Chem 110, Week 9 Notes
Chem 110, Week 9 Notes CHEM 110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by BritneyMoore on Thursday May 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Hoda Mirafzal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 05/26/16
Tuesday May 24, 2016 ▯ Acids and Bases Have both physical and chemical properties Acids are sour while bases are bitter Both are found in liquid and solid form ▯ Memorize: HCl- Hydrochloric Acid HNO - Nitric Acid H2SO 4- Sulfuric Acid NH 3- Ammonia (base) ▯ Acid Base Indicator A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base ▯ Arrhenius Acid: a substance that dissociates in water to form H +(aq) o HCl+H 2O H +(aq)+Cl -(aq) Base: a substance that dissociates in water to form OH -(aq) o NaOH +H 2O Na +(aq)+OH (aq) ▯ What ions are formed when ammonia is added to water? NH 3+H 2O NH OH(aq) NH 4+(aq)+OH -(aq) All amines (bases) undergo a similar process ▯ Bronsted and Lowry Acid: hydrogen ion (H +) donor Base: hydrogen ion (H +) acceptor HCl(donor)+H O(acceptor) H 3O ++Cl - Water is neither an acid nor a base BUT in this case water is the base H3O +: hydronium ion o H ++H2O H O +(aq) ▯ Arrhenius VS Bronsted-Lowry All Arrhenius acids are BL acids All Arrhenius bases are BL bases All BL acids are Arrhenius acids NOT all BL bases are Arrhenius bases ▯ pH A scale indicating the acidity of a solution pH= -log[H+] [H+]=10^-pH [H+][OH -]=1*10^-14 pH+pOH=14 o pH=0-14 (acidic-basic) o pOH=0-14 (basic-acidic) Acidic: pOH>7, pH<7, [H + ]>[OH -] Neutral: pOH=7, pH=7, [H +]=[OH ] Basic: pOH<7, pH>7, [H +]<[OH ] *all acid/base solutions have both H+ and OH- ions in them, but the relative amounts of concentration of H+ and OH- ions in them determines the pH balance ▯ Autoionization of Water A very small amount of H+ is transferred between water molecules o H 2OH + +OH - o 1/(10^14) water molecules will do this (water “doesn’t” ionize) o PURE water does not conduct electricity ▯ Pure water Neutral Contains small but equal amounts of ions o H3O +: hydronium ion 1*10^-7 M o OH -: hydroxide ion 1*10^-7 M ▯ Dissociation Product for H2O K w Kw =[H3O+][OH-]=? Kw is the same value @ 25° C for all aqueus solutions Kw =[H3O+][OH-]= (1*10^-7)(1*10^-7)= 1*10^-14 ▯ Strong Acids and Bases Dissociate 100% in solutions Strong acids: o HCl o HBr o HI o HNO3 o H2SO4 Strong Bases: o LiOH o NaOH o RbOH o CsOH o Ca(OH)2 o Sr(OH)2 o Ba(OH)2 ▯ Weak Acids and Bases Don’t dissociate 100% in solutions Weak acids: o Most other acids Weak bases: o Most other bases ▯ ▯
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