CDFR 3306 Week 3 Notes
CDFR 3306 Week 3 Notes CDFR 3306
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Baumann on Monday May 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 3306 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Hedge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Guiding Children's Behavior in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 05/30/16
Chapter 5 Planning Programs that Prevent Discipline Problems Make Learning Meaningful Developmentally inappropriate practices stressful child Children in programs that are developmentally appropriate demonstrate higher levels of social skills than children in other kinds of programs Children in a classroom where the teacher used developmentally inappropriate guidance strategies shows a decrease in positive social behaviors Children in a classroom where the teacher used developmentally appropriate guidance shows an increase in positive social behaviors Poor social conditions, isolation, or social “defeat” are correlated with fewer brain cells The National Associated for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association for Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE) Provide curriculum guidelines for preschool and primary-grade children The Association of Childhood Education International (ACEI) Provides guidelines on the role of motivation in children’s learning and effective teaching practices that promote motivation and interest in learning The Important of Relationships Emphasis on social and emotional learning (Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning; CSEFEL) Efforts to include social and emotional learning in the curriculum stem from the knowledge that children’s understanding of curricula content and their achievement is related directly to their social and emotional development Relevance and Interest Personal interest – unique to individual children and stems from their prior knowledge and experiences Situation interest – stems from being exposed to a new or novel experience Short-lives unless learners find the experience to be relevant or valuable to their lives *** A relevant and interesting curriculum allows children to investigate things that touch their lives or things they care about *** Helps keep children motivated to learn, which in turn keeps them on task – a classroom management challenge NAEYC/NAECS/SFE guidelines recommend planning curriculum that is challenging and engaging Ideas for individual children become a major curriculum focus Reporting about daily events in the classroom orally and through writing and illustrating stories is a good way for children to practice valuable literacy skills Activities such as this provide children with the motivation to stay engaged in learning and increase opportunities for social interaction and community building Research shows the importance of multiple modes of expression to help children express their understanding of the world Integrated Curriculum An integrated curriculum gives a context for learning, and therefore makes learning more meaningful, as is recommended by the curricular guidelines Linked to motivation and engagement effective took for preventing discipline problems relating to a lack of interest, off-task behaviors, or under- or over-challenging expectations Themes and project work are approached to integrating the curriculum. They offer teachers an alternative to organizing a curriculum focused on disconnected pieces of information and isolated drills in basic skills Themes and project work Offer teachers an alternative to organizing a curriculum focused on disconnected pieces of information and isolated drills in basic skills Teach-selected themes – offers possibilities for a variety of teacher-selected activities related to the topic Theme approach may not be compelling to the children as a project that emerges from their own interests Projects are guided by children’s interest in real-world phenomena that they are trying to understand, and therefore tend to have immediate applicability to children’s lives (Helm & Katz, 2011) Integrated curriculum allows children to practice skills in multiple subjects; reading, writing, math, as they explore topics on interests Correlated curriculum – activities that involve a topic but don’t help the children learn about the topic Children might get misinformation from correlated curriculum (ex. rocks p. 113) Real Experiences and Real Material School needs to reflect the real world and children’s own experiences in order for kids to perceive school ask important Build children’s background knowledge and experiences into the curriculum Use of real materials as a source of inspiration Keep it in the “here and now” Active Learning Active hands-on learning, offering actual experiences with real things, engages children productively and therefore minimizes behavior problems Promotes reasoning as well as academic and social problem-solving abilities Making learning more memorable and meaningful Leaving the group, talking out of turn, interrupting, and potentially having conflicts with other children are ways in which children show adults that the lesson is not meeting their needs Recognition of objects and memory is enhanced though multisensory exposure, so when children are actively engaged, they are not only more likely to understand but also much more likely to retain what they learn The Role of Play Play promotes exploration, thinking, and inquiring, all of which are essential ingredients for learning Learning through play opens the emotional brain, which in turn opens up the intellectual brain Feelings play a significant role in motivation, interest, and academic achievement