CDFR 3306 Week 2 Notes
CDFR 3306 Week 2 Notes CDFR 3306
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Baumann on Wednesday May 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 3306 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Hedge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Guiding Children's Behavior in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 05/25/16
CHAPTER 3: INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AFFECT DISCIPLINE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR Child’s view of the world and reality is different from that of an adult Parents and teachers get angry at what adults perceive as disobeying rules, telling lies, being selfish or inconsiderate, and behaving in totally irrational ways Children don’t realize that they have done anything wrong They can’t think about what they don’t experience, such as what might happen if they do something dangerous, or how they would feel is someone did to them what they just did to another Vygotsky’s scaffolding and zone of proximal development theories Scaffolding is helping children think and act in ways more mature than they can by themselves, but it only works if we aim for just a bit more maturity that the child currently exhibits, staying in the child’s zone of proximal development BREAKING RULES Most preschool students don’t understand, or can’t cope with the competitive aspect of games Should change rules to fit with child’s emotional development – e.g., everyone has a chair in musical chairs Primary-grade children become concerned about rules and about winning The desire to win often colors the interpretation of rules, and each child wants to change the rules in his or her favor Piaget’s (1965) studies of moral development indicate that young children often are not capable of understanding why certain behaviors are acceptable or unacceptable; therefore, many behavior problems are caused by a lack of understanding, and the child truly has no idea of wrongdoing One way to alleviate “rule breaking” in the classroom is by offering children the opportunity to contribute to the creation of classroom rules BEING SELFISH They aren’t necessarily being inconsiderate when they overlook a playmate’s feelings; infants and toddlers are barely aware that someone else has feelings, and even first graders have trouble considering opinions and desires in conflict with their own Knowledgeable teachers don’t blame the children or make anyone feel guilty for being thoughtless of others; they understand that this behavior is normal for young children Effective Guidance “Mrs. Jenson also works at helping her young students grow beyond their egocentricity by encouraging them to tell one another how they feel. Often, she needs to help children find the words to express themselves; they learn from her example as she walks them through the process of communicating their feelings in a constructive way” LYING AND STEALING For a child, being egocentric may mean that something is true because you want it to be true, and that something is yours because you want it. These beliefs cause children to make untrue statements that they genuinely consider truths and guiltlessly take things that don’t beyond to them Lying: making a consciously false statement with the intent to deceive Piaget (1965) found that young children really do not understand the nature of a lie (even up to the age of 6) Preoperational thought: meaning that children can think about only one thing at a time (their own needs), and they are not capable of logical thinking SCHOOLWORK PROBLEMS Piaget’s (1960) work explains the importance of young children having real experiences with real materials to construct their knowledge about the world Concrete materials include the water in the water table, the manipulatives in the math center, the magnifying glasses in the science center Representational symbols – ex. a picture is more recognizable as a symbol for a baby than are the letters in the word baby Some teacher present abstract lessons to children who cannot yet make sense of them This type of developmentally inappropriate instructive can create discipline problems SOCIAL SKILLS AND GUIDANCE CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE FOR SOCIAL SKILLS Children construct knowledge as a result of reflecting on their experiences Thinking about the results helps children revise erroneous ideas – this process helps them construct understanding about such concepts as gravity, balance, and measurement Trial-and-error analysis Reflecting on the results of their social overtures and help children figure out how to play with others successfully and how to make friends Conflicts provide the necessary experience for learning, as well as teachable moments National guidelines in every area of the curriculum urge teaching for critical thinking and problem solving instead of old approaches of memories learning Instead of working on just getting kids to act in desirable ways, we would do better to focus on helping them develop the values and attitudes that lead to prosocial behavior – involuntary kindness and concern for others HOW CHILDREN DEVELOP SOCIAL COMPETENCE Social Competence: refers to a set of skills that allow people to achieve their social goals without getting in the way of the goals of others The ability to play