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Week 8 - Monday and Wednesday Lecture

by: Anastassia Erudaitius

Week 8 - Monday and Wednesday Lecture ETST 004

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > Ethnic Studies > ETST 004 > Week 8 Monday and Wednesday Lecture
Anastassia Erudaitius

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About this Document

These notes cover the material discussed or presented in lecture
Introduction to Chicano History
Dr. Lopez
Class Notes
etst, 4, chicano, history, Lopez
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastassia Erudaitius on Monday May 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ETST 004 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Lopez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chicano History in Ethnic Studies at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 05/23/16
Chicano History lecture 5/16/16 Midterm  California and Texas had the most immigration during the 1910-1920 period  A lot of the immigrants were political refugees, small shop-keepers  Railroad map of Mexico in 1910 up to present ( hasn’t changed much)  o Mexico Revolution did affect the whole country but some areas were immune to the policies and fiscal results because they were isolated o The railroad was instrumental in bringing the values and changing the norms  Wednesday film on test  Chicanos were organized in labor, leadership Chicano History Lecture 5/18 Film – A Class Apart  1954 – Gustavo Gus Garcia (prominent local lawyer) case o The first time the issue of Chicano civil rights had ever reached American Supreme Court o Garcia tried to convince the judges that discrimination against Chicanos was illegal  Mexicans seen as unintelligent  Mexican segregation  Texas restaurant association put out a sign that said : “No Mexicans, Niggers, or Dogs”  Legal citizenship for Mexican Americans did not mean equal rights  Loss of land meant loss of status  Southern whites came into South Texas and saw Mexicans as stupid, lazy, didn’t want to work th  Early 20 century – Mexicans seen White by law  Many Mexicans killed via lynching or shooting for no reason at all  Segregation was widespread and enforced not by written laws but by social code  Social isolation sealed Mexicans and Blacks away from Whites  Mexicans needed to be buried quickly after they died so they wouldn’t create a smell because…  No toilet facilities, only outhouses in Mexican schools  Anglo children has a nice school with indoor plumbing and heating  “Greasers, wetbacks, dirty Mexicans”  Anglos made them feel ashamed to be a Mexican-American  As long as Mexicans believed they couldn’t do anything about that they reinforced the system  WWII – 300,000 Mexican-Americans served their country o Suffered casualties and earned honors disproportionate to their numbers o Returned believing they had earned the right to first class citizenship o The went to fight to give people their liberty and their civil rights and came back home to see that nothing had changed o Many came home expecting they had won full citizenship rights o Created building resentment, especially when their kids were not allowed to go to the good schools o War hero killed in the Philippines  his body returned to Texas and he was not allowed to have a memorial service and get buried with other servicemen who were white because he was Mexican  after a long campaign he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery  Mexican-American activists took their fights to the courts with the help of lawyers like Gus Garcia o Fought segregation of Hispanic children in schools o Mexican American lawyers achieved some successes, but the local majority were content on treating Mexicans as second-class citizens  in order to receive true equality they would need to take their cases to the Supreme Court and receive constitutional rights o Some claimed that Mexicans were considered White by law and therefore did not experience such discrimination and could not fight against it because it was already illegal to discriminate against them  Pete Hernandez shot Joe Espinosa  Hernandez’s fate would be decided by an all- Anglo jury o Garcia convinced that this case could win them their rights o If Mexican Americans could stand on the jury to judge whites, that would represent true equality o The men arguing the case wouldn’t dare stay in town overnight o Hernandez convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison  No minority should be caught in town after the sun went down under the penalty of violence  In the very courthouse, where Texas is arguing the Mexican Americans are white, there were signs on the bathrooms that didn’t allow Mexicans  Texas courts seized on Mexican-American claim to be white not to treat them fairly, but to continue their treatment of unfair treatment  Texas claimed “okay you’re white, and everyone on the jury is white, there is no discrimination”  but the lawyers had to respond with, “ yes we are white, but we are a class-apart, we are not being treated as white”  Novel theory of a Class apart o If Mexican Americans were white they were outside of the protection of the 14 Amendment o The appeal was denied and the lawyers took the case beyond Texas, and to the Supreme Court o They knew they winning could gain national equality of Mexican Americans, and losing could


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