HIST 1010 Week 1 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan)
HIST 1010 Week 1 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan) History 1010
Popular in World History 1
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday May 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
Reviews for HIST 1010 Week 1 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 05/29/16
World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 Book Notes (pgs. 1-62) CHAPTER 1: The Earliest Human Societies Evolution and Migration v Understanding the Early Human Past • Classification helps people understand things. - This can be divided further until you reach a group of organisms that can be interbred and produce fertile offspring. - When interbreeding with in a species cant happen anymore, a new species will form. - Humans are in the animal kingdom (Order: Primates, Family: Homidinae, Genus: Homo). • Scholars use genetic analysis to study early humans. • Physical remains were the earliest type of evidence that was used to learn about distant human past. • Stone AgeàBronze AgeàIron Age - Stone age was further divided into the old stone age (Paleolithic era) and the new stone age (Neolithic era). o Paleolithic era: the period during which humans used tools made of stone, bone, and wood, and got food by gathering and hunting (foraging). § Foraging: a life style in which people get their food by gathering plant products, trapping/catching small animals and hunting big prey. o Neolithic era: the period in which humans got their food by raising crops and animals and used tools made of stone, bone, and wood. • The last 12 thousand years are known as the “Holocene”. • The “Pleistocene” had glaciers and continental ice sheets. v Hominid Evolution • Most primates (hominids) lived in trees, but some in East Africa began to spend time on the ground. - Hominid: members of the family level Homidinae that contain humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans. - 3.4 million years ago, hominids used naturally occurring objects as tools. - 2.5 million years ago, australopithecines made and used simple tools in which they evolved into homo hibilis “handy humans”. - 2 million years ago homo erectus evolved into “upright humans”. o Since they had a different shape/location for their larynx, they probably depended more on the use of sound. o They were also known for moving a lot. v Homo Sapiens “Thinking Humans” - 250,000 years ago came the homo sapiens “thinking humans”. • After each evolution, the brain got larger, but there was a disadvantage to it—bigger brain, more energy needed to operate it. The pelvis size decreased as well. - Making/using tools, symbolic language, thought, and social organization contributed to a larger brain. - 25,000 years ago, humans started weaving cloths and baskets. - 17,000 years ago, humans started using bows and arrows. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 v Migration and Differentiation • The interaction between homo erectus and homo sapiens resulted in Neanderthals (150,000 years ago). - Neanderthals: a group of homo erectus that have a brain that was as big as a modern day humans. o Thought to be the last living hominids until the hobbits were found. • Scientists divided people into groups that were categorized by skin color and other characteristics; they called these groups “race”. - Caucasian was the first group. Paleolithic Society v Foraging for Food • Paleolithic people have been called hunter-gatherers. - They hunted large game. - Megafaunal extinction: when large animals died in many parts of the world. • Division of labor was by gender. - Division of labor: assigning tasks by gender, age, training, status, and social distinction. - The men hunted and the women gathered plant and animal products. - These people needed at least 10-20 hours a week in order to find food. • Moms and infants died during childbirth and most children died before reaching childbirth. v Family and Kinship Relationships • Paleolithic people were differentiated by age, gender, and position in family. - Men had the most power. • Some groups would interchange children with other groups, so that connections could be made. v Cultural Creations and Spirituality • Paleolithic people expressed themselves through arts and culture. - Some art pieces have been created to praise ancestors or leaders. • They thought supernatural forces controlled some of the natural forces. - Animism: the idea that people, plants, animals, natural occurrences, and other parts of the world have spirits. - Shamans: people that are healers and communicate with spirits. The Development of Agriculture in the Neolithic Era • Foraging was the main way people lived for most of human history. - The longer people remained in certain areas, the more seeds they planted, the more wild crops they gathered, and the more animals they raised. This all led to the Agricultural revolution. o Agricultural revolution: the transformation in human history that resulted from the changes from foraging to raising crops/animals. v The Development of Horticulture • As earth got warmer, climate got wetter. - Crop planting was done using digging sticks and hoes, and is referred to as horticulture. - Horticulture: crop raising that is done with hand tools and human power. - People learned when to plant and what to plant through observation. