PSYCH 212 Chapter 6 Notes
PSYCH 212 Chapter 6 Notes Psych 212
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Monday May 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 05/30/16
Early Growth and physical development Cephalocaudal principle: growth occurs from top down o By 1 year, the brain is 70% of adult weight, but rest of body is only 10-20% adult weight. Head becomes proportionally smaller as the child grows in height and lower parts of the body develop o Infants learn to use upper parts of body before lower parts Can grasp prior to walking Can hold head up before sitting Proximodistal principle: growth and motor development proceed from the center of the body outward o In the womb, the head and trunk develop before arms and legs, then hands and feet, then fingers and toes o In childhood, limbs continue to grow faster than the hands and feet o Babies learn to use parts of bodies closest to center before outermost parts First learn to control arms to reach, then learn to use hands to scoop, and then learn to use thumb Growth patterns o Children grow faster during first 3 years than they ever will again By 5 months, average US baby boy’s birth weight has doubled to nearly 16 lbs., by nd rd 1-year 25nds. Rapid growth tapers offrduring 2 and 3 years. Typically gains 5.5 lbs. by 2 birthday and 3 lbs. by 3 , almost 34 lbs. Height in boys typically increases by 10 in during 1 year, average 30 in tall, 5 in during second year, and 2.5 in 3 year. Approx. 39 in Girls follow similar pattern but are slightly smaller at all ages o 3 year old is typically slender compared with chubby potbellied 1 year old o Genetic influence interacts with environmental influences such as nutrition and living conditions Children in developed countries are growing taller and maturing at an earlier age than children a century ago due to better nutrition, improved sanitation, medical care, and decrease in child labor o Teething begins around 3 or 4 months when infants try to put things in their mouths. First tooth may not arrive until 5-9 months or later By first birthday, babies have 6-8 teeth, by 2.5 they have 20 Nutrition and feeding methods In history, babies fed nonhuman milk were likely to die. Following the discovery of germs in 1878 mothers were warned to avoid the bottle With the advent of dependable refrigeration, pasteurization, and sterilization in the first decade of the 20 century, manufacturers began developing formulas to modify and enrich cow’s milk for infant consumption and to improve the design of the bottles o During next half century, bottle-feeding was the norm. By 1971 only 25% of US mothers tried to nurse Recognition of the benefits of breast milk has brought increase in breastfeeding o 77% of infants born in 2005-06 were breast-fed. 36% at 6 months, and only 16% are exclusively that long o 65% of non-Hispanic black infants are breast fed, 80% Mexican American, and 79% non- Hispanic white infants o Immigrant women are more likely to breast feed o Worldwide 38% infants less than 6 months are exclusively breast fed An infant sucking at the breast triggers the release of oxytocin, a hormone in the mother’s brain that promotes trust and causes the mammary gland to release milk Benefits of breast feeding o Breast fed babies Less likely to contract infectious illnesses such as diarrhea, respiratory infections, otitis media (infection of middle ear), and staphylococcal, bacteria, and urinary tract infections Have lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome and postneonatal death Have less risk of inflammatory bowel disease Have better visual acuity, neurological development, and long-term cardiovascular health, including cholesterol levels Less likely to develop obesity, asthma, eczema, diabetes, lymphoma, childhood leukemia, and Hodgkin’s disease Less likely to show language and motor delays Score slightly higher on cognitive tests at school age and into young adulthood; but cognitive benefits have been questioned Have fewer cavities and are less likely to need braces o Breast feeding mothers Enjoy quicker recovery from childbirth with less risk of postpartum bleeding More likely to return to prepregnancy weight and less likely to develop long-term obesity Reduced risk of anemia and almost no risk of repeat pregnancy while breast feeding Report feeling more confident and less anxious Less likely to develop osteoporosis and ovarian and premenopausal breast cancer American Academy of Pediatrics AAP Section on Breastfeeding recommends that babies be exclusively fed breast milk for 6 months. Breast feeding should continue for at least 1 year o If 90% of US mothers complied with recommendation to breast feed 6 months, it could potentially prevent 911 infant deaths and save US $13 billion annually Only acceptable alternative to breast milk is iron fortified formula based on either cow’s milk or soy protein and contains supplemental vitamins and minerals At 1 year babies can switch to cows milk Since 1991 some hospitals worldwide have been designated “baby friendly” by UN initiative to encourage breast-feeding. They