PSYCH 212 Chapter 2 Notes
PSYCH 212 Chapter 2 Notes Psych 212
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Monday May 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 05/23/16
Theory: coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain, and predict data Theories can be disproved but never proved Hypotheses: possible explanations for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research Is development active or reactive? John Locke said that a child is a tabula rasa: a blank slate on which society writes Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that children developed according to their own positive natural tendencies if not corrupted by society Reactive development: developing child is a sponge that soaks up experiences and is shaped by this input over time Active development: people seek to create experiences for themselves and are motivated to learn about the world around them Mechanistic model: model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli o John Locke o A machine is the sum of its parts. To understand it, we can break it down into its smallest components and then reassemble it o Machines do not operate of their own violation, they react automatically and passively to physical forces or inputs o Human behavior results from the operation of biological parts in response to external or internal stimuli Organismic model: model that views human development as internally initiated by an active organism, and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages o Jean Jacques Rousseau o Environmental influences do not cause development, though they can speed or slow it o Human behavior cannot be predicted by breaking it into simple responses to environmental stimuli Is development continuous or discontinuous? Continuous: gradual and incremental o Mechanist o Development is always governed by the same processes and involves the gradual refinement and extension of early skills into later abilities, allowing one to make predictions about future characteristics on the basis of past performance o Quantitative change: change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, or size of vocabulary Discontinuous: abrupt and uneven o Organismic o Marked by the emergence of new phenomena that could not be predicted on the basis of past functioning o Qualitative change: change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication o Stage theories: development is seen as a series of distinct stages. At each stage, what is going on is fundamentally different from what was happening at the previous stage. Each stage builds on the previous one and prepares the way for the next. Stages cannot be skipped and development only proceeds in a positive direction. Seen as universal, although the timing may vary Theoretical perspectives Psychoanalytic: view of human development as being shaped by unconscious forces o Sigmund Freud Believed in reactive development and qualitative changes over time Humans were born with innate biologically based drives such as hunger, sex, and aggression People are highly motivated to satisfy urges and much of development is involved in learning to do so in socially accepted ways Early experiences shaped later functioning Id: newborns Pleasure principle: the drive to seek immediate satisfaction of needs and desires When gratification is delayed, they begin to see themselves as separate from the outside world Ego: develops during first year of life Reality principle: Find realistic ways to gratify the id that are acceptable to the superego Superego: age 5-6 Conscious: incorporates socially approved behaviors into the child’s value system If standards are not met, a child feels guilty or anxious Psychosexual development: an unvarying sequence of stages of personality development during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals If children receive too little or too much gratification during the first 3 stages, they are at risk of fixation, an arrest in development that can show up in adult personality Oral stage: (birth-12 or 18 months) feeding is main source of sensual pleasure o Fixation could involve nail biting, smokers, or critical personalities Anal stage: (12/18 months-3 years) chief source of pleasure is moving the bowels o A toddler with too strict toilet training could be obsessively clean, rigidly tied to schedules and routines, or defiantly messy Phallic stage: (3-6 years) boys develop attachment to mothers, girls to fathers, and they have aggressive urges toward the same sex parent. Gratification is genital region o Oedipus and Electra Complexes o Penis envy: girls experience a repressed wish to posses a penis and power Latency stage: (6 years-puberty) relative emotional calm and intellectual and social exploration o Sexual energies redirected into schoolwork, relationships, hobbies Genital stage: (puberty-adulthood) sexual urges repressed during latency now resurface to flow in socially approved channels o Erik Erikson Modified Freud’s theory by emphasizing influence of society of developing personality Life-span perspective Qualitative change and active development Interaction of innate and experimental factors Psychosocial development: Erikson’s 8-stage theory, the socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego, or self Identity crisis: a major psychosocial challenge that is particularly important at that time but will remain an issue to some degree throughout the rest of life. These issues must be resolved for healthy ego development Each stage requires the