v e n p e Figure 12.3 L g r l E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Preventing Adolescent Delinquency e . a a • o ▪ Positive family relationships d E ▪ Engagement in school;High- h t quality teaching e p ▪ Communities with healthy e D economic and social n s conditions i g ▪ Multisystemic therapy o x E ▪ Zero tolerance policies
 are inconsistent, ineffective Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Biological Aging (senescene) ▪ declines in development ▪ Influences ▪ sanitaion and medicine has increased life Theories of Biological Aging ▪ DNA Cellular level ▪ family history affects life expectancy ▪ Organ/Tissue level ▪ affects organ functions, tissue becomes less elastic, Cardiovascular and respiratory changes ▪ Heart ▪ hearts ability to reach O2 requirements doesn't change much in adulthood; strenuous exercise becomes more difficult as gets older and affects heart ▪ less smoking, better treatment of heart cancer ▪ Lungs ▪ 10% declined per decade after 20 yrs Motor Performance ▪ Athletic skills ▪ as get older are less likely to exercise ▪ Continued training Immune System ▪ ability to fight disease declines after 20 ▪ stress can affect immune system Reproductive Capacity ▪ ideal time is during 20s cause lower risk of miscarriage and chromosomal disorders; increase when 30 ▪ has been improved ▪ mens fertility issues affect sperm quality and volume Variations in Health ▪ US has higher death rates than other nations ▪ obesity and gun control policy ▪ SES variations ▪ poverty ▪ lack of health care ▪ pollution ▪ lack of social support Causes of Overweight and Obesity ▪ heredity ▪ ethnicity ▪ decrease of physical activity Consequences of Obesity ▪ Health problems ▪ heart disease ▪ diabetes ▪ Social discrimination ▪ housing ▪ Mistreatment Treating Obesity Lifestyle changes ▪ Exercise ▪ over half of Americans are inactive ▪more women than men ▪Low SES ▪ less cable of going out ▪ not support system to help keep on track ▪ Recommendations ▪30 min a day exercise Substance Use in Early Adulthood ▪ peaks at 19-25 years then declines ▪ up to 12% of men and 6% of women ▪ not everyone who smokes and drinks will abuse the drugs Cigarette Smoking ▪ About 19% of US adults smoke cigarettes ▪ numbers are slowly declining ▪ deadly health risks ▪ campaigns to stop smoking ▪ no smoking on campus has reduced smoking ▪ hard to quit: most treatment programs are not using effective strategies Alcohol Abuse in Early Adulthood ▪ 10% of men, 3% of women are heavy drinkers ▪ costs to society of heavy drinkers ▪ improving research to understand these processes ▪ focusing on twin and adoption studies ▪ more likely if family drinks, not good coping environment ▪ treatment is difficult Heterosexual Attitudes and Behavior ▪ most have intercourse by age 25 ▪ gender and SES differences even out during this time Homosexual Attitudes and Behavior ▪ estimates 3.5% of US population are homosexual or bisexual increasing as people feel more comfortable ▪ ▪ homosexual attituedes and behavior are very similar to heterosexual ▪ tend to live in larger cities or college towns ▪ more liberal areas Sexual Coercion ▪ Rape: 18% of US women ▪ 45% women have experienced other forms of sexual aggression ▪ STDs ▪ physical injury ▪ consequences in book Preventing and Treating Rape and Abuse ▪ community service ▪ routine screening during regular health care visits Psychological Stress ▪ Related to ▪ daily hassles ▪ Caused or worsened by low SES ▪ associated with ▪ overweight and obesity ▪ diabetes Cognitive Changes in Early Adulthood Piaget ▪ Development of Epistemic Cognition ▪ the way that we came to facts and ideas ▪ reflect more and engage in these types of thinking ▪ dualistic thinking=right vs wrong ▪ relativistic thinking= aware of diversity of opinion and more capable/ willing of acceptation the idea of multiple truths ▪ importance of peer interactions with reflections Development of Pragmatic Thought ▪ Theorists ▪ logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems (be more solution focused in thoughts) ▪ Adulthood brings: ▪ more wiling to understand others perspectives ▪ increase in cognitive-affective complexity: Expertise and Creativity ▪ Expertise ▪ made possible by structures in brain ▪ acquistion of extensive knowledge in a fleild ▪ Essential for creativity: College Experience formative, influential ▪ ▪ important time period for shaping who you will become ▪ 1st time for most that can be independent and can discover who are ▪ depends on participation in campus life ▪ exposed to new ideas and perspectives ▪ more liberal cause more ideas ▪ have the cognitive capacity to engage in info Dropping out of college ▪ US dropout rates: ▪ 44% at two year schools ▪ 32% at four year schools ▪ Personal factors ▪ motivation ▪ Institutional factors ▪ few support service ▪ selection affect: more likely to attend 2 year is more likely to leave early ▪ admission requirements are less ▪ early support is crucial Periods of Vocational Development ▪ fantasy period= early and middle childhood ▪ tentative period= 11-16yrs start thinking about careers n more complex ways; ▪ realistic period= late teens-early 20s ▪ exploration Factors Influencing Vocational Choice ▪ Personality ▪ Family influences ▪choose close to parents ▪do what parents want ▪ Teachers ▪ gender stereotypes (decreasing) Vocational Preparation of Non college bound youth adults ▪ US high school graduates poorly prepared for skilled occupations lack of vocational placement, counseling services ▪ ▪ work-study apprenticeships can help: ▪ European model program ▪ rare in the US


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