offer rooming-in, tell them the benefits of breast feeding, help them start nursing within 1 hour of birth, show them how to maintain lactation, encourage on- demand feeding, give infants nothing but breast milk unless medically necessary, and establish ongoing breast feeding support groups o Increases in breast feeding in US most notable in socioeconomic groups that historically were less likely to breast feed: black, teenage, poor, working, uneducated women, but these women usually do not continue breastfeeding Postpartum maternity leave, flexible scheduling, ability to take breaks at work to pump, privacy for pumping, lack of education about benefits, availability of breast pumping facilities Breastfeeding not recommended for o Mothers with AIDS or other infectious illness Receiving treatment with nevirapine or with both nevirapine and zidovudine during first 14 weeks of life, HIV infected breastfeeding mothers can reduce risk of transmission o Untreated active tuberculosis o Exposed to radiation o Taking any drug that would not be safe for baby Starting solid foods o Solid foods should be introduced between 6-12 months 29% of US infants given solid food before 4 months, against recommendations o In US from 7-24 months, the median food intake is 20-30% above normal daily requirements. By 19-24 months, French fries become most commonly consumed vegetable, 30% children eat no fruit, but 60% eat baked deserts, 20% candy, and 44% sweetened beverages each day o Malnutrition is implicated in more than half of all deaths of children globally Overweight infants o In 2001, 5.9% of US infants up to 6 months old classified as overweight, meaning weight th for height was in 95 percentile. And 11.1% were at risk of being overweight o Rapid weight gain during first 4-6 months is associated with future risk of overweight o Before age 3, parental obesity is a stronger predictor of a child’s obesity as an adult that is the child’s own weight Brain and Reflex Behavior Central nervous system CNS: brain and spinal cord o Spinal cord: bundle of nerves running through the backbone o Peripheral nervous system: nerves extending from spinal cord Brain at birth is ¼ to 1/3 its adult volume. It reaches 90% by age 3. By 6 it is almost adult weight; but specific parts of brain continue to grow and develop into adulthood Brain growth spurts: different parts of the brain that grow more rapidly at different times Major parts of the brain o Beginning 3 weeks after conception, the brain gradually develops from a long hollow tube into a spherical mass of cells. By birth, growth spurt of spinal cord and brain stem is nearly done o Brain stem: part of the brain responsible for breathing, rate, body temperature, and sleep-wake cycle o Cerebellum: part of the brain tstt maintains balance and motor coordination Grows fastest during 1 year of life o Cerebrum: largest part of brain, divided into right and left hemispheres Lateralization: tendency of each of the brain’s hemispheres to have specialized functions Left hemisphere concerned with language and logical thinking Right deals with visual and spatial functions such as map reading and drawing Corpus callosum: tough band of tissue joining the two hemispheres which enables them to share information and coordinate commands Reaches adult size by age 10 Each hemisphere has 4 lobes which control different functions Occipital lobe: smallest of the 4 lobes, visual processing Parietal lobe: integrates sensory information from the body o Helps us move bodies through space and manipulate objects in world Temporal lobe: Interprets sounds and smells and is involved with memory Frontal lobes: involved with higher order processes such as goal setting, inhibition, reasoning, planning, and problem solving Cerebral cortex: outer surface of the cerebrum that governs vision, hearing, and other sensory information Grow rapidly in first few months after birth and are mature by 6 months Frontal cortex: abstract thought, mental associations, remembering, and deliberate motor responses Grow little during beginning and remain immature through adolescence o Growth spurt that begins in 3 trimester and continues until age 4 is important for development of neurological functioning Babbling, crawling, smiling, walking, talking, reflex rapid development in cerebral cortex Brain cells o Neurons: nerve cells that send and receive information o Glia/ glial cellnd nourish and protect neurons o Beginning in 2 month of gestation, estimated 250000 immature neurons are produced every minute through mitosis. At birth, most of more then 100 billion neurons are already formed but are not fully developed o Number of neurons increases most rapidly between 25 week of gestation and first few months after birth. Accompanied by a dramatic growth in cell size o Originally, neurons are cell bodies with nucleus, composed of DNA, which contains the cell’s genetic programming. As cell grows, these cells migrate to various parts of it o Most of neurons in cortex are in place by 20 weeks, and structure becomes well defined in next 12 weeks. Once in place, neurons sprout