cooperatively, to take turns and share, to initiate friendly contact, and to respond positively to friendly contact from others The ability to successfully master social skills requires that children’s physical and emotional needs are met Play provides many opportunities for conflict and negotiation, which helps children learn to consider the needs and feelings of others, what is known as perspective tabling, and is also basic to developing social skills LEARN HOW TO ENTER PLAY Children must first be helped to avoid advances that disrupt the ongoing play Observe what the desired playmate is doing; in other words, to work at seeing things from the child’s viewpoint Provides information that the child can use by offering a way to contribute or fit into the existing play The child who joins a group with a contribution to ongoing play is most likely to be accepted ENCOURAGING FRIENDSHIPS Friendships are important for a variety of reasons Children are more likely to be successful with initiating contact with friends, thus increasing their confidence Their play is more sophisticated and mature when they are playing with friends, which improves their competence Children care more about the feelings of friends than about those of other people, which encourages them to practice perspective taking Best friends – these relationships are important because they offer the best opportunities for developing interpersonal understanding needed for socialized behavior LEARNING PERSPECTIVE TAKING Working out their differences provides values practice that enhances children’s intellectual ability to understand another’s point of view, increases their desire to value another person’s feelings, and develops conflict-management skills Perspective Taking: ability to see things from another’s viewpoint Requires intellectual ability to think about another person’s feelings Perspective Taking Ability: is the basic developmental achievement underlying all social-cognitive development Empathy, affective perspective taking, and sympathy are tired to emotional development, whereas intellectual perspective taking is tied to cognitive development LEARNING CONFLICT RESOLUTION Involves the ability to communicate personal needs and to listen to others expressing theirs Also involves willingness to compromise, as well as the capacity to manage aggression Adults must guide children in age-appropriate ways and help them resolve their own differences Young children with limited language ability – the teaching may do the talking for both parties in reflecting the two viewpoints The goal is for the teacher or parent to intervene as little as possible, allowing children a change to resolve differences on their own TEACHER AS COACH Providing encouragement, critiquing the performance, and recommending strategies for improvement Attend recess as much as possible Babies and toddlers benefit from teach coaching in conflict situations Struggles between babies can be positive learning experiences that help them develop social skills WORKING WITH FAMILIES Teachers and parents must negotiate on the type of guidance approached they each use Share goals for children’s social competence with one another Families can be a valuable source of information not only about individual characteristics of their child, but also about the experiences and family or cultural expectations that have shaped the child so far Teachers can be a source of information about preferred ways of assisting prosocial development ACCOMMODATING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Culture is the context within which we view the world Is the product of race, language, ethnicity, religion, experiences, educational level, SES, gender, age, lifestyle, political orientation, geography, and temperament Lack of awareness creates interpersonal misunderstanding between teachers and children as well as between teacher and families Communication can be hampered as a result of differing ideas about such things as when and how speech is used, what body language means, whether a direct question is rude, and whether it is polite to look directly at the speaker SOCIOECONOMIC DIFFERENCES Variations may cause children from difference backgrounds to be less comfortable with each other, causing social interaction problems Discomfort can inhibit the flow of communication between home and school and disadvantage the child Low income families typically strive to help their children become tough to face an uncertain future, and often use Authoritarian discipline styles This approach is typically at odd with teachers, many of whom are middle-class, who use Authoritative discipline practices with the aim of helping children to see the world as a safe and welcoming place GENDER DIFFERENCES Males Brains secrete less of them chemical serotonin, making boys more impulsive and more fidgety Deal with emotion more in the brain stem (fight-or-flight) More testosterone = more aggressive Need more physical activity Females The chemical oxytocin is more constantly stimulated, making girls more empathetic Brains move emotions to the upper brain where more complex thought occurs More progesterone = bonding hormone Fit better into a typical quiet and controlled school environment CHAPTER 4: CREATING ENVIRONMENTS THAT PREVENT DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT The idea of