Window on Humanity-Kottak Chap. 1-4
Window on Humanity-Kottak Chap. 1-4 ANTH 100000
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jackie Reh on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 100000 at Purdue University taught by Verity Whalen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Anthropology (online version) in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter 1 What is Anthropology? ● ethnography : it’s fieldwork usually entails spending a year or more in another society, living with the local people and learning about their way of life Human Adaptability ● anthropology : the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors ● holistic : refers to the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture ● society : organized life in groups, with other animals, including baboons, rats, and even ants ● cultures : traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that from and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them ● the most critical element of cultural traditions is their transmission through learning rather than through biological inheritance ● adaptation : refers to the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses ● 3 ways to adapting biologically to “high altitude” > genetic, long term, short term, and culturally ● good production: originated some 12,00010,000 years ago, to replace foraging in most areas General Anthropology ● general anthropology : “fourfield’ anthropology, includes four main subdisciplines, or subfields ○ sociocultural (cultural anth), archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology ○ Biocultural : refers to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem ● Culture is a key environmental force in determining how human bodies grow and develop… traditions promote certain activities and abilities, discourage others, and set standards of physical well0being and attractiveness ● culture is an environmental force that affects our development… it guides our emotional and cognitive growth and helps determine the kinds of personalities we have as adults The sub disciplines of Anthropology ● cultural anthropolog: the study of human society and culture, the subfield that describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences ○ cultural anthropologist engage in two kinds of actives ethnography (fieldwork) and ethnology (crosscultural comparison) ○ ethnography : provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture ○ as noted by Franz Boas > culture is not isolated, exposure to external forces come through the mass media, migration, ,and modern transportation ○ ethnology : examines, compares, analyzes, and interprets the results of ethnography : the data gather in different societies ● archaeological anthropolo: reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains ● many archaeologist examine paleoecology ○ ecology : the study of interrelations around living things in an environment ○ paleoecology : looks at the ecosystem of the past ● The number of settlement levels in a society is a measure of social complexity ● Buildings offer clues about political and religious features ● Biological (physical anthropol: human biological diversity in time and space ● Five special interests within biological anthropology > ○ 1. Human evolution as revealed by the fossil record ○ 2. Human genetics ○ 3. Human growth and development ○ 4. Human biological plasticity ○ 5. The biology, evolution, behavior, and social life of monkeys, apes, and other nonhuman primates ● Linguistic anthropol: studies language in its social and cultural context, across space and over time ● Sociolinguistics : investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation ● No language is a homogeneous system in which everyone speaks just like everyone else Anthropology and Other Academic Fields ● One of the main differences between anthropology and other fields that study people is holism ● Science : a “systematic field of study or body of knowledge that aims, through experiment, observation, and deduction, to produce reliable explanations of phenomena, with references to the material and physical world” Applied Anthropology ● American Anthropological Association(AAA) Anthropology’s foremost professional organization, that recognizes that anthropology has two dimensions academic(general anthropology) and practicing (applied anthropology ○ Applied Archaeology (public archaeology) : includes such activities as cultural resource management, public educational programs, and historic preservation Cultural resource management (CRM) : involves in preserving sites and allowing their destruction if they are not significant Other Information From Quiz ● Academic anthropology efers to teaching the subject of anthropology and adding to the overall knowledge base of the field ● The origin of American anthropology is traced to an interest in the origins and diversity of Native Americans. ● Paleontologist : learning about the forms of life that existed in former geologic periods, chiefly by studying fossils ● anthropological archaeologists the study of material remains ● Sociolinguistics : the study of the relationships between social and linguistic variation ● Paleoecology : he study of interactions among past living things in a past environment Chapter 2 Culture ● Enculturation : the process by which a child learns his or her culture What is Culture? ● Symbols : signs that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they stand for, or signify ● Cultural learning depends on the uniquely developed human capacity to use symbols ● Culture can be taught directly, like when a child’s