CDE 232 Chapter 18
CDE 232 Chapter 18 CDE 232
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Ladd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
r B CDE232: GRADES E r a • o TOTAL Possible points: 500 i E + In-class quizzes: Top 16 (out of 18) i T =16x6 = 96 points n m + Chapter Study Guides: 17 chapters o v + 2 point bonus for completing all D n 17 pretests and posttests s i = 17x6 = 102+2 = 104 points g r + Exams: 3 Exams, 100 points each p E = 3x100 = 300 points Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. CDE232: GRADES ▪ Exam 3 score will be available after you take the Exam. I will add Chapter 13-18 Study Guide scores to Blackboard ▪ Friday after the Exam. ▪ In addition to all of the individual items you can currently see, there will be 3 new columns under My Grades ▪ 1) “In-class Quiz Total” = Bb auto. takes your top 16 in-class scores and adds them to this column. (96) ▪ 2) “Study Guide Total” = Bb automatically adds your scores from the 17 chapter study guides and the 2 point bonus. (104) ▪ 3) “Total Points*” = “In-class Quiz Total” + “Study Guide Total” + Exam 1 + Exam 2 + Exam 3 (500). ▪ Refer to the syllabus (page 3) to determine your letter grade. *Remember, this might differ slightly from your calculations if you add up all of the individual items because 2 of your in-class quizzes were dropped in this calculation. CDE232: GRADES ▪ We will submit FINAL letter grades early in the week following exam 3… ▪CHECK YOUR GRADES FRIDAY (Dec. 4 ) th afternoon ▪ If there are discrepancies between what you thought you earned and what is posted, you need to email me ASAP (applies to Ch. 13-18 Study Guides). Chapter 18 e B Emotional and Social E r a Development in Late Adulthood • n i E d h t e m l v D a s i L i l x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Erikson’s Theory: r B Ego Integrity vs. Despair E u L n Ego integrity Despair i E ▪ Feel whole, complete, ▪ Feel many decisions i t satisfied with were wrong, yet time is e achievements now too short p v ▪ View life in context of all ▪ Bitter, unaccepting D a humanity of death e L ▪ Associated with more ▪ Expressed as anger, r p favorable psychological contempt for others E well-being Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peck: T asks of Ego Integrity k B Ego differentiation: E ▪ r L ▪ affirm self-worth through family, friendship, • community life t E r ▪ alternative to work-role preoccupation T n ▪ Body transcendence: m l ▪ emphasize cognitive, emotional, social powers e n ▪ alternative to body preoccupation p i g ▪ Ego transcendence: r p ▪ As contemporaries die, face reality of death E constructively Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Joan Erikson: k B Gerotranscendence E r L ▪ Beyond ego integrity • t E ▪ Cosmic, transcendent r T perspective n m ▪ Directed forward and l e outward, beyond self n p i ▪ Heightened inner g © Paul Vasarhelyi/Shutterstock r calm, contentment p E ▪ Quiet reflection Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Labouvie-Vief: Emotional Expertise r B E ▪ Decline in cognitive–affective complexity u L ▪ Awareness and coordination of positive and negative • i feelings into an organized self description decreases d as information processing skills decline d h ▪ Gain in affect optimization: t e ▪ Ability to maximize positive emotions, dampen p e negative ones e n ▪ Contributes to resilience, optimistic outlook p f ▪ More vivid emotional perceptions: L i ▪ More in touch with, able to reflect on own feelings l E ▪ Skillful use of emotion-centered coping Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reminiscence and k Life Review B E Reminiscence Life review r L Telling stories about ▪ Calling up past experiences • t the past: to achieve greater self E understanding r ▪ Not limited to older adults T ▪ Self-focused: related to ▪ Process related to obtaining n m adjustment problems; can ego integrity l deepen despair e ▪ Can lead to n ▪ Other-focused: solidifies ▪ increased self-esteem, p relationships i sense of purpose g ▪ Knowledge-based: drawing r on past to create effective ▪ reduced depression p problem-solving strategies & to E teach younger people Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Concept and Personality r B in Late Adulthood E u L ▪ Secure, multifaceted self-concept: • i ▪ allows for self-acceptance d d ▪ continued pursuit of possible selves h t ▪ Improving, achieving, attaining “hoped-for” selves e p ▪ health, cognitive functioning, relationships, leisure e e ▪ Shifts in some personality characteristics: n p ▪ gain in agreeableness: generous, good-natured f ▪ modest declines in extroversion: narrowing of social contacts L i ▪ greater acceptance of change: capacity to accept those life l E changes that are beyond one’s control ▪ Resilience promotes adaptive functioning Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The New Old Age e ▪ Third Age: . a ▪ Concept originated in France u L ▪ Period of life marked by personal fulfillment, n self-realization, life satisfaction i E ▪ ages 65 to 79 and beyond i T ▪ Many baby-boomers active in part-time work and n m volunteer work