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Chem 110, Week 9 Notes

by: BritneyMoore

Chem 110, Week 9 Notes CHEM 110

CSU Pomona

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About this Document

These notes discuss acids vs bases and the pH scale.
Chemical Principles I
Dr. Hoda Mirafzal
Class Notes
General Chemistry
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by BritneyMoore on Thursday May 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Hoda Mirafzal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 05/26/16
Tuesday May 24, 2016 ▯ Acids and Bases  Have both physical and chemical properties  Acids are sour while bases are bitter  Both are found in liquid and solid form ▯ Memorize:  HCl- Hydrochloric Acid  HNO - Nitric Acid  H2SO 4- Sulfuric Acid  NH 3- Ammonia (base) ▯ Acid Base Indicator  A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base ▯ Arrhenius  Acid: a substance that dissociates in water to form H +(aq) o HCl+H 2O  H +(aq)+Cl -(aq)  Base: a substance that dissociates in water to form OH -(aq) o NaOH +H 2O  Na +(aq)+OH (aq) ▯ What ions are formed when ammonia is added to water?  NH 3+H 2O  NH OH(aq)  NH 4+(aq)+OH -(aq)  All amines (bases) undergo a similar process ▯ Bronsted and Lowry  Acid: hydrogen ion (H +) donor  Base: hydrogen ion (H +) acceptor  HCl(donor)+H O(acceptor)  H 3O ++Cl -  Water is neither an acid nor a base BUT in this case water is the base  H3O +: hydronium ion o H ++H2O  H O +(aq) ▯ Arrhenius VS Bronsted-Lowry  All Arrhenius acids are BL acids  All Arrhenius bases are BL bases  All BL acids are Arrhenius acids  NOT all BL bases are Arrhenius bases ▯ pH  A scale indicating the acidity of a solution  pH= -log[H+]  [H+]=10^-pH  [H+][OH -]=1*10^-14  pH+pOH=14 o pH=0-14 (acidic-basic) o pOH=0-14 (basic-acidic)  Acidic: pOH>7, pH<7, [H + ]>[OH -]  Neutral: pOH=7, pH=7, [H +]=[OH ]  Basic: pOH<7, pH>7, [H +]<[OH ]  *all acid/base solutions have both H+ and OH- ions in them, but the relative amounts of concentration of H+ and OH- ions in them determines the pH balance ▯ Autoionization of Water  A very small amount of H+ is transferred between water molecules o H 2OH + +OH - o 1/(10^14) water molecules will do this (water “doesn’t” ionize) o PURE water does not conduct electricity ▯ Pure water  Neutral  Contains small but equal amounts of ions o H3O +: hydronium ion 1*10^-7 M o OH -: hydroxide ion 1*10^-7 M ▯ Dissociation Product for H2O K w  Kw =[H3O+][OH-]=?  Kw is the same value @ 25° C for all aqueus solutions  Kw =[H3O+][OH-]= (1*10^-7)(1*10^-7)= 1*10^-14 ▯ Strong Acids and Bases  Dissociate 100% in solutions  Strong acids: o HCl o HBr o HI o HNO3 o H2SO4  Strong Bases: o LiOH o NaOH o RbOH o CsOH o Ca(OH)2 o Sr(OH)2 o Ba(OH)2 ▯ Weak Acids and Bases  Don’t dissociate 100% in solutions  Weak acids: o Most other acids  Weak bases: o Most other bases ▯ ▯


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