ANS 2: Week 10 Notes
ANS 2: Week 10 Notes ANS 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Saturday June 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. James Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Science in Animal Science at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 06/04/16
ANS 2: Week 10 Notes (6/1) ● Genetic Engineering or Transgenics ○ Canary in the coal mine ○ glofish originally developed to monitor water pollution ● The beginning - 1982 - Palmiter et al ○ Fifac - prevents growth after puberty ○ Hormone - prior to puberty - bone growth ■ After puberty - homeostasis - anterior pituitary ○ Hypothesis that removal would mean further growth ■ Should be heritable ○ Mice ended up sterile but was a first step ● If you have a gene - you can inject into the pronuclei of mice ○ All genes have to have some switch that turns it off ○ Don’t everything expressed all over body ● Plasmids: circular DNA outside a chromosome in a bacteria ○ Can insert gene and put back into bacteria and clone genes ● transgenic/genetically engineered ○ Animal that contains a new gene (or DNA) introduces into the DNA by means other than normal breeding or viral infection ○ GMO =/= GE/transgenic ■ Genetic engineering is not the same as genetically modified ● For the record: ○ US regulates transgenic animals with the FDA ○ Regulated under the animal drug act ■ Transgene is treated as a drug (injected to change form or function) ○ Constantly eat things with DNA in it ■ FDA says this DNA is a drug and may be bad (contradiction) ● Gene construct: ○ embryo→ transgenic animal → ■ → research ■ → biomedical ● Pharmaceuticals ● Xenotransplantation ○ Transferring organs between species ○ Figuring how to get other animals to accept the foreign organs ■ → industrial ● Spider silk ○ Can’t be cultured, trying to make it on an industrial level ■ → agriculture ● Food security ● Nutriceuticals ● Sustainability ○ Have to know what gene you want ■ Where you want it expressed, how much, what you want it to do etc. ● Methods for Making Transgenic livestock***** ● Pronuclear microinjection ○ Mouse zygote - inject DNA into pronucleus ● Nuclear Transfer - Dolly ○ Species - sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, etc. ○ Transgenics - sheep, cattle, pigs ○ Homologous **** ● Programmable endonucleases ○ Include: TALENs, CRISPRs, ZFNs ○ Introduce targeted, double strand break in DNA ○ Used to: ■ Introduce mutations - not GE ■ Target gene insertion - GE ○ Can create low allergen milk by removing protein ● Livestock GE in the Future: ○ TALENs, ZFNs, or CRISPR-Cas9 enzymes******** ● What can we do now? ○ Add new gene ○ Add extra copies of endogenous gene ○ Delete an endogenous gene ○ Mutate an endogenous gene ○ Replace endogenous gene ○ Down-regulate expression of endogenous gene ● Since 1985 ○ Over 200 types of transgenic large animals produced **** ● Agriculture ○ Currently > 60 constructs ■ Modifications of milk components ● ****** ● Only approved GE animal in the world = AquAdvantage salmon
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