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Comm. 88 Week 10 Lecture and Section Notes - Mullin


Comm. 88 Week 10 Lecture and Section Notes - Mullin Comm. 88

Marketplace > University of California Santa Barbara > Communication Studies > Comm. 88 > Comm 88 Week 10 Lecture and Section Notes Mullin
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All lecture and section notes from week 10 in Comm. 88 with Professor Mullin
Communication Research Methods
Dolly Mullin
Class Notes
Comm88, communication, Mullin, UCSB
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by on Thursday June 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm. 88 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Dolly Mullin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Communication Research Methods in Communication Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 06/02/16
Tuesday, May 31, 2016 Week 10 Lecture 19 - May 31, 2016 - Qualitative Research Methods • Message Analysis (Contrast with Content Analysis) - Subjectively analyze Comm. messages - Rhetorical Criticism - looks at Greek traditions of rhetoric • Critique of from, language, imagery, delivery of speeches/pop culture • Ex) Use of metaphors in a President’s speech • Ex) Themes in student’s drinking stories on Facebook • Goal: greater understanding/appreciation (similar to literary criticism) - Critical Theory: cultural studies or ideological criticism • Craft arguments about cultural implications of media (especially gender, race, class, etc.) • Ex) Marxist or feminist analysis of ads • Goal: social/political awareness and change • Qualitative Methods for Studying People - Field research on GS reading • Ethnography or interpretive research - Contrast with surveys and experiments - Goal: develop rich understanding of people’s subjective experience • Important Features (Field Research) - Natural Setting • For observation/interviewing - Non-representative sampling - Researcher subjectivity and reflexivity 1 Tuesday, May 31, 2016 • Researcher accepts and comments on own influences on participants - Inductive theory-building • Often called grounded theory - Participant Observation • Subjects aware (overt) or not (covert) of being studied • Researcher participates to varying degrees in events/groups under study Issues • - Typically purposive types of sampling (individual case studies common) - Detailed field notes and records - Finished when you achieve “saturation” • New data doesn’t add anything to your study - Qualitative Interviewing • Unstructured or semi-structured - Open-ended questions, free to change - Depth is key • Types of interviews - In-depth interviews - Ethnographic conversations • Naturally occurring things - Focus Groups • Groups discuss an issue led by a mediator • Open-ended questions - Leader shouldn’t facilitate or control • Popular technique in marketing and political research 2 Tuesday, May 31, 2016 Lecture 20 - June 2, 2016 - Research Ethics • Treatment of subjects - Institutional Review Board • Must submit research proposal for approval from University’s IRB - At UCSB: Human Subjects Committee • Must complete Human Subjects Training - Guidelines for Using Human Subjects • Participation must be voluntary • Must obtain informed consent - Explain to participants: • Purpose & procedures Possible risks/discomforts • • Ability to withdraw without penalty • Should protect subjects from harm - Shouldn’t diminish self-worth or cause stress, anxiety, or embarrassment • 2 ways to keep privacy: - Anonymity - Confidentiality • Should avoid deception - Both types • Outright deception - deliberately gives false information • Concealment - withholding key information - Deception must be justified by compelling scientific concerns - Subjects must be adequately debriefed 3 Tuesday, May 31, 2016 • Treatment of Data (Ethics) - Don’t “fudge” data - Keep all data • Allow other scientists access • Reporting findings - Support proper peer review - Avoid conflicts of interest • Funding from sources that expect certain findings • Should we distrust science? - Just watch for bad signs: • Scientists/science too closely mixing with a political agenda • Demonizing people with conflicting points of view - Remember proper research methods Section - June 2, 2016 - Review Game; terms used • Manifest Content - Visible, surface content in a Content Analysis • E.g., Number of guns in a TV program - Don’t have to think about it- if you have to think about it, it is Latent Content • Maturation Effect - Any natural change over time (i.e., fluctuation that happens) in pre-testing measures • Pre-test, NOT post-test! • Partial Correlation - Statistically measure and control for the effects of 3rd variables 4 Tuesday, May 31, 2016 • Longitudinal Surveys - Measure multiple time points to track changes over time • E.g., Panel, Trend, Cohort • Within-subjects Design - Experiment with every subject in every condition, may have order effect problems (e.g., Practice effects, fatigue effects) • Every participant is in every experimental condition • Rhetorical Criticism - Qualitative research - Critique form, language, imagery, etc. of messages for greater understanding and/or appreciation • Think of Obama speeches • Experience Sampling - Sampling “moments in time” to fill out survey (e.g., send text messages to participants that ask what they are doing at that moment) • Texting participants at random times of the day, “Have you checked Facebook in the last 10 minutes?” - Difficult but can produce better, more accurate results • Posttest Only Design - Random assignment, one group gets treatment and the other doesn’t, compare average scores • R X(manipulation) O1 (Group 1) • R O2 (Group 2) • Institutional Review Board (IRB) / Human Subject Committee at UCSB - A university entity that reviews all studies using human participants, ensures ethical studies 5


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