JOUR 331, Week 9 Notes
JOUR 331, Week 9 Notes JOUR 331
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Thursday May 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 331 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Ellen Curtis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Advertising in Journalism Core at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 05/26/16
JOUR 331-01 Ellen Curtis Week 9 Media Planning How are media plans created? o Media planners are in the connection business o They connect brand messages with customers and other stakeholders o They identify and activate the points of contact where brand messages touch consumers and engage their interest Media planning research o Media engagement research Media costs are often the biggest element in the marketing communication budget If the right media aren’t in play, no matter how great the message, nobody sees or hears it Media sources Client information Market research Competitive advertising expenditures Media kits Media coverage area Consumer behavior reports Newspaper readership Audit Bureau of Circulations: an independent auditing group that represents advertisers, agencies, and publishers Simmons-Scarborough: provides a syndicated study that annually measures profiles in 70 of the nation’s largest cities Magazine readership Magazine rates are based on the guaranteed circulation that a publisher promises to provide Magazine circulation is the number of copies of an issue sold, not the readership of the publication Several companies verify the circulation of magazines, along with the demographic and psychographic characteristics of specific readers The radio audience The radio industry and independent research firms provide several measures for advertisers, including a station’s coverage A better measure is station or program ratings, which measure the percent of homes actually tuned in to the particular station The Arbitron Ratings Company estimates the size of radio audiences for more than 250 markets in the US The television audience A great number of advertisers consider television their primary medium Television viewers are sometimes irritated by the intrusiveness of advertising and will often switch channels or zip through commercials A. C. Nielsen is the research company that dominates the television measurement industry Exposure is television’s equivalent to circulation It measures households with sets turned on, or households using television An impression is one person’s opportunity to be exposed one time to an ad We add all of these impressions up and call them gross impressions Gross impression figures become very large and difficult to work with, which is why the television industry, similar to radio, uses ratings Share of audience refers to the percent of viewers based on the number of sets turned on during a specific broadcast period Independent rating firms such as A. C. Nielsen provide the most commonly used measure of national and local television audiences o Nielsen’s calculations are based on audience data from about 5,000 measurement instruments, called people meters o The company also uses viewer diaries mailed out during the “sweeps” period o Nielsen continues to add people meters in its top markets to track local viewing patterns Outdoor viewership The outdoor advertiser is interested in the percentage of the population who, within a 24-hour period, is exposed one or more boards carrying the brand message. Traditionally outdoor boards have been purchased and measured in terms of showings, or estimates of the percentages of the population who had the opportunity to see the sign. Online audiences Media planners are interested in estimates of: o the number of visits to a website o how much time was spent on the site o New and repeat visitors Ad buying services and the sites themselves can provide more sophisticated analytics. Key steps in a media plan o The media plan: a written document that summarizes objectives and strategies that guide how media dollars will be spent o The goal is to find the most efficient and effective ways to deliver messages to a targeted audience o Media plans are designed to answer: Who (target audience) What for (objectives) Where (the media vehicles used) Where (geography) When (time frame) How big (media weight) At what cost (cost efficiency) Step 1: Define your target audience o The idea is to select media vehicles that: Are compatible with the creative executions Whose audiences best match those of the brand’s target audience o The tighter the focus on a target market, the easier it is to find appropriate media to deliver a relevant message Step 2: Communication and media objectives o Media objectives describe what a company wants to accomplish regarding the delivery of its brand messages and their impact on the target audience. o The reach objective Reach is the percent of different people exposed to the message. Targeted reach is the percentage of a vehicle’s audience that matches the brand’s target market. Wasted reach is the number of people in the vehicle’s audience who are neither customers nor prospects. o The frequency objective Frequency refers to the repetition of message exposure. Planners often use a frequency distribution model that shows the percentage of audience reached at each level of repetition. o Effective frequency Here, you add frequency to reach until you get to the level where people respond. o Media waste When additional media weight ceases to increase the response, it produces waste. o Writing media objectives Objectives must be measureable with time frames. You can seldom reach 100 percent of your target audience. At times, frequency is more important than reach. Step 3: Media Strategies o Media strategy is the way media planners determine