axons and dendrites, narrow, branching, fiber like extensions Axons: send signals to other neurons Dendrites: receive incoming messages from other neurons through synapses Synapses: tiny gaps, which are bridged with chemicals call neurotransmitters, which are released by the neurons Eventually a particular neuron may have anywhere from 5000-100000 synaptic connections to and from the body’s sensory receptors, its muscles, and other neurons within the CNS Integration: process by which neurons coordinate the activities of muscle groups Differentiation: process by which cells acquire specialized structure and function o At first, the brain produces many more neurons and synapses than it needs, giving the brain flexibility. As early experience shapes the brain, the paths are selected and unused paths are selected, and unusual paths are pruned away Cell death: in brain development, normal elimination of excess cells to achieve more efficient functioning Only about half neurons produced survive and function in adulthood. Yet even as unneeded neurons die out, others continue to form during adult life o Prenatal and neonatal neuronal development An embryo’s brain produces many more neurons than it needs, then eliminates the excess Surviving neurons spin out axons, the long-distance transmission lines of the nervous system. At their ends, the axons spin out multiple branches that temporarily connect with many targets Spontaneous bursts of electrical activity strengthen some of these connections, while others (the connections that are not reinforced by activity) atrophy After birth, the brain experiences a 2 ndgrowth spurt, as the axons and dendrites explode with new connections. Electrical activity, triggered by a flood of sensory experiences, fine tunes the brain’s circuitry, determining which connections will be retained and which will be pruned o Meanwhile, connections among cortical cells continue to strengthen and become more reliable and precise, enabling more flexible and more advanced motor and cognitive functioning o Myelination: process of coating neurons with myelin, enables signals to travel faster, more smoothly, permitting achievement of mature functioning Myelin: fatty substance that enables faster communication between cells Begins halfway through gestation in some parts of brain and continues into adulthood in others Pathways related to the sense of touch, first sense to develop, are myelinated by birth Visual pathways begin at birth and continue during first 5 months th Hearing pathways begin at 5 month of gestation but not complete until age 4 o Reflex behavior: automatic, involuntary, innate response to stimulation Controlled by lower brain centers that govern other voluntary processes such as breathing and heart rate Infants have estimated 27 major reflexes, many present at birth or soon after Primitive reflexes: instinctive needs for survival and protection Sucking Moro reflex: baby is dropped or hears loud noise, he extends legs, arms, o 7 month gestation—3 months old Darwinian: palm of baby’s hand is stroked, he makes a strong fist, can be raised to standing position if both fists are closed around a stick th o 7 month gestation—4 months old Tonic neck: baby is laid down on back, he turns his head to one side, assumes “fencer” position, extends arms and legs on preferred side, flexes opposite limbs th o 7 month gestation—5 months Babkin: both of baby’s palms are stroked at once, mouth opens, eyes close, neck flexes, head tilts forward o Birth—3 months Babinski: sole of baby’s foot is stroked, toes fan out, foot twist in o Birth—4 months Rooting: baby’s cheek or lower lip is stroked with finger or nipple, head turns, mouth opens, sucking movements begin o Birth—9 months Walking: baby is held under arms with bare feet touching flat surface, makes steplike motions that look like well coordinated walking o 1 month—4 months Swimming: baby is put face down in water, makes well coordinated swimming movements, holds breath o 1 month—4 months Postural reflexes: reactions to changes in posture or balance Infants who are tilted downward extend their arms in the parachute reflex, an instinctive attempt to break a fall Locomotor reflexes: resemble voluntary movements that do not appear until months after these reflexes have disappeared Most early reflexes disappear during first 6 months-1 year. Reflexes that continue to serve protective functions remain. Such as blinking, yawning, coughing, gagging, sneezing, shivering, and pupillary reflex Disappearance of unneeded reflexes on schedule is a sign that motor pathways in the cortex have been partially myelinated, enabling a shift to voluntary behavior Plasticity: modifiability of the brain through experience o Enables learning Individual differences in intelligence may reflect brain’s ability to develop neural connections in response to experience o Exposure to environmental toxins, abuse, or sensory impoverishment can leave an imprint on the brain as it adapts to the environment A monkey raised until 6 months with one eye closed became permanently blind in that eye o Lack of