balancing of a positive trait and a corresponding negative trait. Although the positive quality should predominate, some degree of negative is needed for optimal development Basic trust vs mistrust (birth-12/18 months) o Baby develops sense of whether the world is a good and safe place. Virtue is hope Autonomy vs shame and doubt (12/18 months-3 years) o Child develops a balance of independence and self-sufficiency over shame and doubt. Virtue is will Initiative vs guilt (3-6 years) o Child develops initiative when trying out new activities and is not overwhelmed by guilt. Virtue is purpose Industry vs inferiority (6 years-puberty) o Child must learn skill of the culture or face feelings of incompetence. Virtue is skill Identity vs identity confusion (puberty-young adulthood) o Adolescent must determine sense of self or experience confusion about roles. Virtue is fidelity Intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood) o Person seeks to make commitments to others; if unsuccessful, may suffer from isolation and self-absorption. Virtue is love Generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood) o Mature adult is concerned with establishing and guiding the next generation or else feels personal impoverishment. Virtue is care Integrity vs despair (late adulthood) o Elderly person achieves acceptance of own life, allowing acceptance of death, or else despairs over inability to relive life. Virtue is wisdom Learning perspective: view of human development that holds that changes in behavior result from experience o Development is continuous and quantitative change o Behaviorism: learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behavior Mechanistic, reactive, and continuous Learning occurs throughout the life-span Associative learning: mental link is formed between two events Classical conditioning: learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response Ivan Pavlov salivating dogs John B. Watson applied principles to child raising. “Little Albert” Operant conditioning: learning based on association of behavior with its consequences B.F. Skinner with Skinner box Reinforcement: a process that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated o What is reinforcement for one person may be punishment to another o Most effective when it immediately follows a behavior o Extinguished: return to baseline level after lack of reinforcement Punishment: a process that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Behavior modification: form of operant conditioning used to eliminate unwanted behavior o Effective with children with special needs o Social learning theory: theory that behaviors also are learned by observing and imitating models. Reciprocal determinism: Albert Bandura’s term for bidirectional forces that affect development The child acts on the world as the world acts on the child Active and reactive Observational learning: learning through watching the behavior of others People tend to choose models that are rewarded for what they do Can occur even if the person does not imitate the observed behavior Social cognitive theory: updated version by Bandura that emphasizes cognitive processes People observe models and learn chunks of behavior that they mentally put together to form new complex behavior patterns Self-efficacy: sense of one’s capability to master challenges and achieve goals Cognitive perspective: perspective that looks at the development of mental processes such as thinking o Jean Piaget Organismic, discontinuous, qualitative, active Clinical method: observation with flexible questioning Discovered that children show logical errors depending on their age Cognitive development begins with an inborn ability to adapt to the environment and is initially based on motor activities such as reflexes. By interacting with their environment, children develop a more accurate understanding of surroundings and greater competence in dealing with them Organization: creation of categories or systems of knowledge Schemes: organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations As children acquire more information, their schemes become more complex. Originally concrete and become increasingly abstract over time Adaptation: adjustment to new information about the environment Assimilation: incorporation of new information into an existing cognitive structure Accommodation: changes in cognitive structure to include new information Equilibration: tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements; achieved through a balance between assimilation and accommodation Disequilibrium: uncomfortable motivational state, and it pushes children into accommidation Cognitive stage theory: theory that children’s cognitive development advances in a series of 4 stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations Sensorimotor: (birth-2 years) o Infant gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation to the environment through sensory and motor activity Preoperational: (2-7 years) o Child develops a representational system and uses symbols to represent people, places, and events o Language and imaginative play are important manifestations of this stage o Thinking is still not logical Concrete operations: (7-11 years) o Child can solve problems logically if they are focused on here and now but cannot think abstractly Formal operations: (11 years- adulthood) o Person can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical situations, and think about possibilities His theory has provided rough benchmarks for what to