parent tells them to say “thank you” or through observation(unconsciously) ● Culture is an attribute not of individuals per se but of individuals as members of groups ● Culture is transmitted socially... we learn our culture by observing, listening, talking and interacting ● Culture encompasses features that are sometime regarded as trivial or unworthy of serious study, ... they are integrated, patterned systems ● Core values : integrates each culture and helps distinguish it from others ● Informal support : help from people who are about them ● Formal support : help from associations and institutions ● Cultural traits are adaptive if > they help individuals cope with environmental stresses ● Maladaptive : traits that may threaten a group’s continued existence Culture’s Evolutionary Basis ● Hominidae : the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans, as well as chimps and gorillas ● Hominids : members of the zoological family ● Hominins : used for the group that leads to humans but not to chimps and gorillas and that encompases all the human species that ever have existed ● Other nonhuman primates use tools just as humans to work in their environment ● Primate research shows that primates are habitual hunters... hunting parties of usually 26 individuals ● Estrus : during which the female primate ovulate ● Female nonhuman primates tend to form temporary bonds when mating, whereas humans look to a more permanent relationship or marriage Universality, Generality, and Particularity ● When studying human diversity in time and space, anthropologist distinguish among the universal, the generalized, and the particular ● Universal features : features that are found in every culture ● Generalities features : are common features to several but not all human groups ● Particularities traits : are unique to certain cultural traditions ● Diffusion : cultural borrowing ● Cultural particularity : is a trait or feature of culture that is not generalized or widespread.... Rather confined to single place or society ● Cultures are integrated and patterned differently and display tremendous variation and diversity Culture and the Individual: Agency and Practice ● Cultural rules provide guidance about what to do and how to do it ● Cultures are dynamic and constantly changing... people learn, interpret, and manipulate the same rule in different ways ● Culture is contested meaning different groups in society struggle with one another over whose ideas, values, goals, and beliefs will prevail ● Ideal culture : consists of what people say they should do and what they say they do ● Real culture : refers to their actual behavior as observed by the anthropologist ● Practice theory : recognizes that individuals within a society or culture have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence Popular, Civic, and Public Culture ● Civic culture : includes its citizens’ compliance with the legal system, participation in formal elections, and membership in voluntary and faithbased associations ● Public culture : generally accepted social behaviour, dress codes, speech, and other forms of expression that citizens enact in public spaces, including bars, parks, malls, and even grieving sites Levels of Culture ● National Culture : embodies those beliefs, learned behavior patterns, values, and institutions that are shared by citizens of the same nation ● International culture : extends beyond and across national boundaries ● Subcultures : different symbolbased patterns and tradition associated with particular groups in the same complex society Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights ● Ethnocentrism : tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to apply one’s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures ○ Contributes to social solidarity, a sense of value and community, among people who share a cultural tradition ● Cultural Relativism : the view point that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture ● Human rights : invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to the laws and customs of particular countries, cultures, and religions ● There are four united nations documents that describe nearly all the human rights that have been internationally recognized ○ U.N. Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ● Cultural rights : vested not in individuals but in groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies ● Intellectual property rights : arisen in an attempt to conserve each society’s cultural baseits core beliefs, knowledge, and practices Mechanisms of Cultural Change ● Diffusion : borrowing of traits between cultures ○ This happens when two cultures trade with, intermarry among, or wage war on one another ○ Forced > when one culture subjugates another and imposes its customs on the dominated group ○ Indirect > when items or trait move from group A to group C via group B without any first hand contact between A and C ● Acculturation : a second mechanism of cultural change, is the ongoing exchange of cultural features that result when groups have continuous firsthand contact ○ Ex >> pigen a missed language that develops to ease communication between members of different cultures in contact ○ Independent invention : the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems... is a third mechanism of cultural change Globalization ● Globalization : encompasses a series of processes that work transnationally to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent ● Forced of globalization include international commerce and finance, travel and tourism, transnational migration and the media Anthropology Today ● There is a culture contrast between American and Italy on PDA (public display of affection) ● American’s learn to have a certain distance however they will seem standoffish if they were to go to Italy, where they tend to not need so much space ● Even in Brazil, kids are taught to kiss 2 or 3 times on the check on their relatives Other Information From Quiz ● Cultural particulars : are the traits of a culture that separate it and make it unique from other cultures Chapter 3 Doing Anthropology Research Methods in Archaeology and Biological Anthropology ● Paleoanthropologists : study human evolution through skeletal material and other material remains, including pollens,animal bones, and artifacts ● Paleontology : the study of ancient life through the fossil record ● Fossils : remain, traces, or impressions of ancient life forms ● Archaeologist and paleoanthropologist have two key fieldwork strategies > systematic survey and excavation ○ Systematic survey : provides a regional perspective by gathering information on settlement patterns over a large area ○ Settlement pattern refers to the distribution of sites within a region ○ Excavation : when scientist dig through the layers of deposits that make up a site ● Superposition : an undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest layer is on the bottom Kinds of Archaeology ● Experimental archaeologist : try to replicate ancient techniques and processes under controlled conditions ● Historical archaeologists : use written records as guids and supplements to archaeological research ● Colonial archaeologists : are historical archaeologist who use written records to locate post contact sites in North and South America and to verify or question the written accounts ● Classical archaeologist : usually affiliated with university departments of classics or art history ● Underwater archaeology : investigates submerged sites, most often shipwrecks Dating the Past ● Taphonomy : the process that affect the remains of dead animals ○ Fossils are better preserved in volcanic ash, swamps, river deltas, and caves ○ If they are in more acid places the bones could have dissolved ● Just because there are no remains to be found in a certain area, doesn’t mean that the species didn’t live there ● Relative dating : provides time frame in relation to other strata or materials rather than absolute dates in number ● Stratigraphy : the science that examines the ways in which each sediments accumulate in strata ● Absolute data : fossils can be dated more precisely with dates in numbers ○ The change of C to nitrogen, so they measure the C in organic materials to determine fossil’s date of death ■ This dating technique though has a short half life ○ K/A technique has longer half life K is a radioactive isotope of potassium that breaks down into argo40 a gas ■ This can be used for non living things ● Uranium series data : measure fission tracks produced during the decay of radioactive uranium ● Thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance are two other radiometric techniques that are useful for fossils that can’t be data by C or K ● Molecular Anthropology : uses genetic analysis to data, and to estimate evolutionary distance between species ● Haplogroup : biological lineage defined by a specific cluster of genetic traits that occur together Kinds of Biological Anthropology ● Bone biology : the study of bone as a biological tissue, including it’s genetics, cell structure, growth, development and decay ● Paleopathology : the study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites ● Forensic anthropology : biological anthropologist work in a legal contest, analyzing and identifying human remains and determining the cause of death ● Anthropometry : measurement of human body parts and dimensions including skeletal parts ● Body mass index : ratio of weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared ● Primatology : studies of primates Research Methods in cultural Anthropology ● Participant observation : taking part in the events on is observing, describing, and analyzing Ethnography: Anthropology’s Distinctive Strategy ● Ethnography : emerged as a research strategy in society with less social differentiation that is found in large, modern nations ○ To pursue this goal they adopt a freeranging strategy for gathering information Ethnographic Techniques 1. Direct, observation of behavior 2. Conversation with varying degrees of formality 3. Genealogical method a. Genealogical method : well established ethnographic technique... understand current social relations to reconstruct history 4. Detailed work with key consultants, or informants a. Key cultural consultants : people who by accident, experience, talent, or training can provide the most complete and useful information about particular aspects of life 5. Indepth interviewing 6. Discovery of local beliefs and perceptions a. Emic : approach investigates how local people think b. Etic : an approach that shifts the focus from local observation, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist 7. Problemoriented research 8. Longitudinal research continuous, longterm study a. Longitudinal research : the longterm study of an area of a population, usually based on repeated visits 9. Team research coordinated research a. Survey research : involves sampling, impersonal data collection, and statistical analysis 10. multi sited research... studies the various sites and systems in which people participate Doing Anthropology Right and Wrong: Ethical Issues ● Informed consent : agreement to take part in the research, after having been informed about its nature, procedures, and