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PSY 1001H chapter 1 outline

by: Allison Cunningham

PSY 1001H chapter 1 outline PSY 1001H

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Psychlogy > PSY 1001H > PSY 1001H chapter 1 outline
Allison Cunningham
U of M

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Chapter 1 outline of "Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 3rd edition, Lillenfeld, Pearson"
Honors Introduction to Psychology
Kyle McNeal
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Cunningham on Thursday May 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001H at University of Minnesota taught by Kyle McNeal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 05/26/16
PSY 1001H Chapter 1 notes: Psychology and Scientific Thinking “Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 3  edition, Pearson” by Scott Lillenfeld ­ William James: founder of American psychology ­ psychology: scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior o Spans multiple levels of analysis  Lower levels: studies of brain  Higher levels: studying the mind (brain in action) ­ almost all actions are multiply determined (produced by many factors) o Human behavior is hard to predict o Be skeptical of single­variable explanations of human behavior ­ psychological influences are usually dependent on each other ­ people differ in: behavior, personality, thinking, emotion o “individual differences”  explains different reactions to same situation  hard to explain behavior in a way that applies to everyone ­ people influence each other o reciprocal determinism: everyone influences everyone else’s behavior  it’s hard to isolate causes of behavior ­ behavior is shaped by culture o can’t always trust common sense  naïve realism: belief that we see the world exactly as it is o you should learn when to/not trust common sense and intuition ­ psychology is a science o science: systemic approach to evidence  empiricism: knowledge should be gained via observation  systemic research methods: used by psychologists o scientific theory: explains a large number findings in the natural world o hypothesis: a testable prediction ­ bias o confirmation bias: looking for evidence that supports your own beliefs, and  disregarding/distorting contradictory evidence  impacts daily life o belief perseverance: sticking to initial beliefs after they are contradicted by  evidence ­ metaphysical claims: untestable assertions about the world o God, the afterlife, etc.  science can’t answer everything ­ recognizing possible incorrectness o scientific knowledge can be tested and revised o knowledge is gained slowly in small parts o pseudoscience: set of claims that seems scientific, but isn’t  ESP, astrology  isn’t protected from confirmation bias and belief perseverance  warning signs:  overuse of ad hoc immunizing hypotheses  lack of self­correction  overreliance on anecdotes  brains are programed to find order in nonsense: reason for our draw to  pseudoscience  loss of sense of control – prone to false beliefs  terror management theory: awareness of inevitable death causes  fear, which we cope with by adapting worldviews that give  meaning beyond our lives o logical fallacies: traps in thinking that result in mistaken conclusions  emotional reasoning fallacy: using emotions as guides when evaluating the validity of a claim  bandwagon fallacy: assuming something is true because other people think it is  not me fallacy: belief that you’re immune to errors in thinking that affect  other people o bias blind spot: people see others’ biases, but not their own ­ dangers of pseudoscience and pseudoscientific treatments o opportunity cost: treatments lead people away from actual treatments o direct harm: causes physical/psychological damage  rebirthing therapy: mimicking sensation of birth o inability to think scientifically: slows reaching decisions about global warming,  genetics, etc.  ­ scientific thinking o scientific skepticism  open­mindedness to all claims  accept claims that are subjected to scientific tests  don’t accept claims just on basis of authority  o framework for scientific thinking  critical thinking: set of skills for evaluating claims carefully and with an  open mind  principles:  ruling out rival hypotheses  correlation isn’t causation o correlation­causation fallacy: 2 variables that are correlated don’t necessarily cause each other  falsifiability  replicability  extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence  occam’s razor/principle of parsimony o if 2 explanations are given for something, the simpler one  is most likely to be true ­ history of psychology o early history  used to be like philosophy st  1879: Wilhelm Wundt: 1  psych lab in Leipzig, Germany  used experimental methods (incl. introspection)  beginning of psychology as a science  theoretical frameworks  5 major perspectives:  o structuralism (Titchener): identifying basic elements of  psychological experience o functionalism (Darwin): understanding purposes/functions  of psychological characteristics o behaviorism (Watson): finding general principles of  learning underlying behavior  observable behavior only o cognitivism (Piaget): thinking affects behavior o psychoanalysis (Freud): internal psychological processes  modern psychology  there are 500,000 psychologists worldwide o many areas of interest  different types of psychology and work settings  debates  nature vs. nurture o are behaviors due to genes or upbringing?  free­will determinism o do we choose our behaviors, or are they controlled by  outside factors?  how psychology affects life  basic research: how the mind works  applied research: how we use basic research to solve problems


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