Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes CCJ 3651
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Monday May 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 3651 at Florida State University taught by Mark Feulner in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Crime in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 05/23/16
CCJ 3651 Drugs and Crime Chapter 3 & 4 Key Terms Alcohol Complex psychoactive substance that has both stimulating and depressing characteristics. Analogs Chemical compound that is similar to another drug in its effects but differs slightly in its chemical structure. China White Southeast Asian heroin of high purity Chipper Occasional user of heroin Cirrhosis Scarring of the liver, the result of alcohol abuse Delirium Tremens (DTs) A severe symptom of alcohol withdrawal. Designer DrugsAnalog of a restricted drug that has psychoactive properties Distillation Process used to extract alcohol from fermented grains or fruit EndorphinsNeurotransmitters producedin the brain that generate cellular and behavioral effects similar to morphine. FentanylPotent opiate agonist FermentationProcess by which yeast interactions with plant sugars to produce alcohol Fetal Alcohol EffectsA variety of conditions that result from a mother who drinks during pregnancy GBL aka gamma butyrolactone, a GHB precursor, colorless, odorless, virtually tasteless, and in very low doses a CNS depressant; In higher doses can produce unconsciousness and even respiratory failure. GBL was widely available as a dietary supplement In 'health food' stores until an FDA recall in 1999. GBL is used as an industrial solvent and tens of thousands of metric tons are produced each year. HighEuphoria or feeling of well being enjoyed by a substance user Kratom A mild depressant in dried tree leaves often ingested with tea Methaqualone aka quaaludes, Powerful hallucinogen MorphineOpiate derivative used to relieve pain Nod Heroin users description as being 'out of it', the state of unawareness, or escape from reality. Rohypnol A benzodiazepine (sedative) widely prescribed in Europe but not approved for use In the United States. Known to abusers as roofies or rope, it is often ingested with alcohol or marijuana, associated with cases of date rape. Rush How drug users describe a surge of pleasure that follows the intake of psychoactive substance Thiamine (vitamin B1)An essential nutrient required by all tissues including the brain Weekender Those who use drugs only on occasion, on weekends or at parties only to avoid addiction WernickeKorsakoff Syndrome A deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1) ADHD aka attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a development disorder often treated with amphetamine. AmphetamineArtificially produced central nervous system stimulant. Bath SaltzSynthetic central nervous system stimulants BZP A club drug with properties similar to amphetamine Caffeine Mild stimulant found in coffee and also used in some beverages Cocaine Powerful stimulant derived from the coca plant Coca Paste Product of the first step in extracting cocaine from coca leaves typically smoked with either tobacco or marijuana Crack Smokable form of cocaine Ephedra Plant species with stimulant properties Ephedrine Stimulant used in treating allergies and cold symptoms Formication Sensations caused by cocaine and amphetamine that insects are crawling under the skin Freebase Cocaine hydrochloride whose crystalline base is separated to enable smoking Gateway Drug Substances that presage use of other psychoactive drugs, like nicotine leading to marijuana. Kindling Recurring drug reaction that occurs without continued ingestion Magnon’s Syndrome see Formication MethamphetaminePowerful CNS stimulant NicotineTobacco plant alkaloid responsible for smokings' psychoactive and addictive effects Precursor Chemical Chemical that is critical to the manufacturing process and becomes part of the final drug RitalinStimulant used for treating ADHD StimulantPsychoactive chemical that activates the central nervous system and elevates mood Chapter 3 Review Questions 1.What is the effect of endorphins on the central nervous system? Endorphins have the characteristics of morphine and when they reach their receptor sites relieve pain 2.What purpose do endorphins serve? Relieving pain. 3.How can use of opiates be explained by stress? Opiates create a feeling of euphoria and wellbeing, making people forget about the stress they are under. 4.Why do patients prescribed morphine for long term pain rarely develop a craving for the drug? Patients prescribed morphine for a long time rarely develop of craving because the point of the drug was to relieve pain, and over a long term usage it can cause an endorphin deficiency, meaning the user does not need it anymore. 6.How can heroin result in hypersensitivity to stress? Heroin use inhibits the release of stress hormones and stress related neurotransmitters. 7.Why cannot the chemicals need to produce heroin be outlawed? The same chemicals are needed to produce medicinal morphine 8.What is the difference between no. 3 and no. 4 heroin? No. 3 heroin is used for smoking, no. 4 heroin is used for injection 9.How can an endorphin deficiency explain heroin use? A person with an endorphin deficiency is unable to deal with stress and vulnerable to depressants that inhibit the release of stress hormones. 10.What are the four effects a user can experience from ingesting heroin? 1. The rush 2. The high 3. The nod 4. Being straight-an addicts describtion of their condition when their not sick, 'how the heroin healed them'. 