possible impacts ○ Someone must evaluate the situation for primates that can’t give their consent ● American Anthropological Association (AAA) : offers a Code of Ethics Information from Quiz ● Osteology :is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, teeth, microbone morphology, function, disease, pathology, the process of ossification ● Paleoanthropology : the study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species, using fossils and other remains ● Palynology :is the study of plant pollen, spores and certain microscopic plankton organisms Chapter 4 : Evolution, Genetics, and Human Variation The Origin of Species ● Creationism : believed that biological similarities and differences originated the Creation ● Carolus Linnaeus grouped life forms on the basis of similarities and differences in their physical characteristics ● Catastrophism :is the theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, shortlived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope ● Uniformitarianism : states that the present is the key to the past... past events should be sought in the longterm action of ordinary forces that still operate today ● Evolution : believed that species arise from others through a long and gradual process of transformation or descent with modification ○ Charles Darwin became the best known of the evolutionist ● Theory : set of ideas formulated to explain something ● Natural selection : process by which the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so in greater numbers that others in the same population Genetics ● Mendelian genetics : the ways in which chromosomes transmit genes across the generations ● Biochemical genetics examines structure, function, and changes in DNA ● Population genetics : investigates natural selection and other causes of genetic variation, stability, and change in breeding population ● Gregor Mendel : a monk that did a series of experiments that were to to reveal the basic principles of genetics through pea plants ○ Discovered that there were dominant and recessive traits ■ However the recessive traits was not destroyed even though it was not visible ○ Chromosomes are arranged in matching pairs... humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 matching paris ● Heterozygous : each(peas) had two dissimilar alleles of that gene ● Homozygous : processing of two identical alleles of that gene ● Genotype : hereditary makeup ● Phenotype : expressed physical characteristics ● Independent assortment : states that when two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together Population Genetics ● Gene pool : refers to all the alleles, genes, chromosomes, and genotypes within a breeding population ● Genetic evolution : change in gene frequency, that is, in the frequency of alleles in a breeding population from generation to generation Mechanisms of Genetic Evolution ● Phenotype : organism’s evident biological characteristics develops over the years as the organism is influenced by particular environmental forces ● Adaptive : favored by natural selection ● Directional selection : longterm selection of the same trait(s), maladaptive recessive alleles will be removed from the gene pool ● sexual selection : based on differential success in mating, is the term for the process in which certain traits of one sex are selected because of advantages they confer in winning mates ● Selection operates only on traits that are present in a population ○ Favorable mutation may occur, but a population doesn’t normally come up with a new genotype of pheno type just because one is needed ● Balanced polymorphism : the frequencies of two or more alleles of a gene remain constant from generation to generation ● Mutations : change in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built ● Random genetic drive : a change in allele frequency that results not from natural selection but from change ● Gene flow : exchange of genetic material between population of the same species ... is the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another ○ Can be done with direct interbreeding or indirect ○ Important in the study of the origin of species ● Species : a group of related organisms whose members can interbreed to produce offspring that can live and reproduce ● Speciation : formation of a new species ○ Gene flow tends to prevent this unless subgroup of the same species are separated for a sufficient length of time Race : A Discredited Concept in Biology ● Scientist have approached the study of human biological diversity in two main ways ○ Racial classification : the attempt to assign humans to discrete categories based on common ancestry ○ The current exploratory approach ● Clines : are incompatible with discrete and separate races ● Haplogroup : a linage or branch of such genetic tree marked by one or more specific genetic mutation ● Variation in human skin color as resulting from a balancing act between the evolutionary needs to : ○ Protect against all UV hazards (favoring dark skin in the tropics) ○ And have an adequate supply of vitamin D (favoring lighter skin outside the tropics) Human Biological Adaptation ● Phenotypical adaptation : when adaptive changes occur during an individual’s lifetime ○ Made possible by biological plasticity ability to change in response to the environment we encounter Information from Quizzes ● Meiosis : process that produces sex cells ● Balanced polymorphism : the heterozygous HbS HbA, with one sicklecell allele and one normal one, was maintained in some populations as the fittest phenotype for a malarial environmentA
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