Lecture Notes 01-06
Lecture Notes 01-06 ANTH 100000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jackie Reh on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 100000 at Purdue University taught by Verity Whalen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Anthropology (online version) in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Beginning to Anth Ethnocentrism: the idea that our own way of life is the standard against which all others should be measured Anthropological perspective: the idea in which we should look at the world Module 01 What is Anthropology Anthropology: the study of human biology, society, and culture in the past, present and future Anthropologists study humans as evolving physical organisms Societies = all people, collectively regarded as constituting a community of interdependent individuals Culture = knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as member of society Four SubFields 1. Cultural Anthropology Study of human society and their cultures Ethnography seeks to understand what life is like for them Ethnology the analysis of ethnographic data 2. Archaeology Study of human society and culture through the analysis of the material remains of past human behavior Excavation Survey Three goals: Reconstructing past lifeways Creating culture histories Understanding culture process 3. Biological Anthropology Study of human biology and our evolution How evolution has shaped biology and behavior Our species’ biological variability Four major branches: Paleoanthropology: study of human evolution Primatology: behavior of our closest relatives Anthropological genetics: genetic variability Osteological and forensic anthropology: study of the human skeleton 4. Linguistic anthropology Study of social uses and evolution of usually unwritten languages Relationship between people and language How language shapes cultural behavior and vice versa Anthro and other fields Anthropology is both scientific and humanistic It is holism, the study of the entire human condition... different aspects of human society can not be studied in isolation It avoids ethnocentrism... it avoids view of another culture against one’s own Antro Today Applied anthropology Is used to solve contemporary social problems They work in health care, educational research, economic development, advertisement, ect. Module 02 Take Home Messages Take Home Messages of Anth Relativism Cultural and biological relativism The cultural and biological characteristics of a society, populations, or a person can only be given value relative to the environmental and historical context in which they exist Ex: “it’s good to be a big person” vs. “it’s good to be a small person” It’s good to be a big animal in a colder area But being small in a famine area... you have less resource that you need Adaptations: biological and cultural characteristics that allow people to live in a certain environment Diversity Our environmental contexts are constantly changing, and no single set of biological and cultural characteristics can handle change Ex: Irish potato famine > not enough biological diversity in the potatos... so by the time we changed our farming ways, it was to late Evolution All biological and cultural things change over time... evolution vs “progress” Evolution... simples refers to change Progress is the change in some direction for some goal Holism People and their societies are complex, integrated entities Every facet of human society influences every other facet Nothing should be studied in isolation Biology and Culture Matter Biological evolution has equipped us with big brains Biological evolution has equipped us with big brains Biology does not go away just because we have culture Individual Agencies We are shaped by genes and culture We learn from our experiences Individuals within groups behave differently Individual's behavior can’t necessarily be predicted Module 03 > videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhHOjC4oxh8 What is Evolution? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0SCjhI86grU What is Natural Selection? Module 04 Reproduction, Sex, and Kinship Reproduction A sexual : reproduction by division ... no distinction between parent and offspring Sexual : reproduction by combination of genetic materials Gametes(sperm and ova) combine to form zygote DNA : chain of simple molecules in which instructions for producing substances the body needs are coded Arranged in chromosomes Asecual ... only has one copy of each chromosome Sexual Reproduction Meiosis produces gametes Reproduction combination of two gametes with full complement of 2 chromosomes Joining gametes Releasing gametes into the environment Internal fertilization Advantages : Maximizes genetic variability Disadvantages : Courtship behavior Only half genetic legacy is passed on Consequences of Sexual Reproduction Kinship is important Not all individuals equally related It matters who reproduces Evolved behaviors to ensure as many offspring as possible Kin share some of your genes inclusive fitness Biological and Cultural Prevention of Inbreeding Reproducing with kin inhibits genetic diversity “Genetic load” bad genes carried but not expressed Recognizing kin Core of related females Humans often act as if neighbors are kin Psychological mechanisms for recognizing kin Strategies ensuring genes passed on Rselection Lots of offspring Little investment Kselection Few offspring Lots of investment Module 05a Human Adaptation Adaptation A biological or cultural characteristic that allows an organism to live in a certain environment Physiological adaptation : adaptation made through the adjustment of individual physiology Acclimatization Cultural adaptation Most common way to adapt for people Passed on through teaching/learning Evolution adaptation Most permanent form Passed through genes Develops through natural selection Hemoglobin : component of blood that is red when carrying oxygen Carotene : yelloworange pigment Melanin : granular substance produced by specialized skin cells called melanocytes All human have out the same number of melanocytes Different populations produce different quantities of melanin Module 05b Human Environment Interaction Anthropological Model Physiological, cultural, evolutionary adaptation work together to allow human to adapt to any environment Model is holistic This is an interdependent system Changes in the environment can lead to perceptional change and so on For most of human history, biological change was more important than cultural change Adaptation Are all adaptations equally important? Human specialize in cultural adaptations But early on we relied heavily on evolutionary adaptations We are biologically very similar but culturally very diverse Individuals can change their behavior/culture, but not their genes Cultural evolution can be fast biological evolution is slow Unlike biological traits, cultural traits get passed on from multiple people Module 06 Fossils, Artifacts, and Dating Evidence of Past Human Behavior All animals modify the environment Including humans Site location with some evidence of past human activity Fossil mineralized remains of a onceliving organism Artifact portable object that was made by humans Feature nonportable object made by human behavior Recovering Information from Sites 1. Excavation a. Material removed carefully b. Record location of everything c. To preserve CONTEXT i. Relationship between objects and their surroundings 2. Labwork a. Many techniques that archaeologist use to get information about artifacts b. Formal “dating”methods to find out WHEN things placed in ground i. PotassiumArgon Dating absolute dating method.. Works up to billions of years, only dates when rock formed ii. Carbon 14 Dating : up to ~50,000 years ago, organic materials only 3. Interpretation a. Develop and evaluate hypotheses about activities at a site b. Explanation of past behavior
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