expect of children at various ages Piaget underestimated children’s abilities Contemporary scientists support that cognitive development is more gradual and Children’s cognitive processes are closely tied to specific content as well as the context of a problem and the kinds of information and thought a culture considers important o Lev Semenovich Vygotsky Sociocultural theory: Vygotsky’s theory of how contextual factors affect children’s development Active, continuous Cognitive growth is a collaborative process, children learn through social interaction Shared activities help children internalize their societies modes of thinking and behaving and make those folkways their own Language is not merely an expression of knowledge and thought but an essential tool for learning and thinking about the world Zone of proximal development ZPD: Vygotsky’s term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help Scaffolding: temporary support to help a child master a task Tests that focus on a child’s potential for learning provide a valuable alternative to standard intelligence tests that assess what the child has already learned o Information processing approach: approach to the study of cognitive development by observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information Active, continuous Compare the brain to a computer; there are certain inputs such as sensory impressions and outputs such as behaviors. Information processing is interested in what happens in the middle Use observational data to infer what goes on between a stimulus and a response Researchers use computational models or flowcharts that analyze the specific steps people go through in gathering, storing, retrieving, and using information Note age related increases in speed, complexity, and efficiency of mental processing and in the amount and variety of material that can be stored in memory Enables researchers to estimate an infant’s later intelligence from the efficiency of sensory perception and processing Enables parents and teachers to help children learn by making them more aware of own mental processes and strategies to enhance them Often use models to diagnose, and treat learning problems o Neo-Piagetian Theories Since 80s, in response to criticisms of Piaget, some developmental psychologists have sought to integrate elements of his theory with the information-processing approach Instead of describing a single, general system of increasingly logical mental operations, they focus on specific concepts, strategies, and skills, such as number concepts and comparisons of more or less Suggest that children develop cognitively by becoming more efficient at processing information. Which accounts for individual differences in cognitive ability and for uneven development in various domains Contextual perspective: view of child development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context o Vygotsky’s theory can also be classified as contextual o Urie Bronfenbrenner Bioecological theory: Bronfenbrenner’s approach to understanding processes and contexts of child development that identifies five levels of environmental influence Active, continuous Microsystem: a setting in which a child interacts with others on an everyday, face-to-face basis o Home, school, neighborhood, parents, friends, teachers Mesosystem: linkages between two or more microsystems o Parent-teacher conferences. A parent’s workday might affect a child in a negative way. Exosystem: linkages between two or more settings, one of which does not contain the child o Interactions between a microsystem and an outside system or institution o Government policies on maternity leave Macrosystem: societies overall cultural patterns, including values, customs, and social systems Chronosystem: effects of time on other developmental systems People affect their own development through their biological and psychological characteristics, talents and skills, disabilities, and temperament The findings about children in one culture or group may not apply equally to children in other societies or cultural groups Evolutionary/ sociobiological perspective: view of human development that focuses on evolutionary and biological bases of social behavior o Continuous, active and reactive o E.O. Wilson originally proposed o Charles Darwin proposed ideas of natural selection o Evolved mechanisms: behaviors that developed to solve problems in adapting to an earlier environment o Ethology: study of distinctive adaptive behaviors of species of animals that have evolved to increase survival of the species Proximity seeking: staying close to mommy John Bowlby viewed infants attachment to a caregiver as a mechanism that evolved to protect them from predators o Evolutionary psychology: application of Darwinian principles of natural selection and survival of the fittest to human psychology People unconsciously strive for personal survival and to perpetuate their legacy Evolutionary developmental psychologists: study topics such as parenting strategies, attachment, gender differences in play, peer relations, and identify characteristics that help children of various ages adapt to the circumstances in which they find themselves Human brain’s slower development gives it plasticity as not all connections are hardwired at an early age The extended period of immaturity and dependency during infancy allows children to spend much of time in play, and it is largely through play that cognitive development occurs. Play enables children to develop motor skills and experiment