preparing the environment for children is credited to Dr. Maria Montessori, who considered it the “other teacher” in the classroom, because the physical arrangement of furniture and materials has such significant impact on learning Child-sized furniture Learning materials designed for children Profound effect on motivation and our sense of well-being, behavior and learning Elizabeth Prescott (2008) believes memories are stored primarily as tactile sensory impressions and the environment should include dimensions of hard and soft; open and close; simple and complex; intrusion and seclusions; high and low mobility PIES: Physical, Intellectual, Emotional, Social IDEAS FOR SPECIFIC AGES Environment is designed to encourage independence, foster responsibility, and help children develop the skills necessary to live and learn in collaboration with others The Problem Resulting Behavior Too little space Children do not want to separate from parent because it is crowded and noisy, and they may have had a previous experience where they were pushed or bitten due to overcrowded conditions; will not engage in play; pushing others; exclude others from play area; knock over blocks; puzzles get stepped on; materials get broken; no room for creative play or exploration and experimentation with materials Not enough active movement in planned Children begin to run around the room or curriculum. Gross-motor or large-muscle down hallways; climb on tables; will not activities are limited to outside or to a sit still at stories or for teacher lessons; specific time for gym; not available in the wiggle and tip chairs; throwing things; class talking loudly; waving arms, swinging feet; jumping; jostling others; results in obesity and related health problems Not enough materials Children push and fight over initial access to favorites such as the swing or new learning materials; they hoard/will not share; try to hide materials so they can get it when they want; try to avoid cleaning up or coming in, because they did not yet get a turn; lie or cheat about having turns; bring things from home which they can control, exclude others (“There’s not enough clay for him”); crying Fine motor activity limited to indoors Outdoors, some children get tired and want to pursue academic or creative activities but lack supportive materials; they refuse to cooperate when it is time to go out, and once outdoors they passively watch others, cling to teachers, whine, and complain. Poor placement of furniture Causes running, created opportunities for children to exclude others during play (“There’s no room, “You can’t play”) “You can’t sit with us” – Mean Girls Flimsy furniture or materials Easily broken; children tend to disrespect these items Poor design of building space. May cause Can cause children to break rules, make limited access to bathrooms or sings; may messes; children may exit though the limit messy or creative projects; lighting wrong spaces or at the wrong times; hide or configuration may limit flexibility for from teachers; access areas not intended use of space for children BABIES Furnishings that are comfortable and safe Chairs that glide Hammocks Sleeping areas that encourage relaxing, and soothing safe zones that separate immobile babies from active ones can eliminate the need to constantly redirect more active toddlers away from immobile babies Variety of visual and auditory stimulation (boys – mobiles) (girls – faces) Time people gazing Music and teething toys “Tummy time” – on soft surfaces with interesting materials such as a floor mirror TODDLERS Place furniture so tots can pull themselves up, cruise around, and easily take a single step between two pieces encourages new walkers Cushioned areas for climbing, sliding, chasing balls, running, and tumbling Soft couched, short ladders fixed to wall, stacking foam platforms -- must be low to the found and have soft cushioned fall zone Have boxes of supplies with lots of similar materials that rotate into the environment several times a day; this helps avoid many temper tantrums and biting episodes PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN Variety of high-quality educational and creative materials at their own level This means furnishing and props that encourage dramatic play, construction, writing, art, science exploration, music, and sensory materials All parts of PIES should be indoor and outdoors PRIMARY-GRADE SETTINGS Cluster desks and create learning lab around the perimeter of the room Created a room with learning centers made of desks and use alternative furnishings like bookshelves for special areas such as math manipulative materials DESIGNING SPACES DENSITY Density Levels: number of square feet per child ~35 square feet per child Toddlers have reduced stress ~54 square feet per child 0-8 months should have 2 caregivers and no more than 6 to the group, w/ minimum of 350 square feet 8-18 months should have a 1:3 ratio, and a minimum of 500 square feet 18-36 months have a 1:4 ratio, minimum of 600 square feet SOUNDS “It has been demonstrated that noise levels that distract 11-year-old girls are 10 times softer than noise levels that boys find distracting. Girls won’t learn as well in a loud, noisy classroom. If a male teacher speaks in a tone of voice normal to him, the girl in the front row may feel he is yelling. Boys will do better