environmental input may inhibit the normal process of cell death and the streamlining of neural connections, resulting in smaller head size and reduced brain activity o Enriched experience can spur brain development and make up for past deprivation o Discovery of orphaned children in Romanian orphanages that appeared starving, passive, and emotionless. They spent much time in cribs with nothing to look at Most 2-3 year olds did not walk or talk and older children played aimlessly PET showed extreme inactivity in temporal lobes, which regulate emotion and receive sensory input Children adopted before age 6 months showed no impairment by age 11. Children adopted after 6 months IQs were 15 points lower. The later they were adopted, the worse they were impaired o Bucharest Early Intervention Project BEIP: studies 3 groups of Romanian children, one group abandoned at birth and placed in institutions where they remain. One group placed in an institution and then randomly assigned to foster care. One group living with biological parents Institutional care in severely deprive settings has a profound negative effect on physical growth, language, cognitive, social-emotional development, and brain development. And that children placed in foster care show improvements in many domains When shown pictures of adult faces displaying emotion, the institutionalized children showed less arousal in the cerebral cortex than the other two groups at 30 and 42 months Autism Spectrum Disorders ASD/ Pervasive Developmental Disorders PDDs: cause severe and pervasive impairment in thinking, feeling, language, and ability to relate to others Autism: disorder of brain functioning characterized by lack of normal social interaction, impaired communication, repetitive movements, and a highly restricted range of activities and interests. Most children are also mentally retarded First diagnosed in early childhood and range from severe to mild Lack of coordination between different regions of the brain needed for complex tasks Postmortem studies found fewer neurons in the amygdala Asperger syndrome: children usually function at higher level than those with autism and have normal to high intelligence. But they are deficient with respect to interpreting and understanding social interaction o Large vocabularies, stilted speech patterns, and often are awkward and poorly coordinated Prevalence has increased since 70s due to increased awareness and more accurate diagnosis. 110/10,000 children in US 2007 o 4x more likely for boys than girls Larger brain size in boys and larger than average brain size in autistic children Boy’s natural strength in systematizing and propensity of autistic children to systematize High fetal testosterone levels in boys amniotic fluid, associated with impaired social relationships and restricted interests at age 4 o Non-Hispanic black and multi-racial children had lower odds of ASD than Non-Hispanic white children o In California alone, incidence has increased more than 7-fold Controversial hypothesis is that autism is a result from imbalances in brain development due to the expression of genes from the mother, or both Run in families and have strong genetic basis o Deletions and duplications of gene copies at chromosome 16 may account for a small number of cases Environmental factors such as exposure to certain viruses or chemicals may trigger an inherited tendency toward autism o Many parents blame theimerosal, a preservative used in vaccines. Prevalence of disorder declined when US public health service recommended use of thimerosal-free vaccines. CDC has found no conclusive link between preservative and autism. o Complications of pregnancy, advanced parental age, first births, threatened fetal loss, epidural anesthesia, induced labor, cesarean delivery have been associated Early signs o No joyful gazing at parent or caregiver o No back and forth babbling between infant and parent (begin by 5 months) o Not recognizing a parent’s voice o Failure to make eye contact o Delayed onset of babbling (past 9 months) o No or few gestures, such as waving, or pointing o Repetitive movements with objects o No babbling, pointing, or other communicative gestures by 1 year o No two word phrases by 2 years o Loss of language skills at any age Outlook o No known cure o Improvement may occur with highly structured early educational interventions that help child develop independence and personal responsibility, instruction in social skills o Speech and language therapy o Medical management as necessary Early sensory capacities Touch and pain o Touch is first sense to develop, and for first several months it is the most mature sensory system o By 32 weeks, all body parts are sensitive to touch, and this increases during first 5 days of life o In past, physicians performed surgery on infants with no anesthesia because of a belief that neonates could not feel pain, or did not have the memory capacity to remember and be affected by pain o Evidence that pain perception may emerge by 3 trimester of pregnancy o Newborns can and do feel pain and become more sensitive