Chem 110, Week 10 Notes
Chem 110, Week 10 Notes CHEM 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by BritneyMoore on Thursday June 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Hoda Mirafzal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 06/02/16
Tuesday 5/31/2016 ▯ Carbohydrates (sugars) Composed of C, H, and O Produced by photosynthesis in plants Major source of energy Types: o Monosaccharide (simple sugars) o Disaccharides (bi-sugars) Contain 2 monosaccharide units o Polysaccharides (polymeric carbohydrates) Contains many monosaccharide unites ▯ Monosaccharide Soluble in water Small molecules 4-6 carbons in the backbone Polar (C, H, O) Glucose o Main source of fuel in cells o Aldehyde, 5 alcohol functional groups Fructose o Ketone, 5 alcohol functional groups Cyclic Acids o Monosaccharide with 5-6 carbon atoms ▯ Disaccharides Larger than monosaccharide molecules Polar Soluble in water 2 monosaccharide units Sucrose o 2 simple sugars o Glucose + galactose Lactose o Galacose + glucose ▯ Polysaccharides Simple sugars linked to themselves Polymer= monomerS Insoluble in water Made up of C, H, O Very large molecules ▯ Lipids Lipids with fatty acids o Fats and oils Triglycerides= long chain fatty acids + glycerol Lipids without fatty acids o Steroids ▯ Fatty Acids Long-chain carboxylic acids Insoluble in water Typically 12-18 carbons Some contain double bonds ▯ Saturated Only C-C bonds ▯ Unsaturated 1 or more C=C bonds ▯ Saturated Fatty Acids Closely packed Strong attractions between chains High melting points relative to unsaturated fatty acids Solids at room temperature ▯ Unsaturated Fatty Acids Nonlinear chains don’t allow molecules to pack closely together Few attractions between chains Low melting points relative to saturated fatty acids Liquids at room temperature ▯ Saturated Fats Increase both total and LDL (bad) cholesterol Increase risk of heart attack and stroke ▯ Unsaturated Fats Good fats Lower cholesterol ▯ Hydrogenation Adding H2 to vegetable oils produces compounds with higher melting points (margarine, shortening) ▯ Geometric Isomers ▯ Trans Fat Partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils convert some of the cis- into trans- unsaturated fats Trans fats include LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol o Saturated fats are bad o Unsaturated fats have cis- which are good and Trans fats which are very bad ▯ Saponification and Soap Soap: the salt of a fatty acid Saponification: hydrolysis of a triglyceride with a strong base Triglycerides split into glecerol and the salts of fatty acids (soap) ▯ Lipids without Fatty Acids Steroids o 4 rings in common o Insoluble in water Cholesterol o Contains 4 rings o LDL Low density lipoprotein Associated with atherosclerosis Bad cholesterol o HDL High density lipoprotein Protective Good cholesterol ▯ Bile Salts Synthesized in the liver from cholesterol Stored in gallbladder Secreted in small intestine ▯ Amino Acids and Proteins Building blocks of proteins Side group R gives unique characteristics ▯ Essential Amino Acids 8 amino acids not synthesized in the body Must obtain from the diet All in meat, fish, poultry, and dairy (complete proteins) 1 or more missing in grains and vegetables ▯ Peptide Bonds Bonds that fuse 2 amino acids to form a protein ▯ Protein Large biological molecules made up of one or more amino acid chains ▯ ▯
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