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Soc 3 Week 8

by: SK3232

Soc 3 Week 8 SOC 3

GPA 3.8

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Immigrant Problems
Social Problems
Class Notes
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This 60 page Class Notes was uploaded by SK3232 on Monday May 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 3 at University of California - Irvine taught by Rosales in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 05/23/16
The Rise of Immigrant Detention Soc 3 - Week– 2/29/16 Daniel Millan Chant Down the Walls After this lecture you should be able to: 1) Identify some of the policies and practices that have led to a rise in immigrant detention as a practice 2) Use a comparative approach to understand the experiences of multiple immigrant groups 3) Identify the unintended consequences of immigration policies 4) Speak to current immigration issues as a social problem Part I– Mass Deportations and the Origins of Detention as a Practice Deportation and Detention Deportation: The physical expulsion of immigrantindividualsor groups who do not possess legal citizenship from one state to an.ther Detention: A civil procedure which involves the confinement of individualsor groups who may be subject to deportation but may have claims thatcan preventdeportation. Angel Island • In operation from 1910 to 1940 in the San Francisco Bay Area • Chinese immigrants faced exclusionary practices and “America has power, but detention for days, weeks, or not justice. months before being In victimized as if we were guilty. admission or deportation Given no opportunity to explain, it was really • NOT theEllis Island of theWest I bow my head in reflection but there is nothing I cando.” Genny Lim, and Judy Yung, Island Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel University of Washington le: Press, 1991 Great Repatriation • Repatriation/Deportation of 400,000 to over 2 million of Mexicans in the 1920/30/40s, including U.S. citizens • NPR Story Part II– The Unintended Consequences of Immigration Policies Clicker Question Class Poll – Q1 Which of the following is a common characterization of immigrants? A. Immigrants should get to the back of the line B. Immigrants do not want to learn English C. Most immigrants are undocumented D. Immigrants are more likely to commit crimes E. All of the above Pathways for Legal Immigration Vietnamese Immigrants • First Wave in 1975 at the end of Vietnam War • Second Wave in late 1970s – “refugee crisis” • Third Wave 1980s/90s – family reunification, fewer refugees Source: Migration e 14cy Institut2 1980s Sanctuary Movement • Central American Refugees • 150+ congregations sponsored and support Salvadoran or Guatemalan refugee families • Food, medical care, legal representation • All in response to U.S. government’s lack of action Source: Migration Policy Institute 2006 Unintended Consequences •Militarization of the U.S. Mexico Border •Diminished circular migration, settlement migration •Inequalities on the basis of legals tatus (liminal legality) •Emphasis on short term solutions Source: Mass aldinger2011 Part II Contemporary Detention Practices 30 Y ear Timeline • 1980s: Sharp rise of detention after rise in asylum claims in the 1980s (Cubans, Haitians, Central Americans) and the privatization of detention • 1990s: The Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act (1996) • 2000s: Creation of Department of Homeland Security and Immigration and Customs Enforcemen- Crimmigration Detention Quotas Removals DHS Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: Immigrants Removed from FY 1892 to 2012 450,000 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 9 9 9 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 Hunger Strike at El Centro in 1986 “About300 aliens went on a hunger strike at the Immigration and Naturalization Service detention center in El Centro to protest crowding, poor sanitation and alleged violations of their legal rights, said an attorney for the aliens. Graciela Zavala, a lawyer with the Imperial ValleyImmigration Project,said morethanhalf of the 500 men detained at the center are protesting a shortage of toilets, sinks and soap at the camp. Aliens have also complained that they are forced to stand outside for as many as 14 hours a day in temperatures that reach as high as 120 degrees, she said. An INS official at the camp said thatimmigrationofficials had no comment.” Source: Hunger Strikes in 2015 • Protesting detention and conditions in detention • Demands include better medial care and treatment, low quality food, punishment • ICE sometimes responds by placing hunger strikers in solitary confinement Source: hunge-strike FY 2014 T op 10 Countries of ICE Removal Citizenship Total Mexico 176,968 Guatemala 54,423 Honduras 40,695 El Salvador 27,180 Dominican Republic 2,130 Ecuador 1,565 Nicaragua 1,266 Colombia 1,181 Jamaica 938 Brazil 850 Total 307,196 Source: ICE FY 2014 Immigration Enforcement Report 2006 Immigration Reform Protests Unaccompanied Minors Immigration Raids 2016 • Central American families who had lost their case, ordered to be deported •an obstacles since most ation is immigrants do not have a lawyer Detention Visitation and Narratives • Miguel: • Marcela: kK-CUVS-yovaQQ The Rise of Immigrant Detention • Sustained practices rather than new phenomena • Different immigrant groups have disproportionally faced detention • Immigration policies have favored punishment rather than integration Immigrant America Week 9 March 2, 2016 1 2 Class Announcements •   REMINDER: Final Papers that have received an “A” are posted on webpage for your reference. •  Plagiarism will not be tolerated and will result in a failing grade. •  Papers must be uploaded electronically onto •  A paper copy must be given to your A on Friday, March 4 at the end of lecture* *Don’t skip lecture. 3 Class Poll – Q1 If you were a member of Congress, would you vote yes or no on a bill to open the doors of the United States to a larger number of refugees than now are admitted under our immigration quotas? A.  es, open doors B.  