to it in first few days Smell and taste o Preference for pleasure is present in utero and during first few days after birth, and odors transmitted through mother’s breast milk may further contribute to this preference o Certain taste preferences are innate Newborns prefer sweet to sour, bitter, or salty flavors o Taste preferences developed in infancy may last into early childhood Hearing o Fetus responds to sounds and seems to learn and recognize them o Auditory discrimination develops rapidly after birth 3 day old infants can tell new speech sounds from those they have heard before 2 day old infants can recognize a word they heard up to a day earlier At 1 month, they can distinguish sounds as close as ba and pa o Hearing impairments are most common cause of speech delays and must be identified as early as possible Sight o Vision is least developed sense at birth o Eyes are smaller than adults and retinal structures are incomplete, and optic nerve is underdeveloped o Eyes focus best from 1 ft. away, just about the distance from the face of a person holding a newborn o Newborns blink at bright lights. Their peripheral vision is vary narrow; it more than doubles 2-10 weeks of age o Ability to follow a moving target and color perception rapidly develop in first few months o Visual acuity at birth is 20/400 but reaches 20/20 at 8 months o Binocular vision: use of both eyes to focus, enabling perception and distance, does not develop until 4 or 5 months o Infants should be examined for visual fixation preference, ocular alignment, and any signs of eye disease o Formal vision screening should begin by 3 years Motor development Babies do not need to be taught basic motor skills. When CNS, muscles, and bones are ready, they will do them on their own Systems of action: increasingly complex combinations of motor skills that permit a wider or more precise range of movement and more control of the environment Denver Developmental Screening Test: screening test given to children age 1 month-6 years to determine whether they are developing normally o Gross motor skills: physical skills that involve the large muscles (rolling over, catching ball) o Fine motor skills: physical skills that involve small muscles and eye-hand coordination (grasping a rattle, copying a circle) o Language development (knowing definitions of words) o Personality and social development (smiling spontaneously and dressing without help) o Developed with reference to Western population and not valid in assessing other cultures o Average is the 50%, half do things earlier, half do things later No gender difference in motor development Head control o At birth, most infants can turn heads from side to side while lying on their backs. While lying chest down, many can lift their heads enough to turn them o Within the first 2-3 months, they lift their heads higher and higher, sometimes loosing their balance and rolling over on their backs o By 4 months, almost all infants can keep heads erect while being held or supported in a sitting position Hand control o Babies born with grasping reflex o At 3.5 months, most infants can grasp object of moderate size such as a rattle but have trouble holding small object o Next they grasp objects with one hand and transfer them to the other, then hold but not pick up small objects o 7-11 months hands become coordinated enough to pick up a tiny object, using pincer grasp o 15 months average baby can build a tower of two cubes o A few months after 3 birthday, average toddler can copy a circle fairly well Locomotion o After 3 months, average baby begins to roll over deliberately first from front to back then back to front o Average can sit without support at 6 months and can assume sitting position without help by 8.5 months o Self-locomotion: 6-10 months babies begin to crawl Crawling infants become more sensitive to where objects are, how big, whether they can be moved, and how they look. Better judge distances and perceive depth o Social referencing: looking to others for clues as to whether a situation is safe or frightening o Past 7 months, baby can stand while holding onto hand or furniture o Baby can let go and stand well alone at 11.5 months o Soon after they can stand alone, they take their first step. At this stage, baby typically practices standing and walking more than 6 hours a day on and off o Soon after 1 birthday, baby is walking fairly well and achieves toddler status o During 2 ndyear, children begin to climb stairs on at a time. Later they will alternate feet. Walking downstairs comes later. They also learn to run and jump o By 3.5, most children can balance briefly on one foot and begin to hop Perception o Motor experience, together with awareness of their changing bodies, sharpens and modifies their perceptual understanding of what is likely to happen if they move in a certain way o Infants as young as 2 months realize that an object’s size and shape are constant, even though it looks smaller if it is farther away o Infants begin reaching for objects at 4-5 months and by 5.5 months they can adapt their reach to moving