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PSYCH 212 Chapter 8 Notes

by: Julie Notetaker

PSYCH 212 Chapter 8 Notes Psych 212

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Psychlogy > Psych 212 > PSYCH 212 Chapter 8 Notes
Julie Notetaker
Penn State
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Notes from Chapter 8 of "A Child's World-Infancy Through Adulthood" 13th Edition, by Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Hunt
Class Notes
Psychosocial Development
25 ?




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Saturday June 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 06/04/16
Psychosocial development: combination of personality development intertwined with social relationships l Personality: relatively consistent blend of emotions, temperament, thought, and behavior that makes each person unique l Emotions: subjective reactions to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes l People differ in how often and how strongly they feel a particular emotion, in the kinds of events that may produce it, in the physical manifestations they show, and in how they act as a result l Culture influences the way people feel about a situation and the way they show their emotions l 0-3 months l Infants open to stimulation l Begin to show interest and curiosity l When infants are unhappy, they cry, flail arms and legs, and stiffen bodies l Smile readily at people l 3-6 months l Anticipate what is about to happen and experience disappointment when it does not. l Smile, coo, and laugh often l Social awakening and early reciprocal exchanges between baby and caregiver l 6-9 months l Play social games and try to get responses from people l They talk to, touch, and cajole other babies to get them to respond l Express more differentiated emotions. Joy, fear, anger, and surprise l 9-12 months l Intensely preoccupied with principle caregiver l May become afraid of strangers, and act subdued in new situations l By 1 year they communicate emotions more clearly, showing moods, ambivalence, and gradations of feeling l 12-18 months l Toddlers explore their environment, using people they are attached to as a secure base l Become more confident and more eager to assert themselves l 18-36 months l Become anxious because they realize how much they are separating from caregiver l Work out awareness of their limitations in fantasy and in play and by identifying with adults l Crying l Hunger cry: rhythmic cry, not always associated with hunger l Angry cry: variation of rhythmic cry, with excess air forced through the vocal cords l Pain cry: sudden onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning sometimes followed by holding the breath l Frustration cry: 2 or 3 drawn out cries with no prolonged breath-holding l If parents wait until cries of distress escalate, it may become difficult to soothe the baby; and such a pattern may interfere with infant’s developing ability to regulate his or her emotional state l Most developmentally sound approach may be to prevent distress, making soothing unnecessary l Smiling and laughing l Earliest smile occur spontaneously soon after birth, as a result of subcortical nervous system activity l Involuntary smiles frequently appear during periods of REM sleep l Through 1 month, smiles are elicited by high-pitched tones when an infant is drowsy l During 2nd month, as visual recognition develops, babies smile more at visual stimuli, such as faces they know l Social smiling, when infants smile at their parents, does not develop until 2nd month l Laughter is a smile-linked vocalization that becomes more common between 4-12 months when it signifies the most positive intense emotion l Through 6 months, infant smiles reflect an emotional exchange with a partner l A 6 month old may giggle in response to parent putting towel over face. A 10 month old may try to put towel back on face when it falls off l Laughter helps babies discharge tension, such as fear of a threatening object l Anticipatory smiling: infants smile at an object and then gaze at an adult while continuing to smile l Rises 8-10 months l Among first types of communication infant refers to an object or experience l 4 month olds who smile more in response to a mobile are more likely to talk and engage at 4 years l 6 month olds who smile at a still face are more likely to be securely attached at 12 months l Appearance of emotions l Soon after birth babies show contentment, interest, and distress l During first 6 months these emotions differentiate into joy, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, fear l Self-conscious emotions: emotions such as embarrassment, empathy, and envy that depend on self-awareness l Self-awareness: realization that one’s existence and functioning are separate from those of other people and things. 