the most cost-effective way to reach the target audience and satisfy media objectives. o This involves decisions and tools that help identify the best way to deliver the brand message. o Regardless of the budget, the goal is to reach the right people at the right time with the right message. o Media mix selection: Most brands use a variety of targeted media vehicles, called a media mix, to reach current and potential customers. Using a media mix distributes the message more widely; media has different audience profiles. Ask yourself: What media will deliver what effects? Can I reinforce and extend those effects with a mix of media? o Scheduling strategies Aperture: refers to when consumers are most receptive to a brand message. The goal is to reach the right people at the right time with the right message o Timing strategies: When to advertise? Seasonality, holidays, days of the week, time of day. Lead time: time between thinking about purchase and purchasing. o Duration: How long? If the period is too short, the message may not have sufficient impact. If the period is too long, the ads may suffer from wearout. o Continuity: How often? Refers to how advertising is spread out over the campaign. A continuous strategy spreads ads evenly over campaign period. o Pulsing strategy Advertising is intensified (peaks) before an aperture and reduced to lower levels (valleys) until the aperture reopens; bursts of activity. o Flighting strategy Alternating periods of intense advertising activity (bursts) and no advertising (hiatus). Size and position strategies Based on advertising objectives Correct message size and length must be determined for each medium o Size and position strategies Based on advertising objectives. Correct message size and length must be determined for each medium. o Media weighting Demographic market area How much to budget in each DMA or region and for each target group. Used with seasonality, geography, audience segments, or level of brand development by DMA Step 4: Media metrics and analysis o Media plans are driven by accountability o Media departments are no place for guessing. With millions – even tens of millions – of dollars at stake, clients want hard data showing what their budgets are being well spent. o GRPs (gross rating points) are found by multiplying each media vehicle’s rating by the number of insertions, then adding up the total of all vehicles. o TRPs (target rating points) adjusts the GRP calculation so it more accurately reflects the percentage of the target audience watching the program, thus reducing waste coverage Cost efficiency o Advertising decisions often come down to cold, hard cash o Planners use CPM, TCPM, and CPP to measure a target audience’s size against the cost of reaching that audience o CPM: cost per thousand An estimate of the cost to expose 1,000 audience members. CPM = cost of ad x 1,000/readership. o TCPM: Targeted cost per thousand An estimate of the cost to expose 1,000 target audience members TCPM = cost of ad x 1,000/readers in target audience o CPP: Cost per point Comparing media vehicles by relating the cost of the message to the audience rating. CPP = cost of ad/program or issue rating o Media optimization: A computer technique that enables marketers to determine the relative impact of a media mix on product sales, and to optimize efficiency Media planners must be careful not to overload and irritate consumers Media negotiation and buying o Media buying basics Media buying is a complicated process The American Association of Advertising Agencies lists 21 elements of a media buy The most important one is matching the media vehicle to the strategic needs of the message and the brand Key media buyer activities: Provide inside information to media planners Select media vehicles Negotiate costs Bargain for preferred positions Demand extra support offers Monitor performance Post-campaign evaluation Monitor billing and payment The physical characteristics of a magazine can affect its ability to deliver the desired message (V8 ad) Multichannel buying (and selling) A number of media services can be used to ease the task of multichannel media buying Newspaper buying is simplified through companies that place advertising in papers nationwide In the digital world, DoubleClick’s DART for Advertisers (DART) service helps manage display A cross-media buy can be simplified by media companies that manage multiple vehicles Media planning and buying trends The media landscape is dynamic and changing fast. It is hard to keep track of how the media business is practiced Unbundling Media Planning and Buying o Agency media departments have become separate, independent profit centers and can work for the agencies’ competition, and compete with agencies o Some media companies offer consolidated services, bringing some of the planning and buying functions back together Online media buying o Google and Facebook dominate media buying and selling o Ad exchanges: digital marketplaces that enable advertisers and publishers to buy and sell advertising space, often through real-time auctions. They’re most often used to sell display, video and mobile ad inventory o Programmatic advertising: placed using artificial intelligence (AI) and real-time bidding (RTB) for online display, social media advertising, mobile and video campaigns, and is expanding to traditional TV advertising marketplaces New forms of media research o Online media research (hits and clicks) don’t measure impact o Traditional media monitoring systems don’t address the new ways media is used and systems like TiVo and interactive TV o Viral media is equally difficult to measure o Most media research measures independent media, not the effectiveness of combined media
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