if they are in the front of the classroom where their ability to pay attention increases as they can clearly hear what the teacher is saying. Some boys, diagnosed with ADHD, may be distracted when sitting in the back of the room because they can’t hear clearly enough to do what was asked of them. In classrooms today, especially with youngsters who haven’t mastered English yet, some teachers are using headsets to enhance the clarity of speech, and this may assist boys as well.” (Kovalik, 2008) LIGHTS Two sets of lights high wattage for cleaning and active times light that is more dim and soothing DISPLAYS Provide them with opportunity to personalize the classroom environment promotes a sense of belonging in the classroom, which promotes prosocial behaviors and attitudes having children collect and exhibit artifacts of their work together promotes thinking and talking about individual and collective accomplishments HONORING DIVERSITY Materials selected for the classroom should reflect the culture of the children and families Using natural and wood tones and avoiding a plethora of plastic toys if favor of real materials of nature and the world around us can help make the environment more authentic The addition of rugs, plants, lamps, artwork, family photos, and soft places for both adults and children to sit and relax can create the desired homelike atmosphere SPACES FOR INSTRUCTION, EXPERIMENTING, AND REFLECTION Direct involvement with learning materials is a crucial factor in promoting a curious mind and building knowledge Students not only learn from direct instruction by teachers, but also from interactions with peers, teachers, and others Individual learning, small-group activities, whole-group participation, and personal reflection LEARNING CENTERS Learning labs, Interest centers, Activity centers Individual or small groups to learn as they investigate, manipulate, observe, problem solve, create, and discover Well-defined with specific boundaries, content-related materials, and surfaces for work or place – promote engagement in learning and positive interactions Toddlers – gross motor area; sensory materials; basics of dramatic play with hats, bags and shoes; soft blocks; a book area; and a place for using large crayons and paint Pre K – dramatic play, art, wooden blocks and construction, manipulative, writing, science or discovery, a reading/library area, math and puzzles, and computer center SMALL-GROUP AREAS Storage space for materials and surface areas for children to work collaboratively Work on collaborative projects; creating a castle with blocks, playing board games, creating costumes for a play Engage in work without direct guidance of teacher – facilitates perspective taking, negotiation skills, and problem solving LARGE-GROUP AREAS Large enough to accommodate the entire group For movement Direct instruction or a story – theater style with children facing teacher Group is sharing with each other, rather than focused on teacher – circles or the “round table” = egalitarian influence on the group INDIVIDUAL AREAS FOR PRIVACY For infants and toddlers, sculpting defined multilevel areas and using lofts can promote separation and privacy with still allowing for clear supervision – movement is essential Research on emotional development tells us that children should be allowed to move freely between group and individual activities When we design an environment and a program that allows children this level of personal control, we help them know themselves and find their balance through life THE INTELLECTUAL ENVIRONMENT Infants are unstoppable learners who are eager to see, touch, understand and master everything (Galinsky) MATERIALS Teachers model organization by systematically arranging materials in learning centers Arranging materials on low shelves and applying labels to shelves and storage containers help children independently locate the materials they need and assist everyone when it comes time to clean up Organizing materials in a clear and predictable pattern helps build children’s independence and memory capacity OPEN-ENDED ACTIVITIES Allow for individual differences and discourage comparison by allowing children to use their creativity in how they complete a task No possibility for failure Children can choose to work at their own appropriate level of challenge Important aspect of inclusion Feelings of success do not result from easy schoolwork; they result from the appropriate match between the challenge and the child’s ability RESOURCES Children can access materials themselves, there is less waiting and more learning Behavior problems commonly connected with inappropriate intellectual stimulation Teachers should adjust activities, materials, and space in the environment according to the needs of individuals and the group Consider and use all available resources; media, technology THE EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENT A positive emotional environment supports children’s self-esteem in both identity and mastery (“I am,” “I can”) I am: develop pride in their heritage, culture, ethnicity, family, traditions, gender, physical body, and celebrate their growing identity as perceptive and compassionate individuals I can: sense of competence; provide encouragement for children to succeed in a variety of ways such as climbing stairs, building a