CDE 232 Chapter 16
CDE 232 Chapter 16 CDE 232
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Chapter 16 r B Emotional and Social Development E r a in Middle Adulthood L n i d E i T n e p e e D a s i g r l x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. MIDUS Survey Begun in the Mid 1990s r B E u▪ MIDUS: Midlife Development in the United States L • ▪ Sample: over 7,000 persons aged 25 to 75 i ▪ Subsamples (smaller) studied in greater detail d d ▪ Methods: h t ▪ Telephone interviews, self-administered questionnaires e p ▪ 1,100 items tapping psychological, health, background e demographic factors e n ▪ Longitudinal extension begun (follow people when getting p older) f L ▪ Findings i l ▪ Basis for many of the facts reviewed in this chapter E ▪ Offer new insights into life changes for people who are moving from early to middle and late adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Erikson’s Theory: k B Generativity vs. Stagnation E r L Generativity Stagnation • t ▪ Reaching out to others in ▪ Self-centered, self- E ways that give to and indulgent, self-absorbed r T guide the next generation ▪ Lack of interest in young n m ▪ Extending commitment people l beyond self and partner ▪ Focus on what one can get e n ▪ May be realized through from others, not what one p i parenting or other family, can give g work, and mentoring ▪ Little interest in being r p relationships productive at work or E developing talents Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Aging, Generativity, and Self-Perceptions r B . • Age-related changes in self-rated generativity a u • 300 college educated women studied longitudinally L • o i E r h t e m l v e n p e L g r l E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Highly Generative Adults r B E ▪ Well-adjusted: r a ▪ low in anxiety, depression • ▪ high in autonomy, self-acceptance, life satisfaction o i E ▪ Generativity higher among those who have: i ▪ Parented, had children T n ▪ Family engagement, commitments m o ▪ Lacked father figures; escaped troubled pasts (men) v D ▪ Ethnic/cultural/religious differences: n s ▪ African-Americans: more often expressed in context of i religious, community involvement g r ▪ Religious, more than non-religious: those with ties to religious p communities E ▪ e.g. former President Jimmy Carter and HH Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Levinson’s Four Tasks of Middle Adulthood (Interviews with 35-45 yr. olds) r B E Young–Old Seek new ways of being u both young and old L • Acknowledge past hurtful i Destruction– d acts, try to leave legacy d Creation h for future generations t e Balance masculine and p e feminine parts of self e Masculinity–Femininity n Men: nurturance, caring p Women: autonomy, assertiveness f L Balance engagement i l with and separateness E Engagement– from external world Separateness Ambition, achievement vs. investment in relationships Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. r Vaillant’s View of Midlife B E u L ▪ “Keepers of meaning”: • i older people as guardians d d of their culture h t ▪ “Passing the torch” to e p next generation e e n ▪ Focus on longer-term, p f less-personal goals L i l E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Is There a Midlife Crisis? e . a ▪ Culturally-induced apprehension? u L ▪ Wide individual differences in “crises” n i ▪ Gender differences in work-related turning E i points: T n ▪ women: early adulthood (childbearing) m l ▪ men: midlife (career changes) v D a ▪ Sharp disruption uncommon e L ▪ Differences in handling life regrets: i l ▪ making life changes or not x E ▪ role of interpretation, acceptance in well-being Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Possible Selves r B E ▪ Future projections or representations of what one r hopes to become or fears becoming a • ▪ 20s & 30s: “rich and famous;” “top of my profession” o i ▪ Become fewer, more modest, realistic or concrete with E i age T n ▪ 40s & 50s: “being a good husband and father;” “staying m healthy” o v ▪ Rely more on temporal than on social comparisons D n ▪ Less comparing self to others; more comparing self to what s i one planned to become g r ▪ Can be redefined by the individual p E ▪ Plays a protective role in self-esteem Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Acceptance, Autonomy, e Environmental Mastery . a u ▪ Gains in expertise, practical problem solving L n More complex, integrated self-descriptions i ▪ E i ▪ Increase in: T n ▪ Self-acceptance, autonomy m l ▪ Less concerned about others’ expectations v D • Environmental mastery a e L • Ability to manage complex