ASB 202 week 11
Popular in Imm & Ethnic Relations in US
Popular in Department
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASB 202 at Arizona State University taught by Estrada in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Gender and Migration Do women have more to gain or more to lose from migration (for instance, compared to men)? Definition of Gender Gender=culturally relative beliefs/perceptions about men/women that vary from society to society Sex=universal biological differences between women and men ● Some cultural beliefs about gender are partly based on universal sexual/biological differences between men and women ● However, sexual/biological differences between men and women only partly influence cultural gender beliefs and don’t determine them Background on Gender and Migration Migration has masculine connotation (men migrate abroad first, work hard, send remittances, then call over wives/kids after he settles in host society) ● In last several decades, female migration has dramatically increased (half of all international migrants) ● “The forces of globalization are increasing the demand for cheap and docile migrant female labor in all regions” (Oishi 200: 2) ● Between 1960 and 2000, the number of migrant women around the world increased from 35 million to 85 million. By 2000, women constituted 48.6 percent of the world’s migrants (Oishi 2005: 2) ● Many women today are not only chain migrants that follow husbands, but migrate alone ● More women are becoming breadwinners How is Female Migration Different from Male Migration? Types of immigrant jobs that women perform Most work in service industry (feminine jobs) • Domestic household workers (Read: Oishi page 2) • Caregivers/nurses (Oishi page 3) Sex workers, 150,000 women in this sector • (Oishi page 4) • Mail-order brides Since many service sectors jobs are feminine, female immigrants often have an easier time finding employment than men How is Female Migration Different from Male Migration? Female immigrants are subject to much more abuse and exploitation than men ● Women migrants are doubly disadvantaged, first as immigrants and then as women in a subordinate gender position ● Women are much more dependent on criminal exploitative, human smugglers/ traffickers that illegally smuggle female immigrants into country and abuse them ● The type of jobs women migrants do are ones which are most exploitative by their nature Exploitative Nature of Female Immigrant Jobs Sex workers ● Many deceived by human traffickers but then brought to U.S. and sometimes forced into prostitution and virtual sexual slavery ● International illegal trafficking of women for global sex industry is increasingly becoming a global problem that is hard to control and combat ● Even if countries crackdown on female trafficking networks, they will continue to thrive as long as the demand for female immigrant sex workers remains strong among men in developed countries Domestic household workers/caregivers can also be exploitative/ abusive Mail order brides are sometimes trapped in abusive and exploitative marriages Causes of Female Migration Many women migrate more as chain migrants/family reunification migrants ● Can say such women migrate less for economic reasons and more for social reasons (family reunification) ● Does not mean female chain migrants really have no economic motives Most women migrate for economic reasons (poor economic conditions back home, better wages, jobs abroad) ● Especially true for women who migrate alone to work as unskilled workers More women migrate to escape gender constraints ● Greater lack of socioeconomic opportunity and social mobility for women compared to men ● Gender abuse=Some women migrate because of abusive patriarchal husbands Causes of Female Migration Economic pull factor=strong and increasing demand for unskilled “feminine” immigrant labor in developed countries ● Increased demand for domestic household workers ● Increased demand for immigrant nurses/caregivers ● Increased demand for immigrant sex workers ● Shortage of brides/wives in some advanced industrialized societies Women from developing countries are in high demand for such feminine service sector jobs because they are seen as “traditional,” docile, and submissive Impact of Government Policies on Female Migration Government immigration policies are frequently biased against women=harder for women to immigrate than men ● Governments tend to give visas mainly to male-dominated occupations ● Many receiving country governments restrict family reunification immigration (which is often women) Emigration policies=sending country governments also have policies that determine who can/can’t emigrate ● Emigration policies, especially in Asia, sometimes restrict emigration of women (but never men) Women are migrating despite government immigration and emigration policies that restrict female migration ● A good number of women must migrate illegally and depend on human smugglers/ traffickers more than men Impact of Immigration on Gender Relations in Families Migration frequently improves gender status of immigrant women (leads to more equality within family in terms of socioeconomic status and gender roles) Socioeconomic status: (Pessar 1999) ● When migrate with husband, women begin to work outside home and earn wages and contribute economically to family ● Increased economic power of wife increases her social status in family Gendered division of labor: ● After immigration, wife also contributes to public realm outside home by working/ earning money ● She has less time for household chores and have more power inside home, so can demand that husband contribute more to private/domestic realm (do more household work) Women prefer to settle in host society more than men (because of socioeconomic and gender gains) Men want to return home more (because lose social status, gender domination over wives and want to regain male status/privilege) Impact of Immigration on Gender Relations in Families Impact of immigration is not always positive for women’s family status— there are constraints/limitations in their gender gains ● Ability of female immigrants to challenge male dominance in family depends on their position in labor market ● Men may refuse to help at home (especially those who strongly believe in patriarchy)—thus women have to do two jobs (both outside and within home) ● Men can react negatively—especially if they are unemployed and wife becomes sole breadwinner (their masculinity/self-esteem threatened) Is Female Migration a Form of Gender Liberation? Female liberation=greater gender equality with men by liberating women from domestic household duties and allowing them to work outside home (Grasmuck and Pessar 1991) Does immigration help liberate immigrant women? ● Immigrant women work outside home, but still confined to domestic realm ● Also, immigrant women have own families/kids to take care of and are often forced to do two jobs (work outside family and also take care of children/household) Connection between female immigration from developing countries and liberation of women living in U.S. ● (Richer) American families can now hire immigrant women cheaply to do domestic household work, which has freed American women from household duties and enabled them to pursue professional careers and gender equality ● Liberation of American women has been enabled partly by subordination of immigrant women from developing countries Is Female Migration a Form of Gender Liberation? Is female liberation a concern/issue for immigrant women? ● Immigrant women are not always Western feminists—not that concerned about gender inequality/patriarchy ● Immigrant women see jobs as only extension of their role as domestic wives who support husband ● They work mainly for economic survival not to challenge male dominance or attain gender equality Gender and Migrant Transnationalism Number of married women migrate by themselves to U.S., leave husband and kids behind, and maintain transnational families ● These immigrant women engage in transnational motherhood—immigrant mothers try to transnationally raise/care for children across national borders ● Takes emotional toll on immigrant mothers ▪ Try to retain emotional attachment to kids transnationally, but can’t be there for them to provide them with maternal/emotional care/nurturance➔guilty/feel bad Many husbands back in sending country often don’t do housework/take care of kids even when their wife emigrates abroad and becomes the family’s economic provider Gender and Migrant Transnationalism Many more male immigrants migrate by themselves and leave kids/ family behind than women ● But unlike women, they don’t worry as much about caring for children left behind or transnational fatherhood issues Immigration is more difficult for married women with kids back home because of traditional gender expectations that women should stay home and raise kids, provide maternal/emotional support for children Group Work Do women have more to gain or more to lose from migration (for instance, compared to men)? You can think about this issue in terms of the causes of migration, the relative difficulty/ease of migrating for women, the occupational and economic status of women migrants in the host society, or the impact of migration on women’s gender and social status within the family/ household. Using the assigned article for your group, how would you answer this question? Collectively, produce a thesis statement and then provide a comprehensive list of what they gain and lose from migration.
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