block tower, tying a shoe, or creating a sculpture RELATIONSHIPS TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS Build positive relationships with children to influence their behavior and thought Create harmonious classrooms conducive to learning Know you care about them, will keep them safe, can help them succeed With young children, get down to their physical level and follow their lead in play, listen to children talk about their interests and experiences, give hugs and high- fives, hold a child’s hand, having meaningful conversation over snack or lunch, and greet them individually Relationships are based on sharing, caring, attention, and trust RECOGNITION Communicating on an individual basis reassures children and also makes it easier for the teacher to interact appropriately with children of various cultures Conferences between teacher and child provide for both individual attention to focus on individual progress COMPETITION Child competes with a part personal record – each child can feel a sense of accomplishment Motivated to keep trying Help set personal goals for themselves and take pride in their progress towards these goals SUCCESS Games that require cooperation better promote children’s use of higher-level negotiation skills than do competitive games Competition is incompatible with the goal of building a caring community You want to arrange for cooperative games, contests, and projects – situations where the children work as a team for a common goal POSITIVE TEACHER EXPECTATIONS Body language, tone of voice, and intensity often speak louder than words Value individual contact with a baby, or adults who delight in toddlers exerting their independence, display an understanding of child development that makes their days more enjoyable for all FAMILY-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS HOME VISITS You can find out what the parents want from their child’s educational experiences, and you can learn special information about the child Translator can help bridge the gap between parents and teachers Inviting family members to school and to school events or outing is another way to connect with them THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT CHILDREN’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEERS Children who have difficulty with peers, either through aggression or withdrawal, are lonely and may become victims of other children’s aggression Children lack motivation for learning Crucial to creating a harmonious learning environment As a teacher who has good relationships with children, you are in the perfect position to assist children with their peer relationships Ensure that children have time to interact with one another Voluntary open-ended and collaborative activities, movement, and play time or recess offer opportunity for in-depth interaction between children FRIENDSHIP Teachers who understand the need for friendship and the value of peer interaction don’t go around being made at kids for doing what comes naturally. Kids don’t end up feeling bad about wanting to communicate with their peers Friendship skills include sharing, taking turns, contributing to play, giving and receiving help, paying compliments, and coping with teasing or bullying You can encourage the interaction of shy children by setting up small groups for cooperative learning activities Teachers who allow children to talk and play with others are decreasing stress and supporting relationships and social skills that children keep long after they leave the classroom INCLUDING CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS When you focus on the child and not the disability, you more easily integrate the child with special needs into your group You can help your other students become comfortable with a wheelchair, prosthesis, or whatever special assistance a child requires Students can focus on the child as a person Model acceptance and honor the strengths of all children MUTUAL RESPECT “children do not develop respect for others unless they are respected you encourage children to respect your wished by showing respect for theirs – encourages respect between children and spreads throughout the class RESPECTFUL COMMUNICATION Respecting children involves accepting them for who they are instead of trying to make them into what you want Respectful interaction between adults and children involves listening to children to understand their viewpoints and asking them honest questions about their thinking RESPECTING CHILDREN’S DECISIONS Adults demonstrate respect for children by providing for their development needs in all areas of PIES Accepting that although they are still small children, they have an understanding of their own desire and needs Role of choices is central during the emotional autonomy stage (Erikson), and in the need for power (Adler) RESPECTING DIFFERENCES Honor diversity – children that accept and honor cultural differences meet the needs of students in the minority while teaching all children the concept of cultural pluralism Important to see children as an individual and not just as a member of a certain group – helps guard against stereotyping then according to their culture Understanding a child’s culture means getting to know the beliefs and practices of the individual family
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