PSC 1 Week 9 Notes
PSC 1 Week 9 Notes PSC 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Friday May 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Simonton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 05/27/16
5/23/16 Taste • smell combined with taste create flavor of food Smell • sense of smell is triggered when odorants enter the sinuses and make contact with receptors in the olfactory epithelium, which sends signals to the olfactory bulb in the brain • lock and key model—each odorant must fit into a particular receptor Pheromones—behaviorally relevant chemical odorants the animals use to communicate detected with the vomeronasal organ • • humans can distinguish the smells of their direct family members (not partners or step siblings though) • women have more sensitive sense of smell than men McGurk effect—when visual information changes what we hear • “watch these videos because they may come up on the test” Language and Cognition Theories of Decision making • normative theories—focus on how people should rationally make decisions in order to reach optimal outcomes • descriptive theories—focus on how people actually make decisions Fast and Frugal Decisions • heuristics—quick and easy, mental shortcuts for solving a problem • ‘thin slicing”—when experts can make accurate judgements based on little info • availability heuristic—when we estimate how likely something is based on how easy it is to retrieve examples from memory Cognitive Biases Cognitive Bias—systematic deviation from rational decision making that leads to an error • • Base Rate Fallacy—tendency to ignore “base rate” info when making decisions • Anchoring Effect—relying too heavily on the first piece of info available, even when it’s irrelevant • Decoy Effect—(Paris vs Rome example) 5/24/16 Language http://www.radiolab.org/story/91725-words/ Building Blocks of Language • phonemes—the “sounds” of language • morphemes—smallest units of meaning • words (cat), suffixes (-ing), prefixes (re-) • semantics—meaning of words and sentences • arbitrary mapping between words and meanings • syntax—grammatical rules for combining words and phrases • different sets of rules across language • prosody—tone and pitch of speech sarcasm, emphasis, emotion • Acquiring language • B.F. Skinner said children learn language through operant conditioning • Noam Chomsky said language leaning ability is innate, language is productive, poverty of the stimulus, language acquisition device • speech segmentation problem—before we’ve learned a language there’s no easy way to determine when one word ends and the other begins • statistical learning—young babies gradually learn the transitional probabilities between phonemes, to find the gaps between words • children make overgeneralization errors, where they over-apply a grammatical rule to exception words (“he throwed it”) Language in the Brain • semantic violations • the pizza was way to hot to eat/marry • N400—a brain response triggered when we process a meaningful word • large for anomalous words, small to predictable words 5/25/16 • syntactic violations • P600—a brain component triggered after detecting a syntactic error • word order violations (we liked his about song the truck) • agreement violations (the boy kick the ball) • aphasia—language disorder that results in defeats in language comprehension or production • Broca’s aphasia—speaking difficulties • Wernicke’s aphasia—comprehension difficulties Language and Thought • Sapir-Whorf hyposthesis—the structure of a language greatly influences the thoughts and behaviors of a group of people • “Left of the blue wall” experiment: • after being spun aroud, rats and 3-4 year old children can’t find the cookie that they saw to the left of the blue wall • adults and 5-6 year old children can, but not when they are prevented from using language during the task using verbal shadowing • Nicaraguan Sign Language • pidgin—simplified language shared between people with very different language backgrounds—little to no formalized syntax creole—stable, natural language which develops from a pidgin, addition of syntax by a • new generation of speakers learning from a young age • Bilingualism • generally people process their two languages in the same regions of the brain, but additional activity is recruited for a weaker, L2 language 5/26/16 Consciousness Mystery of Sleep • adaptive theory—nighttime is dangerous, so we evolved to stay quiet and hidden at night to stay safe • energy conservation theory—reduces calories burned • restorative theory—the brain glyphatic system allows CSF (Cerebral Spinal Fluid) to rush between neurons and flush out toxins • memory consolidation theory—the mind replays previous events and “practices” for upcoming events to strengthen memories • patterns of EEG brain waves shift across sleep stages; 4 stages repeat in sleep cycles Sleep Problems • sleep debt—after an all-nighter, you need more sleep the next night (not consistent with adaptive theory) • insomnia—chronic trouble falling or staying asleep, psychotherapy as effective as sleeping pills • narcolepsy—intense daytime sleepiness, often with cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone) • sleep apnea—breathing is obstructed during the night (wake 100+ times), causing poor sleep and restricted oxygen—> cognitive health problems Psychoactive Substances • anxioltics—anxiety inhibits • stimulants—increased CNS activity, reduced need for food and sleep • depressants—decreased CNS activity, sleepiness, impaired concentration • opiates—euphoria and analgesia • hallucinogens—distorted sense of time, hallucinations Contraindications • drug interactions—potentially harmful interactions between two drugs taken at the same time (additive or synergistic) • respiratory depression—deadly • tolerance—diminishing effect of a drug over time • dependance—result of neural adaptation to a drug • withdrawal symptoms—negative symptoms that occur after stopping use • substance abuse disorders have genetic origins and run in families • “drug addiction is a brain disease…”
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