with social roles Immaturity of early sensory and motor functioning may protect infants from overstimulation. Limited memory capacity may simplify the processing of linguistic sounds and facilitate early language learning Young children are unrealistic accessing their abilities. This immature self- judgment, by reducing fear of failure, encourages children to try new things Shifting balance o Most early pioneers like Freud, Erikson, and Piaget favored organismic, discontinuous approaches. The mechanistic view gained support in 60s with popularity of learning theories. Today attention is focused on biological and evolutionary bases of behavior o Developmental scientists seek to discover what specific kinds of behavior show continuity and what processes are involved with each o Investigators find influences are bidirectional Research methods Quantitative research: research that deals with objectively measureable data o Such as answering anxiety questions on a numerical scale, or physiological data such as heart rate and stress hormones o Data consists of numbers and quantifiable amounts that can be manipulated mathematically o Typically conducted in a lab o Random selection of participants o Researchers seek to stay detached from participants as not to influence results o Scientific method: system of established principles and processes of scientific inquiry Identification of a problem Formation of hypothesis Collection of data Statistical analysis of the data Formation of tentative conclusions Dissemination of findings o Study is standardized so that replication is possible o Results tend to summarize patterns of similarities, variability, size, direction, and/or significance of any difference between specific groups Qualitative research: research that involves the interpretation of nonnumerical data, such as subjective experiences, feelings, or beliefs o Goal is to understand the story of the event o More flexible and informal o Typically conducted in everyday settings o Researchers may try to get to know participants better as to understand why they feel, think, and act like they do. And it is assumed that they are to some extent interpreting the results through the lens of their own experiences and characteristics o Study is particular to the participant, replication is rare o Subjects are selected to fit the purpose of the study o Data are analyzed by systematically organizing and interpreting information using categories, themes, and motifs that identify patterns and relationships o Results are in-depth explanations for patterns of behavior Sample: group of participants chosen to represent the entire population under study o Sample should adequately represent the population under study, and it should show relevant characteristics in the same proportions as in the entire population o Generalize: applying results to the population as a whole o Random selection: selection of a sample in such a way that each person in a population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen o Focused selection: participants are chosen for ability to communicate the nature of a certain experience Forms of data collection o Self report: diary, visual reports, interview, or questionnaire, parental self-reports Participants are asked about some aspect of their lives Questioning may be highly structured or more flexible. May be verbal or visual Advantages Can provide firsthand information about a person’s life, attitudes, or opinions Visual techniques such as drawing, mapping, graphing, avoid need for verbal skills Disadvantages Participant may not remember information accurately or may distort How question is asked or by whom may affect answer o Naturalistic observation: People are observed in their normal setting with no attempt to manipulate behavior Advantages Provides good description of behavior Does not subject people to unnatural settings that may distort behavior Disadvantages Lack of control Observer bias: researcher’s tendency to interpret data to fit expectations or to emphasize some aspects and minimize others o Laboratory observation: all participants are observed under the same controlled conditions Advantages Provides good descriptions Offers greater control than naturalistic observation Disadvantage Observer bias Controlled situation can be artificial o Behavioral and performance measures: participants are tested on abilities, skills, knowledge, competencies, or physical responses Advantages Provides objectively measureable information Avoids subjective distortions Disadvantages Cannot measure attitudes or other nonbehavioral phenomena; results may be affected by extraneous factors Operational definition: definition stated solely in terms of the operations or procedures used to produce or measure a phenomenon Cognitive neuroscience: study of links between neural processes and cognitive abilities Research designs o Case study: study of a single subject, such as an individual or family Flexibility Provides detailed picture of one person’s behavior and development Can generate hypothesis May not generalize to others Conclusions not directly testable Cannot establish cause and effect o Ethnographic study: in depth study of a culture Participant observation: research method in which the observer lives with the people or participates in the activity being observed Can help overcome culturally based biases Can test universality of developmental phenomena Subject to observer bias o Correlational study: intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists Enables