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J101 Week 9 Notes

by: Kelsey Fagan

J101 Week 9 Notes J101

Kelsey Fagan
GPA 3.58

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About this Document

Here are the notes from class for week 9.
Grammar for Communicat
Jasheway-Bryant L
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Fagan on Wednesday May 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to J101 at University of Oregon taught by Jasheway-Bryant L in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Grammar for Communicat in Journalism Core at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 05/25/16
Day 17 (5/23)  Word Choice  ● Choosing Words Wisely (general rules)  ○ Use “fresh” words that aren’t overused  ○ Use metaphors, similes, personification, and analogies  ○ Use powerful action verbs  ○ Use words that create a mental picture for the reader  ○ Use words with layers of meaning  ○ Limit clichés and slang  ○ Be concise  ○ Use words correctly  ○ Avoid redundancy  ● Words and phrases to avoid  ○ Awesome  ○ Awfully (as an adverb, e.g. “awfully pretty”)  ○ Being as I  ○ Cool  ○ Fun  ○ Interesting  ○ Kinda  ○ Have got  ○ Pretty (as an adverb, e.g. “pretty awful”)  ○ “Up” added to verbs such as call, meet, and think  ● Make your verbs work for you  ○ Write in the present or past tense as much as possible (avoid using helping verbs)  ○ Choose verbs that have deeper meaning  ○ Don’t switch tenses for no reason; not in sentences, not in paragraphs, not in  papers  ● Less is better  ○ Don’t use words just to fill a quota  ○ Don’t use two words when one will do  ○ Don’t use big words to show off your education  ● NOT WORDS  ○ Alls  ○ Anyways  ○ Conversate  ○ Disorientated  ○ Ginormous  ○ Impactful  ○ Irregardless  ○ Self­depreciating  ○ Supposably  ○ Unthaw    Day 18 (5/25)  Word Choice Cont.  Sensitivity/Style  ● Consider what your words say about you at all times.  ○ This is not being “politically correct.” It’s treating everyone as equals and giving  the same consideration to others as you’d want for yourself.  ● Avoid use of language that is:  ○ Sexist  ○ Racist  ○ Ableist  ○ Ageist  ○ Classist  ○ Homophobic  ○ Prejudiced against people you don’t consider attractive   ○ Demeaning to any group  ● Always pay attention to how you describe people  ○ Don’t use the following words:  ■ Lunatic  ■ Nuts  ■ Batshit  ■ Loony  ■ Crazy  ■ Deranged  ■ Wacky  ■ Psycho  ■ Old fart  ■ Geezer  ■ Cougar  ■ MILF  ■ Gold digger  ■ Hot  ■ Unattractive  ■ Ugly  ■ Fat as…  ■ “Special”  ■ Sexual preference  ■ Gay, fag, deviant  ● Avoid Ageist Language  ○ Example (Bad): At 70, she still makes her own meals.  ■ Sounds like a compliment, but is actually putting down all other 70 year  olds  ○ Try writing (Good):  ■ She is 70 and loves to cook.  ■ Martha Graham loves to cook.  ■ IN addition to having just gotten her master’s degree at 70, Martha  Graham is also a competitive cyclist and cooks gourmet meals.   ○ Use the word “elderly” carefully and sparingly  ■ It implies feeble and frail  ○ Find a label that describes more specifically the population or person you have in  mind:  ■ Baby Boomers  ■ Older people  ■ Gen X’ers  ■ Retirees  ■ People over 65  ● Unless there’s a similar word for both genders avoid using words like “cougar”  ● Mr. and Ms.  ○ Mr and Ms are titles that convey nothing except gender  ○ Mrs. conveys gender and married  ○ Miss. conveys gender and single  ● Respect everyone’s gender identity  ○ It doesn’t matter if someone looks male or female, always ask what their personal  pronouns may be.   ● Use gender neutral nouns/phrases   ● Racially insensitive languages  ○ When you use the word “non­white,” you assert that “white” is the norm and  everyone else is “not the norm”  ○ Don’t identify people by race or ethnicity unless it is relevant  ○ Respect the preferred labels   ○ Don’t put down a race by building up one member of that race  ○ Don’t use derogatory terms for mixed races   ● Unless there is a reason to do so, don’t include gender, race, age, or sexual orientation  ○ When you do use them make sure all are treated equally  ● Don’t assume sexual orientation  ○ Not everyone is heterosexual  ○ Avoid homophobic and judgmental language  ■ Avoid using “gay”  ● Looksism  ○ Avoid using demeaning or derogatory language  ○ Avoid using judgemental words­it shouldn’t be in your writing  ● Being sensitive rules:  ○ Don’t make inappropriate and uninformed assumptions.  ○ Be specific.  ○ Do not construct an us vs. them scenario.  ○ Know your facts.  ○ Know your terms.  ○ Understand your context.  ○ Remember: Saying something is “just a joke” is a cop­out. Jokes are words that  have the same impact as serious statements.   AP Style Essentials  ● Numbers:  ○ Use figures for numbers about 9; spell out numbers under 10  ■ Exceptions:  ● Use figures for ages, sums of money, time of day, percentages,  years, days of the month, temperature, and proportion  ● Using numbers for age  ○ She is 23 years­old.  ○ She is a 23­year­old.   ○ Spell out numbers when they begin sentences  ○ DO NOT use Roman numerals except when part of a title or name  ○ Fractions standing alone are spelled out  ○ Use commas with four or more figures except in dates  ● Capitalization  ○ Titles preceding names  ○ Specific regions, but not point of the compass  ○ Holidays and special or historic events  ○ Names of religions and nouns to designate a Supreme Being  ○ Formal names of schools and departments  ● Miscellaneous  ○ Spell out words completely  ○ DO NOT use a comma between a person’s name and Jr. or Sr.  ○ Use quotation marks with titles of books, poems, plays, films, songs, and articles.  DO NOT use them with newspapers or magazines  ○ Use apostrophes to form the plural of single letters, but not figures or multiple  letters  ○ Use a hyphen to distinguish the meaning of different words spelled the same way  ○ Put a space on either side of an em dash   


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