15-24 months l Self-evaluative emotions: emotions such as pride, shame, and guilt, that depend on both self-awareness and knowledge of socially accepted standards of behavior l Develops around age 3 when knowledge about society’s standards, rules, and goals make children better able to evaluate thoughts, plans, desires, and behavior against what is socially appropriate l Brain growth l Emotional development is bidirectional process. Emotion affected by brain development and experiences have effects on structure of brain l 1st shift l First 3 months l Cerebral cortex becomes functional, bringing cognitive perceptions into play l Differentiation of basic emotions begins l REM sleep and reflexive behavior diminish l 2nd shift l 9-10 months l Frontal lobes begin to interact with limbic system. l Limbic structures such as hippocampus become larger and more adult like l Connections between the frontal cortex and the hypothalamus and limbic system, which processes sensory information, may facilitate relationship between cognitive and emotional spheres l As connections become denser and more elaborate, infant can experience and interpret emotions at the same time l 3rd shift l 2nd year l Infants develop self-awareness, self-conscious emotions, and greater capacity for regulating emotions and activities. May be related to myelination of frontal lobes l Accompanied by greater physical mobility and exploratory behavior l 4th shift l Hormonal changes in autonomic nervous system coincide with emergence of evaluative emotions l Shift away from dominance of the sympathetic system, the part of the autonomic system that prepares the body for action, and the maturation of the parasympathetic system, part of autonomic system that is involved in excretion and sexual excitation l Social cognition: ability to understand that other people have mental states and to gauge their feelings and intentions l Altruistic behavior: activity intended to help another person with no expectation of reward l Common of toddlers beginning before 2nd year l 20 month olds who receive a material reward for help are less likely to help again than children who receive only praise or no reward l Empathy: ability to put oneself in another person’s place and feel what the other person feels. Occurs during 2nd year and increases with age l When experimenter was having trouble reaching a goal, 18 month olds helped 6/10 situations. They did not help when experimenter did not appear to be having trouble l Social evaluation: valuing someone on the basis of how that person treats others, 6 month olds do this l 6 and 10 month olds saw a wooden character repeatedly attempt to climb a hill. On 3rd attempt, infants saw either climber assisted by a “helper”, or pushed down by a “hinderer”. When they were allowed to reach for one, they reached for the helper l When a neutral character did not interact with climber, they preferred helper to neutral but neutral to hinderer l Mirror neurons: neurons that fire when a person does something or observes someone else doing the same thing l Brain imaging in children with ASD shows less mirror neuron activity l Egocentrism: Piaget’s term for inability to consider another person’s point of view; a characteristic of young children’s thought l Piaget believed egocentrism delays development of social cognition until concrete operational stage of middle childhood l Research showed 9 month olds reacted differently to a person unwilling to give them a toy rather then someone who accidentally dropped it, suggesting they have understanding of intentions l Shared intentionality: joint attention to a mutual goal l Collaboration with caregivers in joint activities, such as holding socks as caregiver dresses them l Increase during 2nd year as toddlers become more adept at communication Temperament: characteristic disposition of style of approaching and reacting to situations. Early appearing, biologically-based tendency to respond to the environment in predictable ways l New York Longitudinal Study NYLS: followed 133 infants into adulthood. They recorded how active children were, regularity of hunger, sleep, and bowel movements, adaptation to new environments, sensitivity to stimuli, intensity of responses, average mood. 40% were easy, 10% difficult, 15% slow to warm up, 35% did not fit l Easy children: children with a generally happy temperament, regular biological rhythms, and a readiness to accept new experiences l Difficult children: children with irritable temperament, irregular biological rhythms, and intense emotional responses l Slow-to-warm-up children: children whose temperament is generally mild but who are hesitant about accepting new experiences l Children who do not fit may reject new foods but love babysitters, variations are normal l Short form questionnaires n Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ: Parent’s rate infants with regard to recent concrete events and behaviors. Focuses on activity level, positive emotion, fear, frustration, soothability, and duration of orienting (distractibility and attention span), intensity of pleasure, perceptual sensitivity, attentional shifting n Validity of parental ratings are in question u Parents tend to rate child’s temperament by comparison with other children in the family u Observers may be biased because they only see children in standardized situations l Largely inborn, probably hereditary n IBQ has shown that temperament has links between infant and age 7. And that temperament at age 3 predicted aspects of personality at 18 and 21 n Can change in response to parental treatment and life experiences n Infants in Malaysia tend to be less