Vygotsky – play necessarily involves learning about rules and abiding by them “Whenever there is an imaginary situation, there are rules” rules are necessary for guiding behavior in an imaginary situation because children have to agree on the “script” and the cast of characters – develop logical reasoning skills and both creating thinking and critical thinking abilities Vygotsky – as children get older, their play increasingly emphasizes rules – described this development as moving from play that is obviously imaginary and subtly rule-bound (playing house) to play that focuses on rules but has subtle imaginary contexts (board games) moving from concrete representations with their bodies to abstract representation through their markers on a board The Teacher’s Role in Play Manager, co-player, or play leader Stage manager sets up children’s play activities, assist in beginning interactions, and then quietly slips out of the play situation so that children can work on their own ***Good for children who don’t know how to enter play Co-player asks to enter children’s play and takes on an assigned role – least intrusive teacher role and is used to promote the chills of children with well-established play behaviors or to support a child who may need some assistance Play leader is the most teacher directed role; used to support groups of children who don’t make any attempts to enter play on their own – begins the play interactions, assigns children various roles, and directs the play Using Time Wisely Plan activities that are truly important in their lives Some topics are a waste of time because they are too easy and can be learned without specifically spending school time on them To attain goals for responsible citizenship, we need to work on critical thinking, problem solving, cooperation, and leadership Three Kinds of Knowledge Types of knowledge: refer to the ways in which children acquire understanding Children learn physical knowledge by doing; social knowledge by being told or shown; and logical- mathematical knowledge through reasoning Piaget (1970) empirical or physical knowledge is derived from our engagement with objects in the world Learning through the senses Involves the observation of changes cause by the way one object acts on another – only acquired through the direct action on objects Social Knowledge (cultural knowledge): it is the knowledge shared among members of a group and differs based on the group’s language, norms, and customs Passed from person to person Is arbitrary and can vary from one culture to another Logico-mathematical knowledge: our ability to reason about the relationship between objects and actions and the rules or theories we generate about both Provides the framework for classifying – and therefore making sense of – any information Physical knowledge and social knowledge are used in the construction of logico-mathematical knowledge, and vice versa Teachers must ensure opportunities for experimentation and reflection (thinking to make sense of experiences) with content related to all types of knowledge Organizational Strategies Features of a Good Schedule Vary by age of children, the purpose and size of the group, the length of the day and the facilities available Routines Stable routines help children know what to expect, and therefore can assist them in being cooperative members of the group Provide emotional security through predictability – important for children who live in chaotic environments Important when children are worries about when their parents will return, or when they are anticipating an exciting event Routine doesn’t mean being ruled by the clock Change when the group is seeming to wind-down Advance warning allows children to finish what they are doing and mentally prepare to move on ***Infants and toddlers – provides a level of security and can eliminate many power struggles and temper tantrums*** A schedule that anticipates the children’s need to eat, sleep, have a diaper changed, or participate in active play before the children’s behavior demonstrated their needs through crying, whining, or aggression created a happier day for all Waiting a Turn They aren’t good at doing nothing, so if they aren’t positively engaged, they create experiments and entertainment that may be at odds with adult goals The don’t have a sense of time Don’t’ understand why they must wait – egocentric With help from adults, kid gradually learn about the needs and feelings of others; with experience and maturation, they also learn to approximate time spans Sign-in sheet and egg timer Importance of ratios Age Range Recommended Ratio Max Ratio Max Group Size Infants: 0-15mn 1:3 1:4 8 Toddlers: 12-28mn 1:3 1:4 12 Toddlers: 21-36mn 1:4 1:6 12 Preschool: 2.5-4yr 1:6 1:9 18 Preschool: 4-5yr 1:8 1:10 20 Kindergarten 1:10 1:12 24 Transitions Some children’s temperaments can’t handle the noise and movement associated with transitions in a child-centered classroom Most problems happen because teachers unrealistically expect children to wait patiently for too long while other children get ready to join them Plan transitions around what the next activity will be (ex. outdoor play just before children go home at noon, that way they are already in their coats when it is time to leave) ***Keep transitions to a minimum*** The ways in which children are moved from place to place, or activity to activity, models social skills of cooperation and empathy Don’t herd children Respect individual differences Large-motor activities; marching in place, standing on your tiptoes, or tapping different body parts are activities that all children can enjoy doing while waiting Planning transition activities reduces behavior problems