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ASB 202 week 12

by: Jordan R

ASB 202 week 12 ASB 202

Jordan R
GPA 3.6

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Imm & Ethnic Relations in US
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASB 202 at Arizona State University taught by Estrada in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 05/22/16
Part III: Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States Immigration is critical for the understanding of ethnic relations in the U.S. (most US ethnic groups are a product of immigration) ● Focus on ethnic minorities who are descendants of immigrants (ethnic minorities of immigrant origin=African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics/Latino Americans), but also the majority (white) ethnic group Quiz 11/18 Colonial Period (1607-1776) ● 1607-1776 British ● 1607-1808 Slaves from Africa ● 1700- German ● 1st ● 1820-1880 Irish ● 1820-1880 German ● 2nd 1880-1930 Southern and Eastern Europeans, Italy- Russia, Poland, Spain, Baltic Countries ● ● 1880-1930 Jewish migration ● 1st wave of Asian migration ● 1840-1924 Asian migration ● 1870-1924 Japanese migration ● 3rd ● 1965 History of Immigration to the United States In order to understand the current status of these ethnic groups (race and ethnic relations in the U.S.), we need to look at their immigrant origins (history of their immigration to the U.S.) • Despite being classic country of immigration, immigration has always been controversial in almost all periods of U.S. history • History of U.S. immigration policy has been characterized by repeated failure to limit the number of immigrants and control the type of immigrants coming to the U.S. The Colonial Period (1607-1776) America was a British colony (no immigration policy) Majority of immigrants to America were British (60% from 1607-1790) Jamestown (Virginia) • • Pilgrims settle in Plymouth (Massachusetts) Early British settlers were seeking religious freedom but also immigrated for economic reasons (cultivating land/make profit) The Colonial Period (1607-1776) German immigrants (starting early/mid-1700s) ● Settled in ethnic enclaves in rural Pennsylvania ● When Germans first began immigrating, they were controversial among the mainly English-descent American public ▪ They spoke a different language, had different cultural customs, and were seen as not loyal to America ▪ Lived in ethnic enclaves in rural areas and didn’t culturally assimilate ▪ Anti-immigrant politician, Benjamin Franklin (paraphrased): “These ‘German boors’ are flooding and over-running America. They refuse to learn the English language and American customs, they are contaminating (Germanifying) American culture and threatening the white racial composition of this country.” The Colonial Period (1607-1776) Immigration of slaves from Africa (from start of colonial period to abolition of slave trade in 1808) ● Involuntary immigrants ● From 1500-1900s, 11-12 million African slaves were shipped to the Americas (not just America, but also to Caribbean and South America) ● 15-20% of slaves died during voyage of because of malnutrition disease ● Only about 500,000 African slaves sent to American colonies The Colonial Period (1607-1776) Much of economy of early America (especially cotton-economy in South) depended on hundreds of thousands of slaves • About 10% of African American population during this period were actually free blacks (predominantly in North), but they faced intense discrimination Conditions under slavery were terrible in general, but also depended on owner and size of business • Fact that slave rebellions and revolts were common in American south is indication of how oppressive system was and its human toll First (Large-Scale) Wave of Immigrants (1820-1880) Over 10 million immigrants (increasing diversity of immigrants) 1776 to 1875=America had no immigration policy (U.S. tried to increase immigration from Europe) Irish immigration (most Irish immigrated between 1820- 1880) • 3 million total during this period Economic reasons (mainly escaping potato famine) • • Irish subject to more ethnic prejudice and discrimination than any previous group of immigrants, except African slaves (they were poor/uneducated, prone to fighting, and were Catholic in Protestant America) ▪ Did the worst jobs, lived in worst urban conditions, forced to fight in Civil War ▪ Caused some of greatest ethnic conflicts in American history Led to first organized anti-immigrant political movement (Know Nothing) First Wave of Immigrants (1820-1880) Increased German immigration • 3 million during this period • No longer controversial, especially compared to Irish immigration (they had become “white”) Were rural farmers fleeing crop failures • and famine • Many settled in Midwest 1875: First immigration control act • Prohibited immigration of criminals, prostitutes, mentally ill, diseased, and the tried to kick out unwanted immigrants • Second Wave of Immigrants (1880-1930) Over 27.5 million immigrants Southern and Eastern Europeans (especially from Italy, • Russia, Poland, Spain, Baltic countries) ▪ Largest groups=Italians, Russians, and Poles • Were poverty-stricken rural farmers and peasants, and most did unskilled work in U.S. • Lived in crowed, disease-infested housing not fit for human beings Caused huge public controversy, partly because of immense numbers of • immigrants entering ▪ Were culturally/religiously different (didn’t speak English, were Catholic, had different customs) ▪ Were seen as racially inferior (seen as darker race, not considered really white) who would contaminate American racial composition and lower its intelligence level • Faced discrimination finding jobs, suffered poverty, high illiteracy rates, high child mortality rates, etc. Second Wave of Immigrants (1880-1930) Jewish immigration Millions from Eastern Europe (mainly Russia/Poland) • immigrated at this time both for economic reasons and ethnic persecution • Only major group of skilled immigrants at time and were more economically successful than other Southern/Eastern Europeans • Were seen as problematic (poorer and less educated and culturally different than earlier Jewish immigrants and more religiously orthodox) • Anti-Semitism (anti-Jewish prejudice) increased to unprecedented levels Subject to discrimination/exclusion by employers, housing, institutions, and even • universities Second Wave of Immigrants (1880-1930) Restrictive Immigration Policies • 1917 Literacy test • 1924 Immigration Act ▪ Annual quota of immigrants for each country= 2% of total number of immigrants from that country already residing in U.S. ▪ Total immigration restricted to 165,000/year ▪ Southern/Eastern European immigration seriously reduced First “Wave” of Asian Immigration (1840-1924) Chinese Immigration (1840s-1890s) ● Only 289,000 entered between 1850 to 1890 (mainly men coming alone) ● Escaped from economic difficulties and social/ political turmoil in China ● Worked on Hawaiian plantations, then mining and railroads ● Seen as much worse than Southern/Eastern Europeans (religiously, racially, culturally) ● Despite small numbers, had violently negative backlash from American public (mainly CA) and subject to intense discrimination/harassment (especially during economic downturns) ● 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act First “Wave” of Asian Immigration (1840-1924) Japanese Immigration (1870s-1924) ● Rural farmers who worked as agricultural contract workers in U.S. ● Only 270,000 entered between 1890 to 1930 ● Initially not as controversial but eventually subject to serious anti-immigrant backlash/economic resentment*** ● 1907-08: Gentleman’s Agreement (Japan voluntarily agreed to regulate emigration) ● Immigration Act of 1924 (banned immigration of those ineligible for American citizenship=Asians) Japanese Americans in World War II Higher percentage of eligible Japanese American men served than any other ethnic group nd 442 Japanese American Regimental Combat Team (fought in Europe) ● Initially consisted of 4,500 volunteers (13,000 eventually served) ● Most decorated military unit in U.S. history for heroism ● Highest casualty rate=awarded 9,486 Purple Hearts (wounded/killed)=(210% casualty rate) 6,000 Japanese Americans served in U.S. military intelligence in the Pacific (against the Japanese) Third and Largest Wave of Immigrants (after 1965) 1930s-1940s: Not much immigration because of Great Depression, World War II Major expansion of immigration policy after 1965 Hart Cellar Act of 1965 • Immigrant admissions based on family reunification (no limit) • Occupational skills/employment visas (20% of immigrants) • Caps placed on total immigration from certain hemispheres Unintended consequence=dramatic increase of Asian and Latino immigrants Reasons: ▪ Europe became prosperous after World War II ▪ Increased U.S. foreign investment in Latin America and Asia ▪ Increased U.S. colonial and military/war ties with Asian and Central American countries ▪ Refugee policy expanded (accepted many refugees from Southeast Asia and Cuba) ▪ Increase in skilled Asian immigrants Increase in Mexican Immigration After 1965 In 1965, U.S. already had a significant Mexican population • Mexicans in U.S. began legally bringing in family members • Social network connections between Mexicans in U.S. and those in Mexico facilitated illegal immigration to U.S. Reasons why there was already a significant Mexican population in US • Mexican War of 1846 ▪ U.S. annexed CA, NV, AZ, UT, parts of CO, NM, and WY ▪ Mexicans in these states incorporated into U.S. as involuntary ethnic minorities • Bracero Program (1940s-1964) ▪ U.S. imported almost 2.5 million Mexican contract laborers ▪ Over 2 million Mexicans also entered U.S. illegally ▪ Good number of Mexican immigrants settled permanently in U.S.


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