adaptable, wary of new experiences, readily responsive to stimuli l Goodness of fit: appropriateness of environmental demands and constraints to a child’s temperament n Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the quality of parenting than other infants and may need more emotional support combined with respect for their autonomy n Caregivers who recognize that child is acting a certain way due to temperament may feel less guilty, anxious, hostile, ridged, or impatient. They can anticipate child’s reactions and help the child adapt l Behavioral inhibition: a trait, which has to do with how boldly or cautiously a child approaches unfamiliar objects and situations, and it is associated with certain biological characteristics n Babies high in behavioral inhibition become overly aroused in presence of new stimulus u Pump arms and legs vigorously and sometimes arch backs u Many become uncomfortable and cry u 20% babies respond this way n Babies low in behavioral inhibition are relaxed in presence of new stimulus u Little distress or motor activity and calmly stare at stimuli, sometimes smiling u 40% babies n Inhibited children may be born with excitable amygdala, which detects and reacts to unfamiliar events n Physiological characteristics u Inhibited children more likely to be thin body build, narrow face, blue eyes l Higher and less variable heart rates l Pupils more dilated u Uninhibited children taller, heavier, and more often brown-eyed n Experience can moderate or accentuate tendencies u Male toddlers inclined to be fearful and shy were more likely to do so at age 3 if parents accepted child’s reactions. If parents exposed sons to new situations that were somewhat but not overly frightening, boys became less inhibited over time as they developed strategies to handle their arousal u When parents are a good fit, children tend to outgrow inhibition u Birth order/ race/ culture/ relationship with teachers and peers/ unpredictable events can reinforce or soften original temperament bias Developmental Issues in Infancy  Erikson said that at each stage of the lifespan we are faced with challenges and a complementary risk o Basic sense of trust versus mistrust (infancy-18 months): Erikson’s first stage in psychosocial development, in which infants develop a sense of the reliability of people and objects  Ideally babies develop balance between trust (lets them form intimate relationships) and mistrust (enables them to protect themselves)  If trust predominates, children develop hope and the belief that they can fulfill their needs and obtain their desires.  If mistrust predominates, children view world as unfriendly and unpredictable and will have trouble forming quality relationships  Critical element in developing trust is sensitive, responsive, consistent caregiving  Attachment: reciprocal, enduring tie between two people, especially infant and caregiver, each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship o Ethological theory says infants and parents are biologically predisposed to become attached to each other, and attachment promotes a baby’s survival o Longitudinal study recorded infant’s faces during play at 5 and 10 months. 3 months later, the mothers were shown these images for the first time. Happy faced images of their own infant activated maternal reward processing brain regions associated with dopamine o John Bowlby warned against separating mother and baby without providing good substitute care  Attachment styles are formed because of repeated interactions with a caregiver. Baby develops sets of expectations called working models. If mother continues to act a way, the model holds up, if behavior changes, the baby may revise the model o Mary Ainsworth studied attachment in African babies through naturalistic observation in their home  Strange situation: laboratory technique used to study infant attachment  Typically infant is 10-24 months old  Sequence of 8 episodes of gradually increasing stress, taking less than a half hour, designed to trigger the emergence of attachment related behaviors  Mother twice leaves baby in unfamiliar room, first time with stranger, second time she leaves baby alone and stranger comes back before mother. Mother encourages baby to explore and play and gives comfort if baby needs it  Artificial setting  May not apply to non-Western cultures  Secure attachment: pattern in which an infant is quickly and effectively able to find comfort from a caregiver when faced with a stressful situation  Sometimes cry or protest when caregiver leaves  Some babies are comfortable being left with stranger for short periods, but prefer caregiver  Smiling, greeting, approaching caregiver during reunion  Avoidant attachment: pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact on his or her return  Continue to play in room and interact with stranger  Show little emotion, positive or negative  Ambivalent (resistant) attachment: pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during their absence, and both seeks and resists contact on return  Sometimes approaches caregiver for comfort when stranger looks at or approaches him  Remains upset after return for long periods, kicking, screaming, arching back and away from contact