PSYCH 212 Chapter 1
PSYCH 212 Chapter 1 Psych 212
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Monday May 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 05/23/16
Child development: scientific study of processes of change and stability in children from conception through adolescence History Baby biographies: journals kept to record the early development of a single child o Dietrich Tiedemann made observations of his son’s sensory, motor, language, and cognitive development 1787 Concluded that sucking was acquired as opposed to instinctive because a baby would rather suck on something sweet o Speculative in nature Darwin was first to emphasize developmental nature of infant behavior o Belief that humans could better understand themselves by studying origins o 1877 published notes on son Doddy’s sensory, cognitive, and emotional development during first 12 months By end of 19 century, scientists understood conception and were arguing over nurture vs nature. Advances in medicine made it possible for infants to survive. Child welfare laws protected children and parents became more concerned with meeting developmental needs. And psychology suggested that people could understand themselves by learning what influenced them as children Adolescence was not considered separate period of development until early 20 century when G. Stanley Hall published Adolescence Establishment of research institutes in 30s and 40s marked emergence of child psychology as true science. Longitudinal studies such as Arnold Gesell’s provided research based information about developments that normally occur at various ages Today researchers consider development “womb to tomb” and acknowledge that development can be positive (becoming toilet trained) or negative (wetting the bed) Domains of development Physical development: growth of body and brain, including biological and physiological patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills, and health Cognitive development: pattern of change in mental abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity Psychosocial development: pattern of change in emotions, personality, and social relationships These domains are interrelated, each affects the others Periods of development Social construction: concept about the nature of reality based on societally shared perceptions or assumptions o Until early 20 century, adolescence did not exist. With the establishment of comprehensive high schools to meet needs of growing economy, the teenage years became a distinct period o In many preindustrial societies, adolescence still does not exist Prenatal period: (conception-birth) o Physical Conception occurs by normal fertilization or other means Genetic endowment interacts with environmental influences from the start Basic body structures and organs form, brain growth begins Physical growth is the most rapid in the life span Vulnerability to environmental influences is great o Cognitive Abilities to learn and remember and to respond to stimuli are developing o Psychosocial Fetus responds to mother’s voice and develops a preference for it Infancy and toddlerhood: (Birth-age 3) o Physical All senses and body systems operate at birth to varying degrees The brain grows in complexity and is highly sensitive to environmental influence Physical growth and development of motor skills are rapid o Cognitive Abilities to learn and remember are present, even in early weeks nd Use of symbols and ability to solve problems develops by end of 2 year Comprehension and use of language develop rapidly o Psychosocial Attachments to parents and others form Self-awareness develops Shift from dependence to autonomy Interest in other children increases Early Childhood: (ages 3-6) o Physical Growth is steady, appearance becomes more slender and proportions more adult like Appetite diminishes and sleep problems are common Handedness appears, fine and gross motor skills and strength improve o Cognitive: Thinking is somewhat egocentric but understanding of other people’s perspectives grows Cognitive immaturity results in some illogical ideas about the world Memory and language improve Intelligence becomes more predictable Preschool experience is common, and kindergarten is more so o Psychosocial Self-concept and understanding emotions become more complex; self-esteem is global Independence, initiative, and self-control increase Gender identity develops Play becomes more imaginative, more elaborate, and usually more social Altruism, aggression, and fearfulness are common Family is still the focus of social life but other children become more important Middle childhood: (ages 6-11) o Physical Growth slows Strength and athletic skills improve Respiratory illnesses are common, but health is generally better than at any other time in life span o Cognitive Egocentrism diminishes Children begin to think logically but not concretely Memory and language skills increase Cognitive gains permit children to benefit from formal schooling Some children show special educational needs and strengths o Psychosocial Self-concept becomes more complex, affecting self-esteem Coregulation reflects gradual shift in control from parents to child Peers assume central importance Adolescence: (ages 11-20) o Physical Physical growth and other changes are rapid and profound Reproductive maturity occurs Major health risks arise from behavioral issues, such as eating disorders and drug abuse o Cognitive Ability to think abstractly and use scientific reasoning develops Immature thinking persists in some attitudes and behaviors Education focuses on preparation for college or vocation o Psychosocial Search for identity, including sexual identity, becomes central Relationships with parents are generally good Peer group may exert a positive or negative influence Influences of development Individual differences: differences among children in characteristics, influences, or developmental outcomes o Each child has a unique developmental trajectory Heredity: inborn characteristics inherited from the biological parents Environment: totality of nonhereditary, or experiential influences on development Socialization: a child’s induction into the value system of the culture Maturation: unfolding of a universal nature sequence of physical and behavioral changes o Rates and timing of development vary, only when the deviation is extreme should we consider development advanced or delayed Contexts of development Family o Nuclear family: two generational household unit consisting of one or two parents and their biological children, adopted children, or stepchildren No longer large rural families working side by side. We have smaller urban families that spend most of time out of the home in work and school Increased incidence of divorce o Extended family: mutigenerational kinship network of parents, children, and other