or spinning objects o Piaget and other researchers believed that reaching depended on visual guidance. Now they have found that infants can use other sensory cues to reach for an object Visual guidance: use of the eyes to guide movements of the hands or other parts of the body They can locate an unseen rattle by its sound and they can reach for an object in the dark, even though they cannot see their hands 5-7.5 months can grasp a moving object in dark. Requiring awareness of how their hands move, the objects path and speed, and to anticipate the likely point of contact o Depth perception: ability to perceive objects and surfaces in 3D Involve binocular coordination and motor control o Kinetic cues: produced by movement of the object or the observer or both To find out if object is moving, baby may hold head still for a moment, an ability at 3 months o Haptic perception: ability to acquire information about properties of objects, such as size, weight, and texture, by handling them 5-7 months, babies respond to cues as relative size and differences in texture and shading Only comes after babies have ability to reach for objects and grasp them Ecological theory of perception: theory developed by Eleanor and James Gibson that describes developing motor and perceptual abilities as interdependent parts of a functional system that guides behavior in varying contexts o Visual cliff: apparatus designed to give an illusion of depth and used to assess depth perception in infants Babies were set up on Plexiglas covering two edges. Between them was an apparent drop. Mother’s called their babies to the other side Babies would not go over the cliff o Babies’ bodies constantly change, weight, center of gravity, and muscular strength. And each new environment provides a new challenge for babies to master o With experience, instead of relying on solutions that previously worked, babies learn to continually gauge their abilities and adjust their movements to meet the demands of their current environment o Infants may gauge the steepness of a slope with their hands. They have learned how to learn about the slope through everyday experiences Dynamic systems theory DST: Ester Thelen’s theory that holds that motor development is a dynamic process of active coordination of multiple systems within the infant in relation to the environment o Opportunities and constraints presented by the infant’s physical characteristics, motivation, energy level, motor strength, and position in the environment at a particular moment in time affect whether and how an infant achieves a goal o A solution emerges as the baby explores various combinations of movements and assembles those that most efficiently contribute to that end o Solution must be flexible and subject to modification in changing circumstances o Normal babies develop in the same order because they are built the same way and have similar challenges and needs, however these factors can vary from baby to baby, allowing for variability in the timeline of individual development o She looked at why the stepping reflex appears and disappears. Babies legs become thicker and heavier but the leg muscles are not strong enough to handle the increased weight When infants are held in warm water, stepping reappeared Ability to produce movement had not changed, only physical and environmental conditions that inhibited or promoted it Cultural influences o African babies tend to be more advanced than US and European infants in sitting, walking, and running. Asian babies develop these skills more slowly o Differences may be due to ethnic differences in temperament or reflect culture’s child rearing practices o African and West Indian cultures use handling routines, such as bouncing and stepping exercise to strengthen babies muscles o Ache mothers in Paraguay pull babies back to laps when they crawl to protect them from nomadic lifestyle, so they walk much later Health Reducing infant mortality o Chief causes of neonatal death are severe infections, preterm delivery, and asphyxia at birth o 2/3 maternal deaths from complications of childbirth occur during immediate postnatal period, and infants whose mothers have died are more likely to die st o Infant mortality rate: proportion of babies born alive who die within the 1 year US rate has fallen since beginning of 20 century o Birth defects are leading cause of death in US, followed by prematurity, LBW, SIDS, maternal complications of pregnancy, complications of the placenta, umbilical cord, and membranes st o US babies have higher chance of dying before 1 year than other developed countries because of preterm and LBW babies o Racial Disparities Black babies are 2.5x more likely to die in 1 year as white and Hispanic babies reflecting greater LBW and SIDS American Indians and Alaska Natives 1.5x more likely than white babies due to SIDS and FAS Asian Americans least likely to die in infancy o Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS: sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant Leading cause of postneonatal death in US Peaks between 2 and 3 months and is most common among Black and American Indians/Alaska Natives, boy babies, preterm, young mothers, late or no prenatal care 20% of SIDS deaths occur while infant is in care of someone other than parents Underlying biological defect may make some infants vulnerable during a critical period to certain contributing experiences, such as prenatal exposure to smoke. Defect may be a delay in maturation of the neural network that is responsible for arousal from sleep in the presence of life-threatening conditions, a disturbance in the brain mechanism that regulates breathing At least 6 gene mutations affecting the heart have been linked to SIDS cases. 