o Disorganized-disoriented attachment: pattern in which an infant, after separation from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory, repetitive, or misdirected behaviors on his or her return  May seek closeness next to stranger or show fear response when caregiver returns  May greet mother when she returns but turn away or approach without looking at her  More likely in premature babies or those with addicted mothers  Most prevalent in babies whose mothers are insensitive, intrusive, or abusive, or who have unresolved feelings about their childhood attachment to their own parents  Gene-environment interaction  DRD4 gene is possible risk factor, and risk increases 19x when mother has unresolved loss  Gene-environment correlation  Inborn characteristics may place stressful demands on parents o Babies develop attachments to both parents at the same time and security of attachment to both parents is quite similar o Waters and Deane Attachment Q-set AQS: mothers or home observers sort a set of descriptive words or phrases (cries a lot, tends to cling) into categories ranging from most to least characteristic of the child and then compare these descriptions with the prototypical secure child  139 studies found the observer, but not maternal, version to be a valid measure of attachment security  Cross-cultural validity o Temperament and attachment  Neurological or physiological conditions may underlie temperament differences in attachment  Variability in heart rate associated with irritability, and more common in insecurely attached infants  15-day-old infants classified as irritable were more likely to be insecurely attached at 1 year. Mothers who received home instruction on how to soothe babies were as likely to be securely attached as nonirritable infants o Stranger anxiety: wariness of strange people and places, shown by some infants 6- 12 months o Separation anxiety: distress shown by someone, typically an infant, when a familiar caregiver leaves  Typical but not universal  When substitute caregivers are warm and responsive before they cry, the babies cry less o Long term effects  The more secure the attachment to an adult, the easier it is for child to develop good relationships with others  Securely attached toddlers have larger, more varied vocabularies  Insecurely attached toddlers show fear, anger, and distress, whereas securely attached are joyful  Age 3-5 securely attached more likely to be curious, competent, empathetic, resilient, get along with others, self-confident, form closer friendships, better able to resolve conflicts  Insecure toddlers have inhibitions and negative emotions, hostility toward other children at age 5, dependency during school years  Disorganized attachment have behavior problems at all levels of schooling and psychiatric disorders at age 17  Insecure or disorganized children who’s parenting improve become less aggressive than those whose parenting does not improve or gets worse. Secure children are immune to parenting that becomes less sensitive o Intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns  Adult Attachment Interview AAI: asks adults to recall and interpret feelings and experiences related to their childhood attachments  Mother who was securely attached to her mother, or who understands why she was insecurely attached, can accurately recognize baby’s attachment behaviors, respond encouragingly, and help the baby form a secure attachment to her  Mothers who are preoccupied with past attachment show anger and intrusiveness in interactions with children  Depressed mothers who dismiss memories of past attachments can be cold and unresponsive  Parent’s attachment history influences perceptions of baby’s temperament  Dutch study of insecurely attached mothers gave home visits with video feedback to enhance sensitive parenting and participation in discussions of childhood experiences in relation to current caregiving, After, mothers were more sensitive Emotional communication with caregivers  Mutual regulation: process by which infant and caregiver communicate emotional states to each other and respond appropriately o Normally, interaction moves back and forth between well-regulated and poorly regulated states, and babies learn from these shifts how to send signals and what to do when initial signals are not effective o Helps learn to read other’s behavior and develop expectations about it o They are disturbed when someone breaks off interpersonal contact o Still-face paradigm: research procedure used to measure mutual regulation in infants 2-9 months old  Following a normal face-to-face interaction, in still face episode the mother suddenly becomes silent and unresponsive. After a few minutes, she resumes normal interaction in reunion episode  During still-face infants stop smiling and looking at mother. They may make faces, sounds, gestures, or touch themselves, clothing, or chair to comfort themselves  During reunion, 6 month olds show more positive behavior. But a tendency to fuss and cry, indicating stress  Social referencing: understanding an ambiguous situation by seeking out another person’s perception of it o Whether 14 month olds touched plastic creatures dropped within their reach depended on negative