Chem 110, Week 8 Notes
Chem 110, Week 8 Notes CHEM 110
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by BritneyMoore on Wednesday May 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Hoda Mirafzal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 05/25/16
Tuesday May 17, 2016 ▯ Functional Groups Composed of an atom or group of atoms Replace a Hydrogen in the corresponding alkane/alkene/alkyne Provide a way to classify organic compounds Part of an organic molecule where chemical reactions take place ▯ Halo Functional Groups -F, -Cl, -Br, -I Ex: CH 3I (iodomethane) ▯ Halo-alkanes as Anesthetics HCCl 3(Chloroform-solvent) Halothane ▯ Chlorofluorocarbons Used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and foam insulation No longer allowed as propellants in aerosol cans ▯ Ozone Layer Absorbs most of the sun’s harmful radiation Stratosphere is 10-30 miles above Earth 1% loss of ozone, increases the amount of UV radiation reaching earth by 2% This leads to higher rates of skin cancer, cataracts, more smog, and lower crop yields ▯ Alcohols (“-ol”) -OH Ex: CH 3OH (methanol) Common Alcohols: o Drinking Alcohol- Ethanol OH CH CH 2 O 3 H Rubbing Alcohol- CH 3CHCH 3 (isopropyl alcohol) Antifreeze- HO-CH 2CH 2-OH (ethylene glycol) Mint oil- (menthol) o ▯ Phenols Aromatic alcohols Many are used as antiseptic and disinfectants ▯ Thiols (“-thiol”) -SH Have disagreeable odors Ex: CH 3CH 2SH (ethanethiol) Onions- CH 3CH 2CH 2SH (1-propanethiol) Garlic- CH2=CHCH 2SH (2-propene-1-thiol) ▯ Ethers (“-ether”) -C-O-C- Ex: CH 3CH 2OCH 2CH 3 (diethyl ether) ▯ MTBE Methyl tert-butyl ether A gasoline additive used to improve engine performance Contaminates many water supplies ▯ Flavorings Many aldehydes and ketones have a pleasant odor and flavor Aldehydes (“-al” or “-hyde”) o Contains a carbonyl group o Ketones (“-one”) o Contains a carbonyl group o ▯ Reaction of Ethanol in the Body Enzymes in the liver metabolize ethanol Aldehyde product impairs coordination ▯ Carboxylic Acids (“-ic Acid”) Weak acid Neutralized by a base Taste sour Ex: CH COOH (methanoic acid) = -COOH Citric Acid: a major acid found in lemons and limes used to adjust tartness in food and beverages such as Gatorade Acetic Acid: a major acid found in vinegar Lactic Acid: a product of anaerobic fermentation (used in yogurt, sourdough, and sauerkraut)by cells, found in cells after exercise ▯ Ester (“-ate”) = -COO- Esters give flowers and fruits their pleasant fragrances and flavors ▯ Amines (“-amine”) An organic compound containing N Weak bases Neutralized with acids Tastes bitter Ex: CH3CH2 (methylamine) ▯ Alkaloids Physiologically active nitrogen containing compounds Obtained from plants Used as anesthetics, antidepressants, and stimulants Very addictive ▯ Opiates Opium has been extracted from poppies since the stone age Morphine, codeine ▯ Nicotine ▯ Caffeine ▯ Amides Used in industries to make polymers ▯ Solutions Homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances ▯ Solute The substance in the lesser amount ▯ Solvent The substance in the greater amount ▯ Solutes in Solutions Spread evenly throughout the solution (uniform) Cannot be separate by filtration Not visible, solution appears transparent (see through) May give a color to the solution ▯ Types of Solutions Air O 2gas and N 2 gas Gas/Gas Soda CO 2 gas in water Gas/Water Seawater NaCl in water Solid/Liquid Brass Cu and Zn Solid/Solid ▯ Electrolytes Substances that form cations and anion when dissolved in water (ions carry a charge/ electricity) Conduct an electric current Electrolytes Strong Electrolytes Weak Don’t conduct electric current Electrolytes Ex: Pure H 20 is a nonelectrolyte but H O with other ions and minerals is an electrolyte ▯ Strong Electrolytes Break apart completely into ions (ionize completely) when dissolved in water Solutions conduct electricity well Ex: NaCl(s) + H 2O(l) Na +(aq) + Cl -(aq) ▯ Weak Electrolytes The solute particles only partially ionized when dissolved in water Weakly conduct electricity Ex: CH 3COOH(l) H + (aq)+CH 3COO -(aq) ▯ Nonelectrolytes Dissolve as molecules only but won’t ionize No ions are produced in water Solutions do not conduct an electric current Ex: C 6H12O 6(s)+H 2O C 6H 12O 6(aq) ▯ Electrolytes in the Body Carry messages sent to and from the brain as electrical signals Maintain cellular function with the correct concentration electrolytes ▯ Predicting Solubility Like solutions dissolve in similar solutions The solubility of a solid increases with increasing temperature The solubility of gases in water decrease with increasing temperature Saturated Solutions Contains the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved Unsaturated Solutions More solute can be dissolved ▯ Concentration Amount of solute per amount of solution ▯ Molarity Moles of solute 1 liter solution ▯ ▯ ▯