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 o Domestication: plants and animals modified by selective breeding to serve needs. • International crop planting developed in the Fertile Crescent (includes Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and Turkey). • Crop raising resulted due to a growth in population, more food, and longer life. • Cultural factors could have played a role in agricultural development. - Symbolic, cultural, or religious importance are reasons why foraging changed to agriculture. - A field of planted/weeded crops yields a lot of food, but requires a lot of labor as well. • Farming spread from the Fertile Crescent àGreeceàBritainàEthiopia. • People adapted crops to their local environments. - Corn in Mexico. - Potatoes and quinoa in the Andes. - Squash and beans in North America. - Dates, mangos, and sesame seeds in Asia. - Corn was by far the most successful and therefore more commonly planted. • “Slash and burn” was when crops were planted until the soil lost fertility. v Animal Domestication and the Rise of Pastoralism • People started to domesticate animals. - The earliest animals to be domesticated were dogs. o Dogs were often used in herding. - The Fertile Crescent domesticated goats and sheep. o Sheep and goats allowed themselves to be herded which led to pastoralism. § Pastoralism: an economic system that is based on herding flocks of goats, sheep, cattle, or other animals. - Chickens were domesticated in Asia. - People learned that animal manure is a good fertilizer. o The feces contact with humans exposed them to illness and disease. • Large animals were soon domesticated to carry heavy objects and people on their backs. v Plow Agriculture • Plows being used helped in the surplus of food production for the Neolithic people. • Wheeled vehicles led to road building and traveling longer distances. v Social Hierarchies and Slavery • Among social hierarchies labor division happened (between rich, poor, elites, and common people). - Social hierarchies: divisions between rich and poor, elites and common people that have been a big part of human society. - The heads of the groups had control over other’s labors. o Wealth could also command labor. • Slaves also became a type of physical power like animals were. • The most important distinction between elites and everyone else was the ability to exploit human labor. v Gender Hierarchies and inheritance • The system in which men had more power over women/other men was known as patriarchy. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 - Patriarchy: a social system in which men have more power and access to resources than women and other men do. - The plow agriculture heightened this. • In Neolithic societies women spent more time indoors, and men spent more time outdoors. • In 1870 the “Code of Hammurabi” stated the differences in inheritance for the sons a man had with his wife and those with a servant. - Daughters were not mentioned. • Elite men were to be with elite women, non-elite men were supposed to be with non-elite women. Crossing over was not allowed. v Trade and Cross Cultural Connections • A city named Catal Huyuk was located in what is now called Turkey. - Men/women grew wheat, barley, peas, etc. - Copper was traded. o Copper wasn’t the best, so bronze was made instead. § It was stronger than copper, and had a wide range of uses. • The Bronze Age was the adoption of iron technology. CHAPTER 2: The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley Writing, Cities, and States • Complex urban societies are known as civilizations. v Written Sources and the Human Past • History comes from the Greek word “historia”, which was said by Herodotus. - He based his histories on the wars between the Persians and the Greeks. • Methodology is the use of eyewitnesses. • Works considered worthy of copying were usually about political or military events that involved major powers. - Some texts have survived due to people inscribing them on bones, shells, and stones. o The Vietnam veteran memorial is the best example of stone inscription. o The Egyptians used papyrus sheets. o The Chinese used bones and turtle shells. v Cities and the Idea of Civilization • The word “civilized” came from the Latin adjective “civilis”, which referred to a citizen that was from either a town or a larger political unit. - Civilizations had the following: o Codes of manners. o Laws that govern human relationship. o Scientific/philosophical/theological ideas that explained the larger world. - Only societies that used writing were said to be civilizations. o “Cradles of civilization” were the earliest places where writing and cities developed. v The Rise of States, Laws, and Social Hierarchies • In order for cities to work, they needed, more elaborate mechanisms, known as “states”. - States controlled people through violence. - They also established bureaucracies and taxation. - Written laws created more elaborate social hierarchies. • Social gender hierarchies went from MesopotamiaàEgyptàIndiaàChina. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 Mesopotamia from Sumer to Babylon v Environmental Challenges, Irrigation, and Religion • Uruk was known as the world’s first city. - Temples were built to be used as storage for grain and housing for animals. • Sumerians believed in polytheism. - Polytheism: the worship of many gods and goddesses. - The best way to honor the gods was to build a temple. v Sumerian Politics and Society • Sumerian kingship powers were handed down to the sons, and the daughter’s inheritance would be in the form of a dowry. - The symbol of a royal status was a palace. - Alliances were made through marriage. - The lowest class of people were the slaves. v Writing, Mathematics, and Poetry • Pictographs were methods in which the use of pictures conveyed a form of writing. The pictographs were a form of cuneiform. - Cuneiform: a Sumerian form of writing. - Scribal schools were established in which there were masters, teachers, and monitors. • Sumerians and Mesopotamians made many advances in mathematics. - They developed the concept of “place value”. • Sumerians didn’t think of written texts to be important in a religious life. - Historians used epic poems to learn about the aspects of society. o Epic poem: an oral/written narration of achievements and failures of heroes that embodies a person’s idea about him/herself. v Empires in Mesopotamia • A king named Sargon conquered Sumerian cities with an army. - He expanded the Akkadian empire to Syria. - He spoke the Semitic language (a mix of Hebrew and Arabic). o The Akkadian people spoke Akkadian. - Enheduana was his daughter and also the world’s first author. • Babylon had Hammurabi as its leader. - He thought himself to be connected with the sun god, Shamash. - Marduk became Babylon’s chief god. v Life Under Hammurabi • Hammurabi’s best accomplishment was setting up a detailed law code, known as “Hammurabi’s Law Code”. - Hammurabi’s Law Code: a set of laws that were issued by Hammurabi. - If the law code was to be broken, it contained punishments. The code also regulated trade. o The punishment for adultery was death. The Egyptians v The Nile and the God-King • Egypt was known as “the gift of the Nile”. - The Nile River flooded once a year for many months. o This brought fertile soil and moisture for farming. - A king was said to be the cause of the rise and fall of the Nile. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 • Upper Egypt—upstream valley in the south. • Lower Egypt—delta area of the Nile. • Egyptian histories were divided into dynasties and families. • Tombs contained things that a king would need in his afterlife. • The Egyptians were polytheistic. - Considered Ra to be the sun god and the creator of life. o Amon was another sun god in the new kingdom. • The “Book of the Dead” was a book that contained ideas of the afterlife. - Osiris was the king of the dead and has a wife named Isis who brought him back to life. • Anubis was the god of mummification. v Egyptian Society and Work • Egyptian society reflected the pyramids they built. • Egyptian scribes created 2 writing systems—hieroglyphics and hieratic. • The Nile was essential for Egyptians. - They planted wheat and barley for bread and beer. • Egyptian lives centered around family. - Marriage was a business agreement. v Migrations, Revivals, and Collapse • The Hyksos group “rule of the uplands” were migrants that were looking for good land. - They brought methods for making bronze and horse drawn carriages. • There were many new pharaohs in the new kingdom. - Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh. - Amenhotep II (Akhenaten) was seceded by his son. Nefertiti was his wife. • Anatolia is the name of modern day Turkey. • Many languages were spoken that were apart of the Indo European language - Indo European Language: a large family of languages that includes English, most languages of modern Europe, ancient Greek, Latin, Persian, Hindi, Bengali, and Sanskrit. - Hittite was also spoken. o Hittite was the language of those that migrated to the country. § The Hittites were in the conflict with the Egyptians due to the expansion of territory. ⋅ Ramses II and Hattusili concluded a peace treaty. v The Emergence of New States • Around 1200 B.C.E. was the “bronze age collapse”. - This was the time of economic/political disruption, but also the spread of technology. • The Iron Age began in 1100 B.C.E. - Iron Age: the period in which iron became the most important material for weapons and tools in some parts of the world. • Nubia was the region south of Egypt, along the Nile. - Served as the conduit for ivory, gold, and ebony trade. - Kush (a kingdom) rose to the power in Nubia. o The capital was Napata (now known as Sudan). o The king’s name was Piye. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 o The Assyrians pushed out the Kush people. • Meroe was the center of iron production. • The Phoenicians “purple people” introduced grape growing. - Phoenicians: people of modern day Lebanon that traded and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean. - They founded the city of Tunisia, which was the leading city in the Mediterranean. The Hebrews • The Hebrews controlled 2 small states in the Fertile Crescent for many centuries. - They created a form of religious belief (monotheistic) based in worshipping Yahweh. o Yahweh: the god of the Hebrew people and the base of Judaism traditions. • The Christians adapted the Hebrew bible as the Old Testament. v The Hebrew State • The Hebrews were enslaved by the Egyptians, but later freed by Moses. - They settled in Canaan. - The Hebrews found a leader named Saul. • The temple of Jerusalem