or positive emotions they had seen an adult express an hour before Postpartum depression: major or minor depression occurring within 4 weeks of giving birth  Affects 12-20% of mothers  Younger, unmarried, first time mothers, low education, low SES are more likely  Low income mothers with diabetes have 50% increased risk  High levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, which prepares mother’s bodies for the stress of birth, may trigger postpartum depression  Depressed mothers less sensitive to infants, and interactions are less positive  Babies may give up sending emotional signals and learn that they have no power to draw responses from people, their mothers are unreliable, and the world is untrustworthy, and may become depressed  Within 24 hours of birth, infants show less activity in left frontal region of the brain, which is specialized for approach emotions such as joy and anger, and more activity in right frontal region, which controls withdrawal emotions  Newborns have higher levels of stress hormones, lower scores on Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale, and lower vagal tone, associated with attention and learning  Tend to be insecurely attached, grow poorly, poor cognitive and linguistic skills, and have behavior problems  As toddlers they have trouble suppressing frustration and tension and in early adolescence are at risk for violent behavior  Zoloft (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and nortriptyline (tricyclic) appear to be safe and effective  Listening to music, visual imagery, aerobics, yoga, relaxation, and massage therapy helps  Massage helps depressed babies  Social, educational, vocational rehabilitation for the mother and day care for infant improves interactions Developmental Issues in Toddlerhood  Self-concept: sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits o 3 month old pays attention to mirror image. 4-9 months they show more interest in images of others than of themselves  This perceptual discrimination is the foundation of the conceptual self-concept that develops in middle of 2 ndyear o Personal agency: realization that they can control external events, 4-10 months o Self-coherence: sense of being a physical whole with boundaries separate from the rest of the world o Self-representation: conscious knowledge of the self as a distinct, identifiable being  Red dots put on children and then putting them in front of mirror. If they touch nose then they have self-awareness 18-24 months  Once children recognize themselves, they show a preference for looking at their own image over another image of a child their age  Pretend play develops at end of 2 ndyear  Use of first-person pronouns (me, mine), 20-24 months o 19-30 months children apply descriptive terms and evaluative ones to themselves o MRI scans of 15-30 month olds showed that signal intensities in the left temporo- parietal junction were strongest in children who recognized their image in a mirror, engaged in pretend play, and used personal pronouns nd  Autonomy versus shame and doubt: 18 months-3 years Erikson’s 2 stage in psychosocial development, in which children achieve a balance between self-determination and control by others o Virtue is will o Toilet training and language are important o Toddlers need adults to set limits and shame and doubt help recognize the need for those limits  Terrible Twos o In US, are a normal sign of the drive for autonomy? Not universal  In dealing with older siblings, US mothers make toddlers and older children share whereas other cultures the older child gives the toy to the younger one. Children are seen as having intentional misbehavior starting at 7 months in US, in Guatemala they see it starting at 3 years o Begins before age 2, and peaks at 3.5-4, and declines by 6 o Negativism: tendency to shout no, just for the sake of resisting authority o Dealing with it  Be flexible, learn child’s natural rhythms and likes and dislikes  Think of yourself as a safe harbor, with safe limits, from which a child can set out to discover the world but keep coming back for support  Make your home child-safe  Avoid physical punishment  Offer a choice  Be consistent  Don’t interrupt an activity unless absolutely necessary  If you must interrupt, give a warning  Suggest alternative activities  Suggest, don’t command  Link requests with pleasurable activities  Remind the child of what you expect  Wait a few moments before repeating a request  Use time-outs to end conflicts  Expect less self-control during times of stress  Expect it to be harder for toddlers to comply with dos than don’ts (clean up your room, takes more effort than don’t write on the furniture)  Keep atmosphere as positive as possible  Socialization: development of habits, skills, values, and motives shared by responsible, productive members of a society o Internalization: during socialization, process by which children accept societal standards of conduct as their own o Self-regulation: a person’s independent control of behavior to conform to understood social expectations  Before they can control behavior, they need to be able to regulate their attentional processes and modulate negative emotions  Enables them to develop will power and cope with frustration  Requires ability to wait for gratification  Parallels evaluative emotions such as empathy, shame, and guilt  Usually develops by 3 years o Conscience: internal standards of behavior, which usually control one’s conduct and produce emotional discomfort when violated  Grazyna Kochanska videotaped 103 children ages 26-41 months and their mothers playing together with toys for 2-3 hours, both at home and in a home- like lab. After play, mother gave child 15 minutes to put away the toys. Lab had special shelf with attractive toys and child was told not to touch anything on that shelf. After an hour, mother went into adjoining room, leaving the child alone with the toys. Then a woman entered, played with the toys, and left child alone again.  