Lesson 5 and 6
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Nichols on Thursday June 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 111 at Calhoun Community College taught by Mona Chaudhary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
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Date Created: 06/02/16
College Chemistry 1 – Mona Chaudhary 6/1/2016 Important Words or Definitions Important People Important Concepts Lesson 5 Periodic Table – an organized listing of all known types of atoms with some important information for each atom or element Atomic Number 1 1.009 Atomic Mass (weight) Chemical Symbol H Name of Hydrogen element o Atomic Number – The number of protons found in the nucleus o Never Changes o Atomic Mass – the number of protons plus the number A of neutrons found in the nucleus. X Z o This is the average number, because the number of X = element neutrons can change. o Isotopes – atoms of the same element with the same A = p + n 0 number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons + (therefor having a Z = p different atomic 12 13 14 weight) 6C 6C 6C Calculations: o The atomic mass – the atomic number equals the number of neutrons o Atoms usually have a zero net charge o Because the protons and electrons are the same amount (balanced) Na Groups ↕ Atomic Number = 11 o Main groups Mass = 23 Main group metals Protons = 11 o Alkali Metals Neutrons = 12 Electrons = 11 1A EXCEPT Hydrogen o Alkaline Earth Metals 2A o Halogens 7A o Noble Gases (Inert Gases) 8A o Transition Metals / “d” block metals 3B-2B o Metals, Metalloids, Non-metals Characteristics Metals – conductive, shiny, has a shape Non-Metals – dull, not conductive Metalloids – has characteristics of both o Inner Transition Elements Lanthanide series Actinide series Periods ↔ o 7 o =Energy Levels Trends o Atomic Radius ← ↓ o Electronegativity ↑ → o Ionization Energy ↑ → o Reactivity Metals – Large atoms are more reactive ← ↓ Non-metals – smaller atoms are more reactive ↑ → College Chemistry 1 – Mona Chaudhary 6/1/2016 Important Words or Definitions Important People Important Concepts Lesson 6 Bonds o Ionic – an attraction between negatively and e positively charged ions - ionic bonds form between: P P Metals & Non-Metals e strong electron donors - o Metals Hydrogen Gas o 1 or 2 electrons in valence shell Strong electron acceptor o Non-Metals o 6 or 7 electrons in valence shell o Covalent – when two orbitals overlap and electrons are shared “Share a pair” Non-Metals & Non-Metals A single line drawn between two atoms represents the sharing of 2 electrons H – H o 2 electrons / 1 pair O=O o Double covalent bond o 4 electrons / 2 pair Nonpolar covalent bond – when the sharing of electrons is fair and equal Methane, hydrogen gas, oxygen gas Electronegativity – the attraction of an atom for electrons Polar covalent bond – unequal sharing of electrons small ionization potential o willingness to lose or give up electrons Positive end Large value for the electron affinity o More likely to grab an electron Negative end Linus Pauling – each atom has an ability to attract electrons – this ability is called electronegativity o Electronegativity change is greater than 0, less than 1.9 o The element with the higher electronegativity value will win the electron tug-of-war o Bottom left to upper right increases electronegativity EXCLUDING noble gases (they are already happy with the amount of electrons they have) Metals – low electronegativity Non-metals – high electronegativity Water O ẟ- o Polar molecule o Oxygen is more electronegative than the ẟ+ ẟ+ H H hydrogens Therefor it has a stronger pull on the electrons Lewis Dot Structures o Shows valence electrons Group number = #e - Group V = 5 valence electrons Drawing Lewis Dot Structures o Great for showing bonding Which atoms are bonded to which Shows the number and types of bonds o Not good for showing shape o Octet Rule – each atom wants 8 electrons Hydrogen is the only atom that only wants 2 (Duet rule) o NASB Method N = Needed Needed Available o Add: o 8 for every atom Shared o Only 2 for hydrogen Bonds o Always an even # A = Available - single = double o Add the number of valence electrons = triple S = Shared o N-A o Central atom is one of the following: B = Bonds The least electronegative Carbon o S/2 The only one of its kind o Not always correct Never Hydrogen o If drawing an ion, put the structure in square brackets [ ] NASB Practice: 1. PBr3 2. N 2 2 3. CH OH 3 4. C 2 4
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