No C.  Don’t know 4 5 Class Poll – Q2 It has been proposed to bring to this country 10,000 refugee children from Syria to be taken care of in American homes. Should the government permit these children to come in? A. es B.  No C.  No opinion 6 7 Class Poll – Q3 What is your attitude towards allowing Syrian, Afghan and other political refugees to come into the United States? A.  We should encourage them to come even if we have to raise our immigration quotas B.  We should allow them to come but not raise our immigration quotas C.  With conditions as they are, we should try to keep them out D.  Don’t know 8 9 Class Poll – Q4 Should the United States offer a haven in this country for refugees from the Middle East? A. es B.  No 10 Photos by Augustus Sherman, Registry clerk on Ellis Island, 1892 – 1925 Published in National Geographic in 1907 Photos by Augustus Sherman, Registry clerk on Ellis Island, 1892 – 1925 Published in National Geographic in 1907 Photos by Augustus Sherman, Registry clerk on Ellis Island, 1892 – 1925 Published in National Geographic in 1907 Photos by Augustus Sherman, Registry clerk on Ellis Island, 1892 – 1925 Published in National Geographic in 1907 Photos by Augustus Sherman, Registry clerk on Ellis Island, 1892 – 1925 Published in National Geographic in 1907 Photos by Augustus Sherman, Registry clerk on Ellis Island, 1892 – 1925 Published in National Geographic in 1907 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Waves of Migration •   1492 – 1820: Colonial period, an estimated 10 million African slaves and European settlers and indentured servants crossed the Atlantic. •  1850s – 1930s: Next great wave of transoceanic labo, an estimated 55 million Europeans migrated overseas (65% came to the U.S.). 2.5 million Asians migrated across Pacific. The United States, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Canada were major destinations for 1.5 million Chinese. More than 600,000 Japanese migrated to Brazil, Hawaii, the U.S., Canada, Peru. Asian Indians primarily went to British Caribbean colonies. •  1945 (post WWII): Begin to see more immigrants from Latin America in the United States. 24 U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Law •   1790 – U.S. law reserves eligibility to naturalize only to free whites (indigenous population excluded from citizenship). •   1803 – Federal law banned immigration of blacks from abroad if they were bound for some Southern states (which restricted black migration from neighboring states in U.S. and from abroad). •  1862 – Anti-Chinese coolie law; explicitly banned Chinese naturalization (repealed in 1974). •    882 – U.S. banned Chinese naturalization. 25 U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Law •  1952 – U.S. ends racial discrimination policies of naturalization. •  1965 – U.S. ends racial discrimination policies of immigration; ends national-origins policy. •  mid-1960s – U.S. immigration law imposed no limits on the number of legal immigrants admitted from Western Hemisphere; large temporary worker program which brought 450,000 Mexican workers annually. •   1964 – U.S.-Mexico guest worker program terminated (Braceros) •  1965 – Congress amends Immigration and Nationality Act to cap number of visas for immigrants from Western Hemisphere 26 U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Law •  1986 - Legalized 2.7 million (mostly Mexican) unauthorized immigrants; Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) criminalized the hiring of undocumented immigrants, increased Border Patrol budget •  1993 – Operation Blockade (seal border in El Paso)  •  1994 – Operation Gatekeeper (seal border in San Diego) •  1986 – 1990 – U.S. designs visa programs to attract more Europeans. •  1990 – U.S. expands the numbers of legal immigrants (most from Asia and Latin America). 28 Latin American Migration to U.S. Cold War Era as a political opportunity for immigration reform (for some) •  Cubans admitted as refugees, offered legal permanent residence (Portes and Bach 1985; Portes and Rumbaut 1992). •  Nicaraguans leaving rule of Sandinistas granted temporary protected status in US, later offered permanent resident status (Lundquist and Massey 2005). •  Most Latin Americans, esp. Mexicans faced reduced possibilities for legal entry, rising barriers to undocumented entry (Massey and Riosmena 2010). 29 Mexico-U.S. Migration Sociologists Durand and Massey (2003) have identified various historical stages of migration from Mexico to U.S. •  1900 – 1920: Enganche (“hooking”)system, period during Mexican Revolution. •  1921 – 1942: Massive deportations •   1942 – 1964: Bracero program •  1965 – 1985: Era of the undocumented •  1987 – early 21 century: beginning with approval of IRCA, stage of clandestine migration 27 Class Discussion How has rhetoric regarding immigration changed in the last few decades? 1980 – Republican Debate Bush vs. Reagan 1980 Presidential Race Results 27 Class Discussion Why might U.S. immigration policies change across time? Ideology – e.g. rise in racism, nativism, progressiveness Economy – restrictive in contractions, permissive in expansions Democracy – democratic structure of government promoted the onset of ethnic selection (Culling the Masses by FitzGerald, Cook-Martin 2014) Migration and the US Immigration System Why people leave their home country: •  Larger socio-political and economic structures that lead to mass migration. •  U.S. War on Drugs •  Priva▯za▯on/domes▯c and foreign corporate control of natural resources in La▯n America (e.g. the case of Berta Caceres in Honduras). How they are received in the US: •  No process for seeking asylum that does not include physical detention. •  No right to legal representation (immigration attorney) once in detention. Despite this being the best indicator of whether your case will be successful or not (see Patler and Ryo). •  Privatization of detention facilities; who stands to gain from this process? Lack of Representation Honduras, Berta Cáceres, and Hope


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