Psyc 3560 (abnormal psyc) lecture 2 notes cont.
Psyc 3560 (abnormal psyc) lecture 2 notes cont. PSYC 3560
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Monday May 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3560 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Fix in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/23/16
Lecture 2 notes Continued May 23, 2016 Causal Factors and Viewpoints Psychological Viewpoints • Attachment Theory • Behavioral Perspective • Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective Early Attachment Experiments • We need god attachments when we’re younger to have healthy relationships later • Attachment is very important since we are a very social species • Harry Harlow (1905-1981) • Conducted a series of famous experiments • Gave baby monkeys a choice between 2 artificial “mothers”: • A soft terrycloth mother without food • Or a wire mother with food • Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999) • Strange Situation (1970s) • child around 2 is brought into a lab setting with their mother. The mother is told to interact with their child as usual. After a few minutes a stranger comes into the room. Mom doesn’t interact with the stranger to let the child know they’re safe. Mom leaves the room. Researcher observes the child’ reaction • Attachment Styles • Secure • Explores/plays when mom present • Distressed when mom leaves • Overjoyed when mom returns • Anxious-Resistant Insecure • Clings to mom when present • FURIOUS when she leaves • Angry when she returns • Anxious-Avoidant Insecure • Could care less about mom • Doesn’t notice that mom leaves • Ignores when returns Might be due to inconsistent parenting having to self soothe regularly Might be because the child has so many people around them at all times tending to their needs, they don’t form personal relationships Behavioral Perspectives Lecture 2 notes Continued May 23, 2016 • Three Main Theories/Perspectives* • Classical Conditioning • Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning • Observational Learning • Classical Conditioning • The process by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a specific response • Example: • Money has no meaning until we condition it to have value when we’re older • Sexual abuse victims associating sexual arousal w/ negative emotions • James Watson and Little Albert • Applied Classical Conditioning Principles in an 11-month old baby (Little Albert) • Generalization • Not just mice, but rabbits, Santa’s beard, etc. • Classical conditioning in abnormal psychology A. Phobias à irrational fear of specific stimuli • Example: • You fail an exam in a classroom, and begin to experience anxiety every time you enter that room • Not everyone with a phobia recalls a traumatic event A. Combination of conditioning and diathesis Generalization Have something conditioned for us & have it affect everything else Example: o One bad experience with a dog & now afraid of all dogs even though only one dog attacked Can lead to operant conditioning • Fears • Sexual arousal Discrimination Tell the difference between people/things using our senses • Ringtones A. You know your own ringtone. so when you here someone else’s go off you don’t check your phone because its not the tone you associated with your phone • Voices Lecture 2 notes Continued May 23, 2016 A. You can tell which one of your friends is calling your name • Scents A. Different people have different scents, same with buildings and you associate it that way Reinforcement Punishment Positive Increase behavior by adding Decrease behavior by adding something pleasurable something aversive Negative Increase behavior by Decrease behavior by removing removing something something pleasurable aversive • Behavioral Perspectives Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning • Process in which behaviors (operants) are modified based on consequences • Reinforcement à encourage us to do something again • Example: • Have an amazing massage once, makes us want to get another one • Chores with kids. If you take away chores when they get good grades, they’ll be more likely to try harder in school • Take away whatever it is that is making someone anxious • Punishment à something to make them not want to do it again • Examples: • Getting spanked for being bad/getting in trouble, teaching them not to be bad • Punishing by taking away privileges Observational Learning • Monkey see monkey do • Learning through observation alone, • Learning with no direct experience • 1960s – famous Bobo Doll experiments • Albert Bandura Lecture 2 notes Continued May 23, 2016 • Kids watch as adults beat up this blow up doll named bobo, and then the kids are left in the room with the doll and end up beating up the doll like they saw the adults do Reaction to the simplicity of behavioral perspectives • i.e., failure to attend to mental processes on the influence of behavior and emotion • Albert Bandura • Stressed that people learn more by internal than external reinforcement, and that they can visualize the consequences of their actions. • Self-efficacy • Belief on can achieve desired goals Cognitive Behavioral Perspective Focuses on thoughts, feelings and behavior. All different but all affect each other Example: o Eating disorder § Normal day: • Behavior à restricting calories • Feelings à successful & proud • Thoughts à skinny feels god, I should keep this up § Binge day: • Behavior à extra workouts, maybe take laxatives • Feelings à self hatred/ guilty • Thoughts à I’m disgusting, I’ve got to balance this out Schemas • Underlying representation of knowledge that guides the current processing of information • Schemas are influenced by one’s: • Temperament • Abilities • Experiences • Can be a source of psychological vulnerabilities when they become distorted or inaccurate • Assimilation • Work new experiences into our existing schemas • Reinterpreting experiences; distorting experiences to make them fit • Accommodation • Changing our existing framework to incorporate new information that doesn’t fit Lecture 2 notes Continued May 23, 2016 • Basic goal of cognitive behavior therapies • Different forms of psychopathology are characterized by maladaptive schemas • Develop in response to adverse early learning experiences • Example • Depression – tend to favor negative information over positive or neutral
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