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Chapter 12

by: Raquel Notetaker

Chapter 12 PSYC 1200

Raquel Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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General Psychology
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raquel Notetaker on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1200 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Hubbell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter 12: Motivation Understanding Motivation  Motivation is a dynamic concept used to describe the processes directing behavior.  Motivational analysis helps explain how biological and behavioral processes are related and why people pursue goals despite obstacles and adversity.  Drive theory conceptualizes motivation as tension reduction.  People are also motivated by incentives, external stimuli that are not related to physiological needs.  Instinct theory suggests that motivation often relies on innate stereotypical responses.  Social and cognitive psychologists emphasizes the individual’s perception of, interpretation of, and reaction to a situation.  Although real human motivation is more complex, Maslow’s theory provides a useful framework for summarizing motivational forces. Eating  The body has a number of mechanisms to regulate the initiation and cessation of eating.  Cultural norms have an impact on what and how much people eat.  Genes play an important role in obesity but the impact of genes is affected by environmental factors.  If individuals become restrained eaters, their diets may result in weight gain rather than weight loss.  Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses that may arise from genetic factors, misperceptions of body image, and cultural pressures. Sexual Behaviors  From an evolutionary perspective, sex is the mechanism for producing offspring.  In animals, the sex drive is largely controlled by hormones.  The work of Masters and Johnson provided the first hard data on the sexual response cycles of men and women.  Evolutionary psychologists suggest that much of human sexual behavior reflects different mating strategies for men and women.  Sexual scripts define culturally appropriate forms of sexual behavior.  Homosexuality and heterosexuality are determined both by genetics and personal and social environments. Motivation for Personal Achievement  People have varying needs for achievement. Motivation for achievement is influenced by how people interpret success and failure.  Two attributional styles, optimism and pessimism, lead to different attitudes toward achievement and influence motivation.  Organizational psychologists study human motivation in work settings.


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