tasks i l x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors in Midlife Psychological Well-Being k B (See Text Box on p. 429) E r L • ▪ Good health and t E exercise r T ▪ Sense of control and n m personal life investment l e n ▪ Positive social p i relationships g r ▪ Good marriage p E ▪ Mastery of multiple roles Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gender Identity e in Middle Adulthood . a u L ▪ During childrearing years: n i ▪ Men are goal oriented; women emphasize nurturance E i ▪ Middle adulthood: T n ▪ Women increase in “masculine” traits m l ▪ Men increase in “feminine” traits v D ▪ Why? a e ▪ Parental imperative theory L i ▪ Cohort effects l x ▪ Demands of midlife E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Changes in Big Five Personality r Traits with Age B E r a ▪ Five Global Factors: • o ▪Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience, i Agreeableness, Conscientiousness (see chart p. 431) E i T ▪ Basic, enduring individual dispositions persist, but some n changes occur m o ▪ Survey of 2,000 persons in their 40s: v D ▪ 52% “stayed same;” 39% “changed a little;” 9% “changed a lot” n s ▪ agreeableness and conscientiousness increase i ▪ neuroticism declines g r ▪ extroversion and openness to experience remain the same or p E decrease slightly Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Big Five Personality Traits e . a ▪ Personality tends to be stable over a • the life course o d E ▪ Many Components, Organized into h t Five Global Factors: e p ▪ Neuroticism e D ▪ Extroversion n s i ▪ Openness to experience g o ▪ Agreeableness x E ▪ Conscientiousness Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Relationships at Midlife e . a ▪ Often, more close relationships than in any u L other period: n i ▪ ties to both older and younger generations E i ▪ well-established friendships T n m ▪ For many people, a l v liberating time: D a ▪ sense of completion e L ▪ opportunity to i l strengthen social ties, x E rekindle interests © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Marriage in Middle Adulthood r B E ▪ Middle-aged households better off financially r a ▪ 45- 50 yr. olds have higher incomes that any other age group • o ▪ Thus, contemporary view of midlife marriage = new horizons i E ▪ Need for review, re-evaluation and adjustment of i T marital relationship n m ▪ Marital satisfaction predicts psychological well-being o v ▪ Divorce rate among 50 -65 yr. olds has doubled in past 2 D decades n s ▪ Midlife adults adjust more easily than young adults i g ▪ Feminization of poverty r p ▪ Greater in USA than other western nations E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parenting in Middle Adulthood r B E ▪ Launching: culmination of “letting go” process: u L ▪ Decline in parental authority • i ▪ Not problematic unless d d ▪ Child(ren)’s departure is much earlier or later than h t expected e p ▪ Children choose to pursue lifestyle that is at odds e with parents’ values e n ▪ In-laws create problems p f ▪ Adjustment best if parents and children have continued L i contact, affection, support l E ▪ Moms typically adopt the “kinkeeper role Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Grandparenthood r B On average, begins in early fifties; can spend one- E ▪ u third of life as a grandparent L • ▪ Significant milestone for most i d ▪ Grand-parenting styles influenced by proximity, age, d gender, SES, ethnicity h t ▪ In some cultures, grandparents are more actively e involved in child rearing, living with the family, etc. p e ▪ Trends in grand-parenting: e ▪ extended-family household n p ▪ skipped-generation family f ▪ grandparents as parents L i ▪ response to divorce of grandchildren’s parents l ▪ Custodial parent’s grandparents have more contact with E grandchildren Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Middle-Aged Children e and Their Aging Parents . a u Increasingly likely to have living parents L ▪ n ▪ 2/3 of older parents live near one of their children i E ▪ Reassess relationships with parents i T In collectivist cultures, parents typically live with n ▪ m married children l v ▪ Children provide more help to parents: D a ▪ financial and household aid (resource expansion) e L ▪ caregiving as parental health problems increase i l ▪ helping based on quality of earlier relationships x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Caring for Aging Parents r B E ▪ “Sandwich generation” r a ▪ Adults care for children and aging parents • o ▪ Factors include finances, location, i E gender, culture i T African-American, Asian, Hispanic/Latina adults n • m provide more parent care than Caucasians o v ▪ Highly stressful: D n ▪ time devoted to care averages 10 to 20 hours per week, s i more for women g r ▪ emotional strain of witnessing parent’s decline p E ▪ greatest stress: sharing a household with ill parent Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Baby Boomers Caring k e for Aging Parents . Survey: 1,000 US Men, Women over 50 with one+ parent alive E r L • n t d d i T n e p l v D a s f Figure 16.2 L (Adapted from The MetLife Study of n Caregiving Costs to Working r Caregivers: Double Jeopardy for Baby p Boomers Caring for Their Parents, June E of the MetLife Mature Market Institute, New York, NY.