relatives, sometimes living together in an extended family household Extended family household: people have daily contact with kin. Adults share breadwinning and child raising responsibilities, and children are responsible for younger brothers and sisters. Often these households are run by women Less typical in developed countries Economic pressures, housing shortages, and out-of-wedlock childbearing help fuel a trend toward 3 and 4 generational houses Children from minority or immigrant families are more likely to live in extended family household Culture: a society’s or group’s total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and physical products—all learned behavior passed on from adults to children o Ethnic group: a group united by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origin that contributes to a sense of shared identity o Acculturate: adapt by learning the language, customs, and attitudes needed to get along in the dominant culture while trying to preserve some of their cultural practices and values o Many scholars now think that race is a social construct. There is no clear scientific consensus on its definition, and it is impossible to measure reliably. Human genetic variation occurs along a broad continuum, and 90% of such variation occurs within rather than amongst socially defined races o Race is still a social category, that makes a difference in how individuals are treated, where they live, employment opportunities, quality of healthcare, and whether they can fully participate in their society o 1.6% of US population is from two or more races o Ethnic gloss: overgeneralization about an ethnic or cultural group that blurs or obscures variations within the group or overlaps with other such groups Socioeconomic status SES: combination of economic and social factors, including income, education, and occupation that describe an individual or family o 53% of world population lives on less than the international poverty standard of $2 a day. In US 21.9% of all children under age 18 live in poverty and 7% are in extreme poverty o Children with single parents, stepparents, or nonparental caregivers are more likely to be poor o Risk factors: conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative developmental outcome Poor children are more likely to go hungry, have frequent illness, lack health care, experience accidents and violence, have family conflict, and show emotional or behavioral problems Some children in affluent families face pressure to achieve and are often left alone by busy parents. They have high rates of substance abuse, anxiety, and depression Historical context o Glen H. Elder Jr worked on the Oakland Growth Study 1962, which was a longitudinal study of social and emotional development in 167 urban young people born around 1920. They spent childhood in roaring 20s and were entering adolescence at the start of the great depression Deprived families reassigned economic roles. Fathers sometimes drank heavily. Mothers got outside jobs. Parents fought often. Boys who got jobs became more independent and better able to escape the family atmosphere than the girls who helped at home. As adults these men were strongly work oriented but valued family activities and cultivated dependability in their children o Effects of a major economic crisis depend on a child’s stage of development Those who were teenagers could draw on own emotional, cognitive, and economic resources. Child born in 1929 were completely dependent of family Older parents were less resilient in dealing with job loss o Family Transitions Project: He repeated his experiment in 80s when value of land dropped and many familiesthere in debt. He used 451 Iowa farm and small town two- parent families with a 7 grader and a sibling no more than 4 years younger. All participants were white Many parents developed emotional problems. Depressed parents were more likely to withdraw or mistreat their children. The children lost self confidence and did worse in school Family members continue to be interviewed yearly. The self-reinforcing cycle appeared. Negative family events tended to intensify sadness, fear, and antisocial conduct, which led to future adversities o Normative: characteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group Normative age-graded influences: highly similar for people in a particular age group Normative history-graded influences: significant events that shape the behavior and attitudes of a historical generation Historical generation: a group of people strongly influenced by a major historical event during their formative period o Generations that came of age during Depression and WWII showed a strong social interdependence and trust that has declined recently Cohort: a group of people born at about the same time o Nonnormative: characteristic of an unusual event that happens to a particular person or a typical event that happens at an unusual time in life Timing of influences Imprinting: instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother o Konrad Lorenz got newborn ducklings to follow him as they would a mother duck o Predisposition toward learning: the readiness of an organism’s nervous system to acquire certain information during a brief critical period in early life Critical period: specific time when a given event or its absence has a profound and specific impact on development o If an event does not occur during a critical point, normal development will not occur, and resulting abnormal patterns may be irreversible o The length of a critical period is not absolutely fixed. If ducklings rearing conditions are varied to slow their growth, the critical period for imprinting can be extended, and imprinting itself may be reversed o Eric Lenneberg proposed a critical period for language acquisition beginning in early infancy and ending around puberty 13 year old Genie was abused and tied to a potty chair for almost 12 years and could only recognize her name and the word sorry She learned simple words and could make primitive sentences and she learned the fundamentals of sign language When later placed in abusive foster care she once again became silent Plasticity: modifiability of performance Sensitive periods: times in development when a given event or its absence usually has a strong effect on development Emerging consensus All domains of development are interrelated Normal development includes a wide range of individual differences Children help shape their development and influence others responses to them o Bidirectional: when babies babble, adults talk to them, which makes them talk more Historical and cultural contexts strongly influence development Early experience is important but children can be remarkably resilient Development in childhood affects development throughout the life span
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