by helping children learn how to pass time constructively and it offer additional opportunities for playful learning Rest Time The level of active place, stress, amount of sleep at home, innate differences, and the age of children can all influence how much time they need to rest Teachers who know the needs of the individual children in their care can make the necessary adjustments to the schedule by allowing children who are not as tired to play outside a little longer before coming in to rest Children have access to their mats and blankets any time they feel like resting, and they often take short rest at various times during the day Talk older children though relaxing – talking about body parts slowing down and feeling heavy; breathing slower For infants and toddlers, establishing a predictable routine, using the same words, “Night night” and gently warning, “Pretty soon it’s going to be night night” can help establish a pattern Group Time Being children together in groups for stories, songs, lessons, planning, or problem solving Feeling of belonging and caring for one another is necessary for developing a social conscience (INTERNSHIP: Hide objects in a room – one object per child—have children find object, and after they are finished have them help their friends; no really reason other than engaging the teacher and cooperation with friend – possibly have the object pertain to the next activity) To get the most out of group time, teachers need to truly encourage student involvement; watch children’s body language to determine if they are engaged Smart teachers = know that behaviors such as squirming, wriggling, etc. are related to children’s maturational stage; they understand that young children are not good at sitting still or being quiet, that they have trouble dealing with large groups, and that they aren’t good at pretending to be interested in thinks they don’t understand For young children it is recommended for there to be only 4-5 minutes at a time of listening to the teacher “tell” content Circle seating arrangement Allow choice about participation in some activities Frequent opportunities to move an actively participate extend the amount of time children can cope with group time Teachers need to take their ques from the children Valuable sharing (show n’ tell) should not be limited to just one day a week, and group time should not require children to sit and listen for long periods of time Working with Families Families can contribute to real materials and can serve as “experts” on topics children are studying They can also improve the ratio of adults to children during project work, cutting down on the length of time children wait for adult assistance and providing support when problems arise ****I personally wouldn’t want a parent trying to solve problems unless it is strictly regarding the activity and not disciplinary Enough adults to Loss of engage children instructional Interesting time activities time Lack of Appropriate Prevents engagement spaces Overcrowding Predictable routines Confusion Intellectual Off-task Intellectual behaviors challeges When families are involved in children’s learning, it sends a clear message that all of the adults who are for them thing that school is important = child believes school is important Their increased understanding of the teacher’s goals and methods makes parents better able to support their children’s learning at home Chapter 6 T eaching Desirable Behavior Through Example How Modeling Teaches Bandura (1986) Social Cognitive Theory of Human Functioning Most human behavior is learned from observing the models of others Behavior isn’t mindless imitation, but rather selected us of previously stored information gathered from observation Reward and punishment are not relevant factors in determining which behavior we imitate People adapt and reconstruct the actions they observe to meet their own goals, capabilities, and circumstances Vygotsky (1920’s) Sociocultural Theory of Development – Zone of Proximal Development Emphasize that imitation of role models was only part of the cognitive process, and that people construct their own personal knowledge and understanding Modeling Desirable Interactions Caring for Others The brain is wired to mirror actions and emotions, and that the mirror neuron system in the brain plays and important role in social cognition When adults model caring behaviors coupled with reminders about people’s feelings, children learn to think about the impact of their words Modeling Acceptance Children emulate adult’s implicit and explicit displays of prejudice Tolerance – appreciating that there are differences, and learning to respect the opinions and ways of people who are different from you Instead of hushing it up if a child repeats a racial slur, use it as a teachable moment (tolerance.com) Social Studies: learning to care about others and to get along together in our diverse world Modeling Kindness Children learn best through situations that constantly arise during the course of the day The bullies and their victims both feel the negative effects: the bully, left unchecked, learns a pattern of abuse that may carry over into violent relationships in the future; the victim suffers low self-esteem, anxiety, and insecurity (Berger, 2007). Expressing Feelings Suppressed emotions eventually surface in some form or other, and can cause debilitating emotional and physical problems Cultural norms affect how both teachers and students express their emotions and their expectations of one another Adults who have learned to accept and work with their emotions achieve a socially acceptable medium between the extremes of too little emotional outlet and