well into 70s; see old age as 80+ l v ▪ More volunteer and service opportunities D a needed for aging adults e L ▪ Fourth Age: i l ▪ Physical decline x E ▪ Need for care Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Religiosity in Late Adulthood k e ▪ American’s religious beliefs . a ▪ Majority of people show stable religiosity throughout adulthood u ▪ More true of Americans than people in many other cultures L n ▪ Women, more than men engage in personal quest for connectedness to t higher power d d ▪ Involvement in organized and informal religious activities highest h among older, lower-SES African Americans, Native Americans, t e Hispanics/Latinas p l ▪ Value, commitment highest in older age groups e ▪ 65 and older: 70% say religion is “very important” in their lives; highest of any D age group a e Benefits of religious involvement L ▪ g ▪ better physical, psychological well-being r p ▪ closeness to family and friends E ▪ greater generativity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors in Psychological Well-Being r B E ▪ Control vs. dependency u L ▪ Dependency–support script: attend immediately to • i dependent behaviors d d ▪ Independence–ignore script: ignore independent h t behaviors e p ▪ Person–environment fit: match between person’s e abilities and demands of living environments e n ▪ Demands too great: stress p f L ▪ Can’t use skills, capacities: passivity, boredom i l ▪ Optimal: environments designed so that demands E matched to skills Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Depression and Suicide e . a ▪ Increased suicide risk in older adults u L n ▪ Highest in white men age 70 and older i E ▪ Factors: i T ▪ losses: retirement, widowhood, social isolation n m l ▪ reduced physical functioning or pain v D ▪ social isolation, lack of personal control a e ▪ Effective treatment: L i ▪ antidepressant medication plus therapy l x E ▪ help in coping with life transitions Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Life Changes and Social Support r B ▪ Older people at high risk for negative life changes E r ▪ Loss of loved ones; physical disabilities, declining income, a dependency • o ▪ Multiple negative changes test coping skills i E ▪ Aging adults continue to place high value on independence; i dependency on family members becomes a stressor T n ▪ Assistance less stressful (seen as authentic; not obligated) if m from community, religious groups o v ▪ Positive social support promotes physical health, D n psychological well-being s Important to take personal control of social support, i ▪ g maintaining control of highly valued activities r p ▪ Retain autonomy in as many areas as feasible while giving it up E in others Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Social Theories of Aging r Disengagement ▪ Mutual withdrawal of older adults and society B ▪ Most don’t disengage E theory ▪ Disengagement may be culturally imposed r a • ▪ Social barriers (e.g., retirement) cause o declining rates of interaction i Activity theory E ▪ Response is to seek new activities i ▪ Fails to recognize psychological changes T n ▪ Effort to maintain consistency between past m and anticipated future: consistent life path o Continuity theory ▪ Strive to maintain personal system of roles, v D interests, skills n s ▪ Social networks become more selective with i age, extending lifelong selection process g r Socioemotional ▪ Emphasis on emotion-regulating functions of p selectivity theory social contact E ▪ Relationships pursued to maximize comfort, fulfillment & minimize stress, dependence Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Age-Related Changes r in Number of Social Partners B . a u L • o i E r h t e m l v e n p e L g r l Figure 18.1 E How Personality and Social Context Do (and Do Not) Make a Difference,” Journal of Gerontology, 53B, p. 24. Copyright ©: 1998 The Gerontological Society of America. Adapted by permission of Oxford University Press and F. R. Lang.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Social Contexts of Aging r B E u ▪ Communities: L • ▪ majority live in suburbs: higher income, better health i d ▪ ethnic minorities in cities: better public transportation, d social services h t ▪ small town, rural: less likely to live near their children; e p more interaction with nearby neighbors, friends e e ▪ Neighborhoods: n p ▪ preference for neighborhoods with other seniors f L i ▪ Housing: preference for aging in place l E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Housing in Late Adulthood Ordinary homes r B ▪ Aging in place: E r ▪ 90% remain living in own home: greatest personal control a ▪ 4% relocate to be near children; for climate, leisure activities • o ▪ Living with family members; fewer choose this i E ▪ Living alone: number increasing i T ▪ 30% in US; 50% by age 80 n ▪ 40% live in poverty; 70% of these are widows m o Residential communities v D ▪ Congregate housing: support services, meals, oversight n s ▪ Life-care communities: options range from congregate to nursing homes i g Nursing homes r p ▪ Restrict autonomy, social integration E ▪ Green House model: design is less like