11.What is oxycodone (OxyContin)? "Hillbilly heroin". A synthetic version of morphine 12.How do barbiturates differ from heroin? Lawfully produced barbiturates are found in tablet or capsule form. 13.Why have benzodiazepines largely replaced barbiturates? Benzodiazepines are often prescribed for stress and anxiety, and are safer and have fewer side effects than barbiturates 14.How does alcohol differ from other depressants? Alcohol at low doses initially acts as a stimulant and reduced inhibitions 15.Why is alcohol likely to produce more intoxication in women than in men? Men are usually heavier than women, and women have less gastric acid and will absorb about 30% more alcohol than men 16.How does age affect the blood alcohol level? Older adults can get into trouble after drinking an amount of alochol that would not be considered immoderate at a younger age. As people age, they lose muscle, bone, and lean body mass and acquire a greater percentage of body fat. 18.What is the relationship between genetics and alcoholism? Genetic factors influence the development of alcoholism. 19.Why is withdrawal from alcohol addiction potentially more dangerous than withdrawal from heroin? Alcohol directly affects the organs of the body, deteriorating them. 20.How does heavy drinking impact the liver? Chronic alcohol use leads to cirrhosis of the liver 21.What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Occurs when the mother drinks while baby is still in the womb, can result in a number of serious effects including mental retardation, growth deficiency, head and facial deformities, joint and limb abnormalities, and heart defects. 22.What are analogs and designer drugs? Designed by underground chemists to mimic controlled substances 24.What are the dangers of using Rohypnol, GHB, and GBL? Rohypnol used with alcohol can result in extreme intoxication, severely impaired judgements and motor skills, and can incapacitate a sexual assault victim who may black out and have little if any memory of the assault. GHB and GBL are CNS depressants that in high doses can produce unconsciousness and even respiratory failure. 25.Why is fentanyl more dangerous than heroin? Fentanyl compounds are quite potent and difficult for street dealers to cut properly, which results in overdose and death. Anyone with a basement lab and a chemistry degree could make his own synthetic heroin. Chapter 4 Review Questions 1.What physiological abnormalities can explain the use of powerful stimulants? Stimulation of neurotransmitters and/or an excess of MAO 2.What are the most commonly used stimulants? Nicotine and caffeine 3.How does cocaine affect transporter? Blocks neurotransmitter reabsorption by preventing reuptake transporters from performing their usual function. 4.How does the brain compensate for excessive dopamine? Decreases the number of dopamine receptors, and the remaining receptors become less sensitive. 5.What are the dangers of smoking coca paste? Coca paste has traces of a host of dangerous chemicals that can cause irreversible damage to the liver, lungs, and brain. 6.What is the effect of mixing cocaine with heroin? Mixing these two drugs produces an extremely intense activation of brain reward systems and is associated with a high fatality rate. 7.How does crack differ from cocaine hydrochloride? When freebase cocaine is heated (aka crack), the drug crosses the blood brain barrier in only a few seconds, providing an instantaneous high and intense gratification and a craving for more 8.What are the characteristics of cocaine withdrawal? Can result in formication 9.How and why is cocoaine used in medicine? Cocaine is used in surgery of the mucous membranes of the ear, nose, and throat and for procedures that require passing a tube through the nose or throat. 10.What are the dangers of cocaine abuse? Cocaine damages brain cells and large doses can cause irrational behavior 11.What are the danger of the illegal production of methamphetamine? When being produced, methamphetamines produce toxic fumes or explosions that a tiny spark or even the flip of a light switch could easily ignite. Also poses a serious environmental problem because outlawing of dumping chemical wastes into local streams or lakes or burying chemicals in ditches. 12.What are the effects of methamphetamine that are similar to those of cocaine? Accelerates the body's metabolism and produces euphoria, increases alertness, and gives the abuser a sense of increased energy. 13.Why does tolerance to methamphetamine develop rapidly? The brain compensates for the excessive dopamine caused by methamphetamine by decreasing the number of dopamine receptors, and the remaining receptors become less sensitive, so increased doses become necessary to achieve the desired effect. 14.What is the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual activity? Methamphetamine use is associated with out of control sexual behavior 15.What are the dangers of methamphetamine use? Includes irregular heartbeat, meth mouth, and hypothermia with renal failure that can be fatal. Some users become hostile and aggressive and chronic users may also develop a drug induced psychosis. 16.What are Bath Saltz? Comes in powder and crystal forms like traditional bath salts, typically snorted Iin powder form or ingested as a pill but can also be smoked or injected. Similar to the high of ecstasy and stimulants such as cocaine. 17.How is nicotine similar to other stimulants? Nicotine is similar because it attaches to particular receptors triggering the release of stimulating neurotransmitters. 18.What are the dangers of smoking tobacco? Produces a rapid distribution of nicotine to the brain that dissipates in a few minutes, causing the smoker to continue dosing frequently throughout the day to maintain the drugs pleasurable effects and prevent withdrawal. 19.Why are smoking cigarettes harmful to participants in high energy sports? Nicotine constricts blood vessels causing the heart to work harder to maintain a sufficient level of oxygen. 20.What are the dangers of secondhand cigarette smoke? Responsible for 35500 nonsmoker deaths a year from heart disease. Can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, leading to coughing, chest aches, and excessive phlegm production.