too much Letting it Show Beginning in infancy, children acquire what is called a “like me” developmental framework (Meltzoff, 2007) 1. Children learn about the consequences of their actions by observing the actions of others 2. As children test the actions they’re witnessed, they come to understand not only the consequences of their own actions, but also the intentions of others who perform similar actions children come to see a “like me” – “like them” relationships – which is the foundation for emotive expression, perspective taking, and empathy Children learn the most when adults talk about how they feel, also letting it show in their face, body language, and tone of voice By listening and observing, children begin to understand what feelings are, what situations are likely to create which feelings, and how to express feelings “Early childhood educations should not be content to leave this process entirely to change. Competent thoughtful professionals consciously decide what emotions and emotion-related behaviors to model” (Hyson, 2004) Apologizing Because there is so much inappropriate expression of feelings in the world in some children’s homes, it is essential that schools model better ways – especially for children who are learning the meaning of apologies, their purposes, and the emotions they convey Accepting Feelings Teachers have the opportunity to model acceptable ways of expressing all emotions Important for negative emotions; anger, sadness, shame Some adults try to make bad feelings go away by distracting children with treats or activities – these responses don’t help children learn to deal with their feelings effectively. Instead, they may learn that their feelings are wrong, and end up feelings guilty Instead of trying to make children’s bad feelings disappear, you help children to accept and express their feelings when you accept and express you own feelings Use Your Words Your role as the teacher can be to help the children clarify feelings by modeling more appropriate words Help child find the words to say specifically what he or she is upset about You can accept their feelings while helping to express them more suitably – involves demonstrating expressive language Acknowledging and Listening Listening is one of the most powerful sources of social support we can offer Listening while children talk about their feelings without telling them what to do shows your acceptance of the child and his or her feelings Gender and Emotions Providing children with opportunities to learn about emotions from both male and female role models is valuable for children’s development Male role models are especially important for little boys – when male teachers are not available, bringing in male volunteers from the community or older boys from upper grades can provide male mentors – important for boy without father figures at home Cultural Differences Some children get very different messages at home about how to express emotion than what they get at school Some children come from a culture that allows aggressive expressions of anger Others come from cultures that does not allow for express of emotions Cultures also differ in the ways children at taught to show respect for others, beliefs about whom they should trust, and polite ways of speaking The many possible difference between home and school expectations emphasize the importance of getting to know parents and coming to a mutual agreement with them on the behalf of their children Modeling Desirable Behaviors Taking Responsibility ***A good way to teach children responsibility is by doing it yourself*** Helping with Clean-Up Many young children are simply overwhelmed by the mess; they don’t know where to start and think it is impossible to clean up Young children need to be taught how to pick up a mess; the best way for them to learn is for you to show them what you mean by cleaning up Seeing you help with clean-up also given children a clear message that the teacher thinks cleaning up is worth doing Keeping Your Promises “Trustworthiness is associated with children’s healthy development, their adjustment in school, their formation of friendships, and their academic competence” (Betts & Rottenberg, 2007) Following through with a plan or a promise is important to building trust and responsibility Some children have no experience with consistency and follow-through in their homes and may need help recognizing it when they see it Caring for Property Following the Guidelines Guidelines focused on personal rights often come into conflict with social conventional and moral rules Guideline conflicts generally occur because children do not always put their personal needs in relationship of the needs of others – teachers can model how to deal with this type of conflict by using reflective self-talk (e.g., “I wish I could have one of Lucy’s cupcakes right now, but I’ll wait because she hasn’t offered them to me.”) We Need to model desirable behavior that we want for toddlers and young preschoolers when they are capable – requires intellectual and emotional maturity that we can’t expect from very young children Keeping Physically Safe We need to model the appropriate way of handling potentially dangerous situations Holding scissors down Not walking too close to a swing Model safe street crossing Taking intellectual Risks Intellectual Risks involve following up on an idea or hypothesis to see if it works Why Bother? Risk taking is an essential part of the learning process As you help children learn to make their own responsible decisions, you are released from having to make and enforce all the rules Children who are challenged intellectually to think for themselves tend to get