hospital, more like apartments ▪ effective person–environment fit Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Marriage in Late Adulthood ▪ Divorce rate high, but 1 in 4 marriages lasts 50+ e . years a a • ▪ Marital satisfaction rises from middle to late o adulthood, and peaks in late life: d E h ▪ fewer stressful responsibilities t e ▪ greater fairness in household tasks p e ▪ joint leisure D n ▪ greater emotional understanding, s i regulation g o ▪ Marital dissatisfaction harder for women x E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divorce, Remarriage, Cohabitation r B ▪ Less than 5% divorce in late adulthood, but rate E r is increasing a Divorce ▪ Half are 30+ year marriages • o ▪ Women initiate more; struggle more to recover i E i ▪ Rates low, decline with age T n ▪ More internet dating; selective for age race, m Remarriage religion, income o v ▪ Higher for divorced than widowed D ▪ Late remarriages are stable n s i g r ▪ Growing trend as baby boomers age p Cohabitation E ▪ Relationships more stable than at younger ages Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Older Adults’ Online Personal Ads k e . E r L • n t d d i T n e p l v D a s f L n r p E Figure 18.2 (From S. S. R. Alterovitz and G. A. Mendelsohn, 2013, “Relationship Goals of Middle-Aged, Young–Old, and Old–Old Internet Daters: An Analysis of Online Personal Ads.” Journal of Aging Studies, 27, p. 163. Copyright © 2013, Elsevier. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier, Inc.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Widowhood ▪ Most stressful life event for many e . ▪ One-third of older adults are widowed a u ▪ 40% of women vs. only 13% of men L n ▪ Higher for those in poverty, minorities, i chronically ill E i ▪ Most live alone, cope with loneliness T n ▪ Less difficult for those with outgoing personalities, family m support l v ▪ Reorganizing life harder for men: D a ▪ Fewer friendships & social support than women e L ▪ More physical, mental health problems i l ▪ Higher mortality rate x ▪ More likely than women to remarry E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Never-Married, r Childless Older Adults B E u ▪ About 5% of older Americans L • ▪ Most develop alternative meaningful i d relationships: d h ▪ extended family t e ▪ neighbors p e ▪ younger people e n ▪ Without partner pressure to remain healthy p f ▪ Men more likely to be lonely, depressed L i ▪ Engage in unhealthy behaviors l E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Friendships in Late Adulthood e ▪ Strong predictor of mental health in late adulthood . a ▪ Friends provide u ▪ intimacy, companionship, acceptance L n ▪ shield from aging stereotypes i E ▪ link to community i ▪ help with loss T n m ▪ Choose friends similar in age, sex, ethnicity, values l v ▪ Feel closest to a few nearby friends D a ▪ Sex differences continue e L ▪ Women’s friendships more intimate i l ▪ Also have “secondary friends” (not intimates, but activity x associates) E ▪ Men rely on wives, to a lesser extent, sisters Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Relationships with e Adult Children . a a • ▪ Quality of relationship affects older o d adults’ physical, mental health E h Provision of assistance: t ▪ e p ▪ 60s, 70s, elders give more than receive; e D SES affects balance of support n s ▪ balance changes with age, with children i g helping more as parents become elderly o x ▪ most aid is emotional support, not practical E assistance Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Elder Maltreatment k ▪ Prevalence in industrial nations B E ▪ 3% to 28% internationally r L USA: 7% to 10% report abuse in past month • ▪ t ▪ Translates into 3 - 4 million victims E r T ▪ Forms of elder abuse n m ▪ Physical abuse l e ▪ Physical neglect n p ▪ Emotional abuse i g Sexual abuse r ▪ p E ▪ Financial abuse ▪ Most common: financial, emotional, neglect Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Risk Factors for k B Elder Maltreatment E r L Dependency of victim • ▪ t E ▪ Dependency of perpetrator: emotional r T or financial n m Psychological disturbance and stress l ▪ e n of perpetrator p i ▪ History of family violence g r Institutional conditions: more common p ▪ E in low-quality nursing homes Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Leisure and e V olunteer Activities . a a ▪ Interests usually continue from earlier in life: • o ▪ choose meaningful, personally gratifying pursuits d E ▪ frequency and variety decline with age h t ▪ Rewarding leisure activities e p linked to better health, e D reduced mortality: n s ▪ self-expression i g ▪ new achievements o x ▪ helping others E ▪ social interactions © Elzbieta Sekowska/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Optimal Aging e . ▪ Minimize losses, maximize a u gains L n i ▪ Less focus on specific E achievements, more on i T processes for reaching n m personal goals l v D ▪ Perceived control: a e ▪ Greater influence of controllable L factors in well-being i l x ▪ Social policies can help E Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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