was symbolic, and the home of Ark of the Covenant. v The Jewish Religion • The Thorah was the 1 of the 5 books of the Hebrew bible. - Yahweh and Moses were the leaders and known as prophets. o Yahweh would often punish people. v Hebrew Society • For the Hebrews, the first-born son was to be the head of the family upon the death of the father. v Assyria, the Military Monarchy • Assyrians started to create an empire; their methods were harsh but successful. - Babylon won independence and destroyed the Assyrians with the Medes. v The Rise and Expansion of the Persian Empire • Persia is modern day Iraq. - The king of Persia was Cyrus the Great. o Croesus was the king of Lydia that became his advisor. • As the Medes rose, the power in Asia shifted to Mesopotamia. • Darius conquered Scythia, and called himself the king of kings. • Satraps were the heads of the districts. • As long as the people paid their taxes, the Persians let the, believe whatever they wanted to. • Roads were used for trade and communication • The Persian religion was polytheistic and tied to nature. - Ahuramazda was the chief god. v The Religion of Zoroaster • Zoroaster was a thinker and a preacher. - He gathered scared texts that are now known as the “Aveda” - He would preach that one should rely on their own conscience to guide them through life. - Teachers communicated his writings. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 Lecture Notes LECTURE #1: 5/23/16 (The Neolithic Revolution) The Paleolithic Age—400,000 to 8,000 B.C.E. The Paleolithic Age was the “cave man” age. People lived off of what they gathered and hunted (fruit, nuts, meat, etc.) there are still a few pockets of the world that have people who follow this life style. People in this age had tools that they made out of stone, bone, or wood. Cave art was the way they expressed themselves. It showed a lot of survival mechanisms, like hunting, because that is basically what their life was. It was created to ensure the survival of their community. There was a division of labor between the genders, and, both women and men were outside to do their tasks. The men would hunt/fish, and the women would do the gathering of fruits/nuts/berries. The status of men was equal to the status of women, because both of the were essential to survival. 70% of the food they got was grains, nuts, and berries. The Neolithic Age The Neolithic Age included the agricultural revolution, which is also known as the “New Stone Age”. It was all about the discovery of farming. The Middle East was the origin of human civilization (modern day Iraq). Mesopotamia was a part of the Middle East at the time, and surrounded the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. The agricultural revolution (no matter in which country/continent) always happened near valleys. Humans maintained herds of domestic (this means when humans can control the breeding habits of the animals) animals. Domestication probably started with sheep and goats, and then shortly after came dogs. Some say that imprinting (this means a moment that is early in an animals life, in which bonding forms with another living thing) was the cause of domestication. Women knew what plants were the best, and so those were stored to be later used. The Paleolithic population didn’t grow much due to the effort it took to maintain their survival status. Hunter and gatherers were nomads (this means that they were people that were always on the move), which also prohibited population growth. Pregnancies didn’t happen every year, because when a woman breast-feeds her child, conceiving becomes difficult. The Neolithic Age, had a lot of population growth opposed to the Paleolithic Age. Jericho and Catal Huyuk are the basis of a lot of the things people know about Neolithical life. Commerce and trade developed during this time due to a small surplus of items that were made through farming. Each community’s surplus was different. People only sold the extra stuff, and not anything that was essential to survival. Writing developed thanks to commerce and trade, because merchants needed to keep track of what they were selling and how much they were selling of it. Government was probably developed (for defense and justice) due to farming, just in case disputes needed to be solved regarding land. Social stratification was the status a person held in the community (a person had a different social groups each with a different social status). The Paleolithic people thought of men and women as the same when it came to gender roles (both did their work outside). In the Neolithic Age, gender roles significantly changed— men (possessed a high status) did the heavy lifting of farming, women were more domestic due to babies being born more often. The women’s status declined when civilizations began to form. Public spheres in modern day could be thought of as parks, and private spheres in modern day could be thought of as at home family matters. Public in the Neolithic Age was their religion, and private was their at home life. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 Warfare would happen when leaders wanted to expand. Siege warfare was when you surrounded an area until the people inside did what the surrounders wanted them to do. People went out during the daytime to farm, and the patterns of people were very urban, congested, and highly populated. Pastoralism was a hybrid between settle and nomadic lifestyles. They herded more domesticated animals in smaller areas, they called this “grazing”. LECTURE #2: 5/25/16 (Early Civilization in the Middle East and Africa) Mesopotamia Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) is formed by the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. Sumer is a subset of Mesopotamia and the curve of Mesopotamian culture, in which it is spread out. City-states are what developed in Mesopotamia. They are politically independent, autonomous, and “free agents”. City-states will try and take over others to form kingdoms, which will then form bigger political units. A man named Hammurabi built the first Mesopotamian empire. He also imposed unity. Cuneiform started off as wet clay tablets, and then became hard stones. In the wet clay you would write or draw in wedge shapes, which was the way that people back then kept records. The religious views of Mesopotamia were polytheistic and anthropomorphic (this means to assign human qualities to stones or non human like things). The Mesopotamians viewed their gods with human like traits and characteristics, and often saw them as capricious, spiteful, and vengeful. The religious point of view at this time was that one was very close to disaster striking and chaos. There was no security at this point in time, ad these people were literally hanging on by a thread. So the reason that they still worshipped theses gods even though they were so terrible was because they were the only ones (in their mind) that could save the people from these sorts of disasters. The Mesopotamians also didn’t have the concept of an afterlife, and usually people that do believe in one, they carry an optimistic attitude. Mesopotamia developed its own law code of Hammurabi. These fluctuated by individual, and weren’t fixed. Hammurabi’s first law code was very important due to it being a written law code. The law code also made it possible to appeal to judicial decisions. There were also many social distinctions that were embedded in it, such as aristocrats would be treated differently than slaves. The law code also made sure to make the punishment match the severity of the nature of the crime “tooth for a tooth, eye for an eye”. The social structure for Mesopotamia was not egalitarian. The accumulation of property and wealth started the social pyramid. Slavery was a major part of life and omnipresent. When one was a slave in Mesopotamia, they could be freed or given money to free themselves out. It was almost like working their way out of debt. This form of slavery was more fluid and not fixed; however, it was still slavery but just with an option of being freed. Egypt For the most part of history, Egypt was very isolated. The Nile River shaped ancient Egypt, and was a vital source of water and life. The Nile’s behavior was very predictable and flowed from southànorthàthrough the Nile deltaàinto the Mediterranean Sea. It would flood around June and would stop flooding until October. It deposited slit in the soil on either side of the river. This would fertilize the land and make the dirt great. Since the flooding was predictable, the people could plan their lives around it. The Nile also contributed to a more religious view and to political unity, which eventually led to Egypt becoming a more logistically unified kingdom. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 The Nile was unified under the pharaoh (ruler/king). Egyptians assigned the pharaoh a lot of power, however just because one was a pharaoh, didn’t mean their power was absolute (unlimited). The Egyptians believed that the pharaoh was a god himself and that he was crucial to the people’s well being. They also believed that the pharaoh would look after them in the afterlife, which is how mummification developed (so the pharaoh can stay intact). Pyramids were burial grounds for the pharaohs. To build a pyramid, at least 2.5 million blocks of limestone had to be used. The Egyptians’ religious views were polytheistic, but also optimistic since their views of the gods were very lofty and good. Some gods were envisioned as humans, animals, or forces of nature. Ra was the sun god. Osiris was the god that represented the Nile’s fertilization powers and also played a role in the afterlife (this was a reward for those who had been good while they were alive). Isis was his wife and she represented the Nile’s forces. Horus was Osiris and Isis’ son that represented the vegetation of the Nile. The system of writing that the Egyptians developed was known as hieroglyphics. They wrote on papyrus with a brush and paint. The papyrus was easy to store, but not easy to preserve. No one until very recently was able to read hieroglyphics due to it being an ancient form of writing. Napoleon Bonaparte found the Rosetta stone in Egypt that had 3 bands of languages, all with the same meaning but each written in a different language. The “Book of the Dead” was a liturgical piece of work in which there were prayers and hymns that will help the soul of the person dying, in the time of death. There was a point in which the Egyptians were supposed to stop their polytheistic beliefs and start monotheistic beliefs. Akhenaton believed that there was only one god, the sun god Ra, and wanted the Egyptians to believe the way he did as