excited about learning As they explore their hypotheses, children become self-directed and self-motivated learner that makes the job of classroom management easier How to Do It? The first step is to work on fear of failure or mistake – learn acceptance Risk Taking and Academics Emergent literacy research indicated that children learn about letters and their sounds best when they work on their own hypotheses about writing and spelling Children who are afraid of failure may be hampered in their learning Ideas about perfection in one area, such as writing, can carry over to other topics and get in the way of other learning Some children feel incapable of artistic creativity, always wanting someone to show them the “right” way to approach an open-ended project Children need the teacher to model acceptance of imperfection and the courage to venture into the unknown – they need help becoming more comfortable with learning through their mistakes = effective learners and self-directed students Effective Role Models Boys and girls look up to people they perceive to be helpful, gentle, warm, energetic, hardworking, brave, confident, happy, and nice Someone Similar Erikson – believe that role models serve as a mechanism for children to understand their culture and society (1963) Children are more likely to copy people who are similar to them in some way Teacher can emphasize similarities with their students by commenting on similarities of interest and feelings Someone Admired You are more apt to be an effective role model if children want to be like you Need to see you as being fun and pleasant Having a positive relationship with children Media Models Models of Violence Workings with families to combat media impact Chapter 7 Effective Discipline Through Effective Communication Parent Effectiveness Training, Thomas Gordon (2000) Why Children Don’t Listen Criticizing and Lecturing If you want them to listen, avoid talking to them in ways that turn off listening People don’t like to hear someone tell them how badly they behave No one wanted to be called derogatory names Most people get irritated at being told how they should be acting Gordon (2000) “sending put-down messages” – children tune out such messages because that are so harmful to self-esteem Giving Orders When you tell people everything they need to do in a situation, you also tell them that you don’t think they are capable of figuring it out for themselves (Gordon, 2000) calls this communication approach “solution messages” Impacts self-esteem and short-circuits growth toward autonomy Children learn not to trust their own solutions – unhealthy dependence Inauthentic Communication Frustration resentment builds up nonverbal communication is negative (indicating your true feelings) damaged relationships The invulnerable adult model gets in the way of authentic relationships with children, because the adults cannot reveal their true selves Authentic relationships between adults and children, like those between peers, encourage cooperation and empathy Talking to Children Respectfully Gordon – “I message” Appropriate when the problem is yours: what is happening is upsetting to you personally Unlike “you message,” they don’t blame or condemn another person, and they don’t contain put- downs Avoid “solution message” – don’t tell someone what to do They focus on your needs instead of the other person’s actions – more willing to lists and generated little defensiveness “I message” works when the person you are speaking to actually cares about how you feel Complete “I message” 1. A description of the unacceptable behavior 2. Your feeling 3. The concrete effect of the behavior on you 4. It stops after saying those three things ***…ruin it by telling the child what he or she should be doing differently or by adding on a judgmental or disparaging comment about the child*** Relationships Piaget – in order to be effective with guiding and discipline, you must cultivate relationships with the children in your care Misconceptions The real key to “I messages” has little to do with using the word I. instead of saying, “I feel hurt when you kick me,” it would be much more natural to say, “Ouch, the hurts!” – module 1 video example Effectiveness Curwin, Mendler, & Mendler 1. They saw how you feel about what a child is or isn’t doing 2. They give a reason why the behavior is a problem 3. They never criticize or blame the child 4. They allow the child to solve the problem Teaching Children to Use “I Messages” The person who has the problem is the one who gives the “I message” Often, the other child involved has a different perspective on the problem and can be helped to give his or her own, “I message” in response “I messages” help children learn to see another’s perspective and are an important first step in conflict resolution Being a Good Listener PROBLEM: because adults don’t listen to children so why would children want to listen to adults brush it off too busy to truly listen you may think you’re paying attention but your actions and response says otherwise Talking Instead of Listening Don’t say You’re being a baby It’s your own fault You’re not making any sense Praise is another way of passing judgment Messages of praise are also counterproductive to the communication process – Gordon includes praise, along with reassuring, diverting, and probing to his list of roadblocks Adults can teach good listening by being good listeners Build productive relationship with children by showing that you care enough about them to genuinely listen Passive Listening Stop talking! Quiet attention to a child’s words with a nod with minimal comments that encourage the children to keep talking Reflective