prediction of one variable on basis of another Can suggest hypothesis about causal relationships Cannot establish cause and effect Positive correlation: two variable increase or decrease together Negative correlation: as one variable increases, the other decreases Rated on scale of +1.0 to -1.0. With 0 indicating no relationship Natural experiment/ quasi-experiment: compares people who have been accidentally assigned to separate groups by circumstances of life o Experiment: rigorously controlled replicable procedure in which the researcher manipulates variables to asses the effect of one on the other Establishes cause and effect Findings may not generalize to situations outside the laboratory Experimental group: the group receiving the treatment under study Control group: a group of people, who do not receive the treatment under study Treatment groups: in studies with multiple treatments, each group will receive one of the treatments under study Double blind procedures: neither participants nor experimenters know who is receiving the treatment and who is receiving the placebo Independent variable: the condition over which the experimenter has direct control Dependent variable: the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable Random assignment: assignment of participants in an experiment to groups in such a way that each person has an equal chance of being placed in any group Otherwise, unintended differences between the groups may confound, or contaminate the results Laboratory experiment: participants brought to a laboratory, where they experience conditions manipulated by the experimenter. Experimenter records the participants’ reactions to these conditions, comparing them with their own or other participants behavior under certain conditions Field experiment: controlled study conducted in an everyday setting Cross cultural research o By looking at children from different cultures, we can learn what is universal and what is culturally determined o Learning language is universal o Culture can influence motor development. African babies that are propped into a sitting position and bounced learn to walk faster than US babies o Recognize biases in traditional western theories Developmental research designs o Cross-sectional study: study designed to assess age-related differences, in which people of different ages are assessed on one occasion Data are collected on people of different ages at the same time Can show similarities and differences among age groups Speedy, economical Presents no problem of attrition or repeated testing Cannot establish age effects Masks individual differences Can be confounded by cohort effects o Longitudinal study: study designed to assess changes in a sample over time Data are collected on same person over a period of time Can show age related change or continuity Avoids confounding age with cohort effects Time consuming, expensive Attrition: people dropping out of study Those who stay with study tend to be above average intelligence and socioeconomic status and those who drop out have more chaotic lives Bias in sample and effects of repeated testing Results may be valid only for cohort tested or sample studied o Sequential study: study design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques Data are collected on successive cross-sectional or longitudinal samples Can avoid drawbacks of both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs Requires large amount of time and effort and analysis of very complex data o Collaborative research Archiving data sets for use by other researchers Meta-analysis: provides a systematic overview of the research on a topic through statistical analysis of the combined findings of multiple studies Collaborative model by multiple researchers at multiple sites sometimes with government or foundation funding Need for consensus on all aspects of the research Ethics of Research Guidelines from the American Psychological Association o Informed consent National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research recommends that children age 7 and older should be asked to give consent and that any children’s objections should be overruled only if the research promises direct benefit to the child o Avoidance of deception Withholding information only when it is essential to the study Participants should be debriefed after to let them know the true nature of study and why deception was necessary o Protection of participants from harm and loss of indignity Failure factor: researchers give harder and harder tasks until the participant is unable to do them o Privacy and confidentiality o Right to decline or withdraw o Responsibility of investigators to correct any undesirable effects In resolving ethical dilemmas, researchers are guided by 3 principles o Beneficence: obligation to maximize potential benefits to participants and to minimize potential harm o Respect for participant autonomy and protection of those who are unable to exercise their own judgment o Justice Young children are vulnerable to o Stressful or unfamiliar situations o Absence of parent or caregiver o Situations arousing inappropriate shame, guilt, or embarrassment o Coercion, deception, and unreasonable demands Older children vulnerable to o Apparent approval or disapproval by researcher o Sense of failure, threats to self esteem o Expressed or implied comparisons with others o Implied racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic biases o Threats to privacy
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