10% of victims have mutations associated with irregular heart rhythms Gene variant that appears in 1/9 black babies may explain greater incidence of SIDS Discovery of defects in brain stem, which regulates breathing, heartbeat, body temperature, and arousal Autopsies of 31 SIDS babies and 10 babies who died of other causes found that all SIDS babies had defects in brains ability to use serotonin May prevent SIDS babies who are sleeping face down or on their sides from waking or turning their heads when they breathe stale air containing carbon dioxide trapped under their blankets Sleeping with a fan, has been associated with 72% reduction in SIDS risk Infant mortality rates due to accidental suffocation in bed have quadrupled between 1984-2004, especially black boys under 4 months May reflect distinction between SIDS and accidental suffocations No connection between immunizations and SIDS Recommendations Place infant to sleep on back Use firm sleep surface Keep soft objects and loose bedding out of the crib Do not smoke during pregnancy, and avoid exposing Infant to secondhand smoke Let infant sleep in his own bed, near the mother Consider offering pacifier during 1 year. For breast fed infants, delay introducing pacifier until 1 month so breast feeding is firmly established Avoid overheating and over bundling Avoid commercial devices that claim to reduce risk of SIDS. These have not been tested Do not use home monitors to reduce risk of SIDS, there is no evidence for effectiveness Encourage tummy time when infant is awake and someone is watching Sleep customs Middle class US mothers usually sleep with babies in same room for 3-6 months and then move babies to separate rooms to make them self-reliant and independent Mayan mothers kept infants in maternal bed until the birth of a new baby, when the older child with sleep with another family member or in a bed in the mother’s room. They value close parent-child relationships. Called bedsharing or cosleeping Observational studies found that physical closeness of mother and baby tends to facilitate breast feeding, touching, and maternal responsiveness Under certain conditions, bed sharing can increase risk of SIDS or suffocation o Risk high when baby is 8-11 weeks, more than one person in bed, or mother is drinking alcohol or especially overtired AAP advise that safest place is in crib in parents room for 6 months o Injuries 5 leading cause of infancy death in US, and 3 leading cause after first 4 weeks 2/3 of injury deaths in 1 year are due to suffocation Among children 1-4 car accidents are leading cause of injury death, followed by drownings and burns Falls are major cause of nonfatal injuries both in infancy and toddlerhood Boys of all ages are more likely to be injured and die from their injuries than girls Black infants 2.5x more likely to die from injuries and 3x more likely to be victims of homicide Immunization o Once fatal illnesses such as measles, pertussis (whooping cough), and polio are preventable st o Worldwide, 78% of children vaccinated during 1 year. But in 2002, 2.5 million vaccine preventable deaths occurred among children under 5 years old o Global Immunization Vision Strategy for 2006-2015 seeks to extend routine vaccinations to every eligible person o In US 2007, 90% children received most of recommended vaccines o Some parents don’t immunize children because of speculation that some vaccines cause autism, but there is no evidence for this o Parents believe that infants receive too many vaccines for their immune systems to handle. Actually, multiple vaccines fortify immune system against variety of bacteria and viruses and reduce related infections Physical abuse: injury to the body through punching, beating, kicking, or burning Neglect: failure to meet a child’s basic needs, such as food, clothing, medical care, protection, and supervision Sexual abuse: any sexual activity involving a child and an older person Emotional maltreatment: rejection, terrorization, isolation, exploitation, degradation, ridicule, failure to provide emotional support, love, and affection Highest rates of victimization and of death from maltreatment are for age 3 and younger Nonorganic failure to thrive: in infancy, lack of appropriate growth for no known medical cause, accompanied by poor developmental and emotional functioning o Symptoms Lack of appropriate weight gain Irritability, lack of smiling or vocalizing Excessive sleepiness and