Listening Carl Rogers (1951) – consists of listening attentively and nonjudgmentally to an individual, and then repeating back to him or her in your own words what you think was sad ***YMCA TRAINING Demonstrates acceptance and caring to the speaker and encourages more full disclosure Speaker truly seeks to understand what the individual is intending to convey without focusing on their own agenda Gordon uses active listening, but reflective listening is more descriptive Reflective listening ensures for the accuracy of communication by reflecting back to the speaker what the listen has herd Validated the concerns or feelings of the other person Steps of reflective listening 1. Stop talking – listen to the problem from the child’s perspective 2. Don’t rush to pass judgment – find out what the child is thinking/feeling 3. Restate what you hear – in your own words until the child confirms that your understood correctly 4. Validate the child’s concerns and feelings – show that you care Benefits Encourages them to think about the issue and gives them time to deal with their needs Free to figure out their own solutions – and more likely to implement them because they were their own Cautions About Reflective Listening Appropriate when the problem belong to the child – not an “I message” The best solution is the child’s own If you try solve the problem, then you communicate a lack of respect for the child’s problem-solving abilities Inhibits their ability to resolve their own problems in the future Helping Children Resolve Conflicts Avoiding conflict usually means repressing feelings It is a change for children to learn about the needs and wants of others, and it is also a chance for them to learn lifelong skills for mutual problem solving Opportunity to learn more about perspective taking, empathy, self-control, and collaboration Consistency in Schools Conflict resolution instruction based on the principles of negotiation and consensus Require that school let go of authoritarian approached to discipline Children must feel trust, knowing that they are emotionally and physically safe, in order for conflict resolution to be successful Everyone Wins Mutually accepted solutions General attitudes and relationships are more pleasant Each person is more likely to follow through Higher quality, reflecting the needs and ideas of all involved Helps children consider the views of others Long-term goals of intellectual and moral autonomy Conflict Resolution Programs 1. Process curriculum – composed of a specific curriculum to teach the conflict-resolution process separate from the rest of the classroom curriculum 2. Mediation program – consists of teaching the conflict-resolution process to specific individuals, children or adults, who then act as neutral, 3 party facilitators of the process when students have a dispute 3. Peaceable classroom – conflict resolution is integrated into the whole school curriculum, and conflict resolution skills are integrated into the classroom’s core curriculum 4. Peaceable school – the teachers, staff, parents, and students are all taught the conflict-resolution process and it is used system wide 4 R’s Program: Reading, Writing, Respect, and Resolution Requires support from school and parents Gordon (2000) Galinsky (2010) Kreidler (1999) Identify the problem Identify the dilemma, ABCD Generate solutions problem, or issue Ask – what’s the problem Evaluate solutions Determine the goal Brainstorm solutions Decide on the best solution Come up with solutions Choose the best one Implement the plan Consider how each solution Do it Evaluate the plan would work Select a solution to try Evaluate the outcome Chapter 10 Punishment versus Discipline Results of Punishment PUNISHMENT IS NOT AN EFFECTIVE WAY OF CORRECTING BEHAVIORS Punishment typically creates seriously counterproductive feelings that are demonstrated in numerous ways Anger and Aggression Most children who are punished have a need to get even, to assert their own power after having been the victim of someone else’s power Having experiences punishment, they have learned from a powerful role model how to give punishment Children who have been hit when they have displeased a big person are very likely to hit a smaller person who displeases them – true for other forms of punishment Damaged Relationships Punishment created feelings of hostility and resentment toward the people administering it = damaged relationships These emotions get in the way of positive discipline teaching Some children withdraw from contact, others try to get even Children tend to have trouble with peer relationships Negative responses to punishment are self-defeating and all are only made worse by further punishment Being rejected for hitting or shoving truly confuses the child who has been punished; they experience of being punished teaches children that hurting others is an appropriate response when they don’t get their way Damage to Self-Esteem Being punished can convince children that they are inferior and that they are bad Feeling like a worthless/bad person is likely to become a self-fulfilling prophecy Child who is punished verbally or physically does not feel respected or values – humiliating Fear Punishment controls through fear When they are punished without warning for something they didn’t know was unacceptable, many children will tend to avoid any new activity Fear of punishment can hamper academic learning Deceitfulness Many people whose only restraint comes from the fear of punishment become incredibly sneaky Missed Opportunity for Learning Punishment undermines children’s learning about appropriate and inappropriate behavior
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