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Chapter 2 - Day 2

by: Kara Nichols

Chapter 2 - Day 2 Bio 301

Kara Nichols
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover what we talked about on day 2 of Chapter 2
Principles of Biology 1
Felecia Ewing
Class Notes
Biology, pH, acid, base
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Nichols on Thursday June 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 301 at Calhoun Community College taught by Felecia Ewing in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at Calhoun Community College.

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Date Created: 06/02/16
Principle of Biology - Felicia Ewing 6/2/2016 Important Words or Definitions Important People Important Concepts Chapter 2  Formulas o Empirical – Saves space o Structural – more accurate and shows the arrangement o Isomers – molecules which have the same empirical formulas, but different structural ones  They have different properties  Ethyl alcohol and dimethyl ether  C 2 O6  Biologically important molecules (Not on the test) o Small  Water  Universal solvent  High specific heat o Temperature rises and falls slowly o Protects animals from rapid temperature changes  Adhesive and cohesive 2 o Water flows freely yet its molecules do not break apart o Dissolved molecules are evenly distributed  Transportation in living things  High surface tension  The solid form is less dense than the liquid form (unusual) o This is why ice floats in water  Water ionizes (it breaks apart) + - o Dissociates releasing the same amount of H and OH o Acids, bases, and pH o Big (Macro)  Carbohydrates  Fats (lipids)  Proteins  Nucleic Acids  Chemical Reactions o (6H O2 + (6CO )  2C H O 6 +1266 ) 2 o Reactants – molecules on the left side of the arrow o Products – molecules on the right side of the arrow 1Sticks to other things (due to polarity) 2 Sticks to each other o Must be “balanced” – have the same number of each type of atom on each side of the arrow  Solutions – contains a solute and solvent o Solute – usually a solid o Solvent – usually a liquid. Dissolves solutes  The most common is water o Hydrophilic – molecules that attract water o Hydrophobic – molecules that repel water  Acids – substances that dissociate in water, releasing H , and can drop the pH below 7 o HCl  H + Cl -  Bases – substances that either take up H (hydrogen ions)or releases OH (hydroxide- ions), and can raise the pH above 7 + - o NaOH  Na + OH  pH Scale – used to indicate acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a solution + - o ranges from 0-14, 7 being neutral (H = OH ) o pH below 7 is acidic o pH above 7 is basic o pH at 7 is neutral o Moving from 1 to 2 has ten times as much OH - o Moving from 14 to 13 has ten times as much H +  Buffer – a mixture of chemicals that resists change in pH (stabilizing) o If pH is Low:  Bind to H ions raising the pH o If pH is High:  Donate H ions to lower pH  Blood pH o Normal blood and tissue pH is 7.35-4.45  Anything outside the normal range is acidic or basic  Acidosis and alkalosis o Close to 7.4 for mammals  Blood pH below 6.9 or above 7.9 are usually fatal if they occur for more than a short time 3 For those who eat lots of meat and few vegetables, acidosis occurs


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