fatigue Avoidance of eye contact Delayed motor development o Causes Inadequate nutrition Difficulties in breast feeding Improper formula preparation or feeding techniques Disturbed interactions with parents o Risk factors Poverty is greatest risk factor Infants whose mother is depresses, abuses alcohol or other substances Mother is under severe stress, does not show warmth or affection Shaken baby syndrome: form of maltreatment in which shaking an infant or toddler can cause brain damage, paralysis, or death o Because baby has weak neck muscles and large heavy head, shaking makes brain bounce back and forth inside skull o Causes bruising, bleeding, and swelling and can lead to permanent and severe brain damage, paralysis, and death o Damage worse if baby is thrown into bed or against wall Head trauma is leading cause of death in child abuse cases in US o 20% of shaken babies die within a few days. Survivors left with range of disabilities from learning and behavioral disorders to neurological injuries, paralysis, blindness, or permanent vegetative state Contributing factors o Characteristics of abusive and neglectful parents and families 80% of maltreatment, perpetrator is parent, usually the mother Poverty, lack of education, alcoholism, depression, or anti-social behavior Abuse may begin when a parent who is already anxious, depressed, or hostile, tries to control a child physically but looses self control and ends up shaking or beating the child Parents tend to have marital problems and fight physically. Households are disorganized and they experience more stressful events than other families o Community characteristics In countries where violent crime is infrequent and children are rarely spanked, such as Japan, China, child abuse is rare More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher rates of violence in societies In US, more than 90% of parents of 3-4 year olds and 50% of parents of 12 year olds report using physical punishment at home Helping families o Child Protective Services determine what steps need to be taken and marshal community resources to help o Agency may try to help family resolve parents or arrange alternative care for children who cannot stay at home. Services included shelters, therapy, and education in parenting skills o Parents Anonymous and other organizations offer free, confidential support groups o Usual alternative is foster care, but often may turn into another abusive situation o Although most foster children who leave system are reunited with families, 28% reenter foster care within next 10 years o Children who have been in foster care are more likely to become homeless, involve in criminal activity, and become teenage mothers o PSA are aimed at raising awareness among general population. And parenting classes for teen mothers and high-risk families Long-term effects o Without help, maltreated children often grow up with serious problems and may continue cycle of maltreatment o 1/3 of adults who were abused victimize their own children o Poor physical, mental, emotional health Impaired brain development, cognitive, language, and academic difficulties, Memory problems Emotional instability, problems in attachment and social relationships Attentional and behavioral problems As adolescents at risk for poor academic achievement, delinquency, pregnancy, alcohol and drug use, suicide As adults, poor health and develop fatal illnesses Those maltreated early in life are Anxious and depressed Those maltreated later in life are more likely to show aggression and engage in substance abuse o Long term reactions to the chronic stress of maltreatment may be triggered by a sight, sound, or smell that evokes memories or dreams of childhood trauma o Physically abused children tend to judge ambiguous facial expressions as angry, and electrical activity in their brains increases when they search for angry faces Exaggerated response may elicit a negative reaction from the person which seems to confirm their original appraisal o Because behavior is rooted in physiological adaptations to an abnormal environment, behavior is highly resistant to change o Severe neglect can alter hormonal responses to stress, impair immune response, and lower oxytocin levels, weakening social bonding o Severely neglected infant tend to be demanding, anxious, and hard to console, and parents may respond with anger and further distance themselves from the child o Sexually abused children show disturbed behavior, low self-esteem, develop eating disorders, and tend to be depressed, anxious, or unhappy, and may become sexually active at an early age Adults tend to be anxious, depressed, angry, or hostile, mistreat people, feel isolated and stigmatized, sexually maladjusted, abuse alcohol and drugs o Some children can grow up with minimal symptoms Some genotypes may be more resistant to trauma Social support can make a difference Treatment with drugs with serotonin early in life may prevent a child from growing up and abusing children Optimism, self-esteem, intelligence, creativity, humor, and independence are protective factors