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Biology 162 Animal Reproduction Notes

by: Jenn Guzman

Biology 162 Animal Reproduction Notes Biology 162

Jenn Guzman
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Week 9 Lecture notes covering Animal Reproduction.
Intro to Organismal Form and Function
Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter
Class Notes
dr, Ritter, Taylor, Bio, Biology, 162, Bio162, animal, reproduction, Oogenesis, Spermatogenesis, biology female endocrinology menstrual cycle
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Guzman on Wednesday May 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organismal Form and Function in Biological Sciences at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 05/25/16
Monday, May 23, 2016 Animal Reproduction Week 9 I. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction A. Asexual Reproduction: One parent giving rise to offspring 1. Budding: mitosis results in an offspring on the parent; clones a) L.C.: most similar to the asexual formation of plantlets 2. Fission: animal splits down the middle and breaks apart, forming two new individuals; clones 3. Parthenogenesis: growth and development occurs without fertilization within the female; offspring are not exactly clones due to crossing over of genetic information; meiotic production of sperms and eggs and self fertilize; produce male individuals by females having the two different chromosomes (analogous to human females having an X and a Y chromosome) B. Sexual: it takes two to tango II. Gametogenesis: formation of gametes in sexually reproductive organisms A. Spermatogenesis: formation of sperm; begins in human males during puberty due to rises in testosterone 1. Starts with diploid spermatogonium that divides (constantly) by mitosis to form primary diploid spermatocyte; after Meiosis I,II the haploid spermatids are formed that develop into mature haploid sperm cells 2. Sperm formation occurs throughout the entire life of a male 3. as fathers age, the sperm they produce are at higher risk to form chromosomal mutations, resulting in mutated offspring B. Oogenesis: egg formation 1. all of the original embryonic oogonium develop into all of the eggs we will ever have 2. diploid oogonium undergo mitosis to form the diploid primary oocyte, which then undergoes meiosis I (once a month) to form secondary oocyte 3. egglets are fertilized as a secondary oocyte, which then undergoes Meiosis II (resulting overall in one haploid ootid and three polar haploid bodies; after growth and development only the mature egg cell is left (haploid, 1 Monday, May 23, 2016 but technically diploid if fully fertilized by a sperm cell) unless it has implanted within the egg and has not yet released genetic information to form a diploid species 4. The size of the egg dwarfs the small size of the sperm. 5. L.C.: The megasporocyte in plants is analogous to the primary oocyte in animals. III.Parental Care A. Oviparity: lay eggs with little to no embryonic development within the mother; most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, all birds, monotreme mammals B. Ovoviviparity: eggs are formed within the female but undergo all of the development within the female, which then hatch inside of them and technically give birth to live young; few invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, most mammals C. Viviparity: embryonic placental development IV. Human Reproductive Function A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) from the hypothalamus cause the pituitary to release gonadotropins (LH, FSH); Gonadotropins then stimulate the sex organs (testes or ovaries) to release either testosterone or estrogen/ progesterone; these sex hormones are then a negative feedback regulator to the pituitary and hypothalamus B. Ovarian Cycle (monthly) 1. Follicular Phase a) Begin with the formation of the primary oocytes within follicles; the lining of the follicle cells are responsible for secreting hormones; follicle- stimulating hormone allows for the growth and development of the follicle cells b) Maturation of follicle cell is complete before the halfway point (Day 14) of the cycle; results in an increase of estrogen c) Ovulation of secondary oocyte around Day 14 (the rupture of the follicle now on the surface of the ovary that spits the oocytes into the oviduct, moving along the fallopian tube towards the uterus); marks transition into Luteal Phase 2. Luteal Phase a) On the surface of the ovary, the corpus luteum is a composite of all of the scares of rupturing follicles; helps in maintaining uterus should implantation occurs b) If implantation of a fertilized oocyte occurs, the corpus luteum does not degenerate C. Hormonal Cycle 1. Day 0-7: first day of menstruation (the shedding of the uterine lining, thickness declines as menstrual bleeding occurs); the endometrium occurs due to the hope that an embryo would implant in the uterus; when this doesn't occur, the lining is shed and rebuilt in preparation of the next cycle 2 Monday, May 23, 2016 a) FSH and LH are stimulating the follicle (cells that make sex hormones on top of the oocyte within it) to develop; not at high levels, but still significant enough to begin cycle b) Follicle matures 2. Day 7-10: uterine lining begins to build up again; FSH and LH continue to stimulate follicle cells, which now lead to an increase in estradiol (stimulating the uterine lining to rebuild) a) without estradiol the thickening of the uterine lining would not occur b) Estradiol keeps FSH and LH low by a negative feedback inhibition 3. Day 10-14: At a certain high level of estrogen, the negative feedback loop switches to a positive feedback loop, then stimulating the production of LH from the pituitary rather than inhibiting it; LH then surges after the peak in estradiol; surge in LH then leads into ovulation 4. Day 14-20: Ovulation then gives rise to the corpus luteum; LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone; progesterone at higher levels still only inhibits the production of LH and FSH; LH and FSH levels drop; progesterone now switches functions to protect the uterine lining; as long as progesterone levels are high menstruation will not occur and the uterine lining will stay thick and intact 5. Day 21-28: Progesterone inhibits production of LH, FSH and the uterine lining stuffs off so long as implantation does not occur; should implantation 3 Monday, May 23, 2016 occurs, the corpus luteum does not degenerate and continues to produce higher levels of progesterone (pregnancy) a) L.C.: For a woman taking a daily progesterone pill, the body slows the production of its own sex steroids, the uterine lining would not thicken as much, and ovulation would not occur. V. Birth Control A. introduction of progesterone to the system, wiping out levels of LH, FSH 1. Should you already be pregnant and take a birth control pill, nothing would occur since at that point past implantation progesterone maintains the thickening of the uterine wall (switch from negative to positive feedback has already occurred) B. Abortion pills can be taken up to nine weeks after pregnancy and causes the abortion of a fetus (progesterone receptor antagonist) 4


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