well. King Tutankhamen was his successor and reversed what Akhenaton did. He allowed for the restoration of all the previous polytheistic religious views. After King Tutankhamen had died and was buried, his tomb was discovered being 100% intact and not robbed. The Hyksos were people that dominated the Nile delta and brought new technology with th them. The 18 dynasty ended up kicking them out. LECTURE #3: 5/27/16 (Ancient Kingdoms and Empires of the Middle East) The Kush The Kush was known as a “black” kingdom, whose history is connected closely to the Egyptians. It was economically influenced by Egypt and there was evidence of mixed ethnicities. It became a strong hold for metallurgies, especially iron. At one time, Kush dominated Egypt, th Kashta conquered almost all of it, and his son Pianky finished it. The 25 dynasty is known as Kushitic. The kingdom of Axum (Meroe was the capital), was another “black” kingdom, rose. It traded to the north and east. It was a very dynamic area economically. Axum was the first place in Africa to convert to Christianity. The king, Ezana, converted first, then converted his people after wards. He also established a very stable dynasty of rulers. The Hebrews The Hebrews practiced monotheism. They originated in Mesopotamia. The Hebrew’s leader was Abraham who led them out of Mesopotamia and to the west, in which they stayed in Canaan/Palestine, with some migrating further to Egypt in which slavery was experienced. Abraham was the first to accept the idea of one god. Moses led the Hebrew slaves out of Egypt, and across the Sinai Peninsula. Here, the Hebrews accepted the idea of one god. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 David was one of the Hebrew’s great political leaders. He created the kingdom geographically. Solomon, David’s son built the Hebrew temple in Jerusalem. After he died, his successors weren’t as effective or powerful as he was, so things started to fall apart. The kingdom split in half into Israel (urban, merchants) and Judah (rural, agricultural). The southern kingdom of Judah was conquered by the Babylons (led by Nebuchadnezzar). The Babylonian captivity happened when Nebuchadnezzar took the people from Judah and kept them in Babylonia. The Persians eventually freed them. The Old Testament (to Christians, Hebrew Bible to the Jews) was a history of how they suffered. The Hebrews were the first to believe in monotheism (ethical monotheistic). Their god was not a force of nature, but a supernatural creator of nature. God made a covenant with Moses, saying that the Hebrews were his people. They were expected to obey laws (the 10 commandments), and if they failed to do so, then they would be punished. The books of the Hebrew Bible were conical, which means that they had been thoroughly examined. The Assyrians “A point of contrast for the Persians”, the Assyrians had a large empire that was brief, but big. They conquered Mesopotamia, most of the Hebrew kingdom, Egypt, and then created a mega empire. They were intimidating, which was why they had success in establishing such a big empire. They were nomadic people, which made them great equestrians (people who ride on horseback) and therefore had a military advantage. Their empire was short lived because there were problems in maintaining it due to a lack of Assyrians to control it. These people were the nastiest and most brutal people to the conquered populations. It was government-sponsored terrorism The Persians The Persians replaced the Assyrian empire. They were different ethnically and linguistically. Iran was their homeland. The Persians were not Arabs, but Indo European. Their language was more Latin/Greek. They were good on horses. Cyrus was their leader, and empire leader #1. Darius was Cyrus’ successor and he defined Persian administration. Administration was set by balance (Darius) by localism to continue a central government still having its way. Local government was per districts (this empire contained 23) and divided into satraps (administrative district/ unit). Darius used a lot of spies to make sure everyone was doing what they were supposed to. Taxation was spontaneous and no one knew when it was coming. Coins were also soon established. Each locality had its own law codes and traditions. Darius decided to keep the law codes intact so that the locals wouldn’t get angry. He created a royal road to unify the empire, which ran through the heart of the empire. A postal service was also created and then a network of connections as well, to send letters from point A to point B. Darius also used the Palace of Persepolis, which was very ornate and highly decorative so that it could display the amount of power he possessed. Persia was a hierarchal society with slaves being the base. There were many different steps to social society, the elites in this one were more bureaucrats and were very cosmopolitan. They followed the religion of Zoroastrianism. Zarathustra founded it, and the Gathas was a collection of sacred important texts for their religion. They saw their world as a cosmic World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 1 struggle between good and evil. Had two gods Ahura Mazda (good god), Ahriman (bad god). If you sided with the good god, then you would enjoy life of eternal goodness, but if you sided with the bad god, then the outcome would be the opposite.