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Biology 162 Week 8 Lecture Notes

by: Jenn Guzman

Biology 162 Week 8 Lecture Notes Biology 162

Jenn Guzman
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Lecture notes covering plant reproduction in angiosperms.
Intro to Organismal Form and Function
Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter
Class Notes
angiosperm, reproduction, Biology, 162, dr, Taylor, Ritter, plant, Alternation, Of, Generations
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Guzman on Tuesday May 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organismal Form and Function in Biological Sciences at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 05/24/16
Wednesday, May 18, 2016 Plant Reproduction Week 8 Lectures I,II I. PART ONE (Monday May 16th) A. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction in Plants B. Processes of Pollination: wind, insect, animal (all not dependent on water for pollen distribution C. Attraction Methods: visual (birds without scent), smell (insects), maintaining high sugar content to attract other organisms Pollinators Color Scent Key Notes Bee Bright white/yellow/UV Fresh, mild, pleasant Nectar, sticky pollen, resembles mating partners for bees Bird Bright red/scarlet None (birds cant smell) Nectar Beetle Dull white/green None to strong fruity/ Large, bowllike flower fetid Moth Pale, dull red, white strongly sweet Limited pollen Butterfly Bright red/purple faint but fresh wide landing pad with narrow tubule with nectar Fly pale, dark brown, rotting meat, putrid modest amount of flecked pollen, traplike structure Wind Insignificant None Small pedals, large anthers, branched and feathery stigmas D. Angiosperm: flowering plants that produce sexually reproductive structures, and seeds enclosed inside of fruits; nearly 250,000 species that make up 88% of all known species of plants 1. Asteraceae (daisy family): 23,600 species 2. Orchidaceae (orchid family): 22,075 species 3. Fabaceae (pea family): 19,400 species 4. Rubiaceae (coffee family): 13,150 species 5. Poaceae (grass family): 10,035 species E. Inflorescence: cluster of flowers in a specific arrangement 1. Daisies have one head, but make individual 1 Wednesday, May 18, 2016 flowers on them; what we interpret as “petals” are highly modified leaves F. Basic Flower Anatomy 1. Carpels can be considered the female anatomy of the plant, consisting of the sticky stigma that receive the pollen, the style that provides a pathway for germinated pollen, and the ovary. Within the ovary are the ovules. Ovules maintain the eggs. Ovaries are immature fruit, while ovules are . immature seeds. The aggregation of all of a flower’s carpels make up the female pistil. a)Many dioecious flowers have evolved the ability to recognized its own pollen in an effort to increase genetic variability. 2. Stamen can be considered the male anatomy of the plant, consisting of the pollen-making anther and the filament. 3. All of the petals of the flower make up the corolla, while all of the sepals together make up the calyx. G. Not all flowers have all of the main plant parts. Pistillate flowers only have pistils and no stamen. This allows for the formation of “male” and “female” flowers. A species of plant that maintains these separate flowers is called “dioecious”, while a species whose flowers maintain both the male and female reproductive structures is known as “monoecious”. II. PART TWO (Wednesday May 18th) A. Alternation of Generations: experiencing growth in both the haploid (n) and diploid (2n) stages of the life cycle B. Process of Formation for Male, Female Gametophytes 2 Wednesday, May 18, 2016 C. Characteristics of Pollen Grains 1. very tough, hard, and have the potential to dry out and even fossilized 2. fossilized pollen grains are used to identify the botanical history of an area D. Pollen Tube Growth 1. pollination is the transfer of pollen to the stigma (of the female carpel) 2. pollen adheres to the stigma and grows a pollen tube down the style until it reaches the ovule E. Pollination and Double Fertilization 1. Pollen grains have two sperm, one making the pollen tube and the other one undergoes mitosis to form two sperm cells used in double fertilization 2. Pollen tube growth and fertilization: pollen grains attach to the stigma of the carpel and germinate 3. Double fertilization is where two sperm come together to fertilize the egg while other sperm is used to form the primary endosperm nucleus (3n) F. Embryo Development and Seed Maturation G. What Are Seeds Good For? 1. Travel and life insurance 2. Dispersal over time and space 3 Wednesday, May 18, 2016 a) improved chance of finding correct micro-climate b) time germination to coincide with appropriate season and growing conditions c) specific environmental stimuli may be required to break dormancy H. One mature ovule become a seed, one mature ovary becomes one fruit 1. A seed is a fertilized ovule (multiple ovaries calls for multiple individual pollen grains to germinate and form multiple pollen tubes within the style) a) Each seed is therefore genetically different from every other seed in within the same fruit I. Is a tomato a fruit or a vegetable? (botanically a fruit but “most commonly thought of as a vegetable”) 1. In 1893 the US Supreme court decision Nix v. Hedden 2. Nix was a fruit importer and Hedden was a customs collector 3. Vegetables required a 10% tariff while fruits were duty-free 4. Fruits are mature ovaries while Vegetables are parts of plants (no seeds) J. Pericarp = mature ovary wall comprised of the endocarp, mesocarp, and exocarp 1. a corn fruit (kernel, seeds very small) has a pericarp that is thin and hard (the thing that gets in your teeth, the white fluffy tissue of popcorn is the endosperm nutritive tissue) while a peach’s pericarp may be very fleshy K. Simple Fruits: develop from a single flower with one carpel or fused carpels (cherries) 1. DRY: dehiscent (break open, like a pea or other legumes) of indehiscent (do not break open GOOD LORD CHECK THE WEBSITE 2. FLESHY: L. Aggregate Fruits: develop from a single flower with many separate carpels 1. Strawberry M. Multiple Fruits: develops from many flowers with many carpels 1. Pineapple, Figs (inverted inflorescent fruit) N. Seed Dispersal: wind, water, animals 4


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