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Relieving Caregiving Stress e . a u L ▪ Use effective coping strategies. n i ▪ Seek social support. E i T ▪ Use community n m resources. l v D ▪ Get workplace help. a e L ▪ Work for helpful i © absolute/Shutterstock l public policies. x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Siblings in Middle Adulthood e . a a ▪ Contact and support decline because • o of demands of diverse roles d E Still, siblings often feel closer, often in h ▪ t e response to major life events p e ▪ Affected by D n ▪ Personality/temperament s i g ▪ earlier relations o x ▪ culture E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Friendships in e Middle Adulthood . a a • o ▪ More time for friends at midlife, when d childrearing responsibilities ease E h t ▪ Gender trends continue: men are e p less intimate/expressive than women e D ▪ Fewer friends: become more selective, try n s harder to get along with friends i g ▪ Rely on friends more for pleasure, family for o x support and security E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. V ocational Life k B E r ▪ T oday’s generation of older adults desire L • to work longer t E ▪ Important component of satisfaction and r T self-esteem: n m ▪ attempt to increase personal meaning l of vocational lives e n ▪ Increased job satisfaction p i ▪ Increased mastery of job tasks, challenges g r ▪ Negative stereotypes of aging may hinder p E advancement Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Glass Ceiling r B E ▪ Invisible barrier to career advancement for u L women and minorities • i ▪ Results from d d ▪ lack of mentors, training opportunities h ▪ stereotypes about career commitment, t e managerial ability p (women’s commitment to family, childrearing) e ▪ e ▪ prejudices toward gender role deviation n p (women’s ability to be assertive, ambitious; f “command presence”) L i ▪ Many women deal with glass ceiling by l E leaving corporate environment Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ingredients of Effective r Retirement Planning B E u L ▪ Percentage of 65-yr. old men in workforce: • ▪ 1900: 70% i d ▪ 1970: 27% d h ▪ Today: 16% (average age of retirement: 63) t e ▪ Retirement leads to loss of income, status p e ▪ Factors influencing retirement process: e ▪ Finances (income typically drops 50%) n p ▪ Fitness (ability to work, pursue leisure activities) f L ▪ Role adjustment i ▪ Where to live l E ▪ Leisure and volunteer activities ▪ Health insurance Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Quiz: Chapter 16 k e . 1. Which of the following middle-aged adults is the most likely to be E stagnant? u L A) Allison, who is a mentor in her workplace • i B) Jonathan, who volunteers at a teen crisis center i E C) Barbara, who likes to shop for herself and spends little time with her i grown children T n D) James, who volunteers at a local children’s theater e o e e 2. __________ is common in middle adulthood. n p A) Life evaluation f L B) Dissatisfaction with getting older n o C) Having a midlife crisis p E D) Retirement near age 55 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Quiz: Chapter 16 k 3. At all ages, friendships: e . A) between men are more intimate than those of women. E u B) between women are more intimate than those of men. L • C) are based on physical proximity and similar interests. i i D) between other-sex individuals are more intimate than same-sex E friendships. i T n 4. Which of the following statements about retirement in the United e o States is true? e e A) Retirement is a privilege reserved for the wealthy. n p B) About 70 percent of American men age 65 and over are in the labor f force today. L n C) Today, the average retirement age is about 65. o p D) The average age of retirement has declined over the past several E decades. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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