Situational compliance: obedience of a parent’s orders only when in the presence of signs of ongoing parental control o Decreases with age  Committed compliance: wholehearted obedience of a parent’s orders without reminders or lapses o More likely girls than boys o Tends to increase with age o Mothers tend to rely on gentle guidance rather than force, threats, or other forms of negative control  Receptive cooperation: eager willingness to cooperate harmoniously with a parent in daily interactions, including routines, chores, hygiene and play  Moral emotions: guilt and empathy o Factors in success of socialization  Security of attachment  Observational learning from parents behavior  Mutual responsiveness of parent and child  Not all children respond in same way  Fearful toddler may need gentile reminders, and bold toddler may need more assertive parenting  Study of 2.5 year olds whose mothers gave clear explanations for their request, compromised, or bargained with the child, were better able to resist temptation at age 3 than mothers who had threatened, teased, insisted, or given in  Discussions of emotions in conflict (How would you feel if…) lead to conscious development Gender: significance of being male or female  Boys o Longer and heavier, stronger o Physically more vulnerable from conception on o More active o Brains 10% larger o Play more aggressively as young as 17 months  Girls o Less reactive to stress and more likely to survive infancy nd o 2 year girls are more talkative  Both o Motor development milestones o 1-2 years, preference for toys and playmates of the same sex appears o 2-3 years, say more words pertaining to own gender o 6 months react differently to male and female voices o 9-12 months, can tell difference between male and female faces based on hair and clothes o 24-36 months, they associate gender-typical toys with a face of the right gender, boys are slower o 25 month old boys spend more time imitating boy tasks, whereas girls spend same amount of time with each gender  Gender-typing: socialization process by which children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles nd o During 2 year, fathers talk more to and spend more time with sons than daughters and mothers talk more, and more supportively to daughters than sons o Fathers play more roughly with sons and sensitively with daughters o Gender-typing activities vary by culture Contact with other children  Arrival of new baby o To bid for mother’s attention, some suck thumbs, wet pants, or use baby talk, others withdraw o Some take pride in being older o Child’s age, quality of relationship with mother, and family atmosphere are factors o Attachment to mother becomes temporarily less secure o Mother is likely to pay less attention to older child, be less sensitive to interests, play less, give more orders, initiate fewer conversations and games o Older boys, especially, show temporary behavior problems o Enhances older child’s language development  Sibling interaction o Conflicts become a vehicle for understanding social relationships o Babies become attached to older siblings o The more securely attached they are, the better they get along with each other o Sibling conflict increases after child reaches 18 months  Younger sibling participates more fully in family interactions and become more involved in family disputes  Aware of others intentions and feelings  Understand what behavior will annoy sibling and what behavior is naughty or good  Conflict becomes more constructive and younger sibling participates to reconcile  Nonsiblings o First few months, they look, smile, and coo at other babies o 6-12 months they increasingly smile, touch, and babble at babies o 1 year, they pay less attention to other people o 1.5-3 years they show growing interest in what other children do and increasing understanding of how to deal with them o Toddlers learn by imitating one another, leading to more frequent verbal o 2-3 years cooperation develops Children of working parents  Maternal employment o NICHD showed negative effects on cognitive development at 15 months-3 years when mother worked 30 hours or more by the child’s 9 month. High quality care lessened but did not eliminate negative effects  Long days associated with stress for 3 and 4 year olds o NLSY showed mothers who worked full time in 1 year after giving birth were more likely to show negative cognitive and behavioral outcomes at ages 3-8. Children in disadvantaged families showed fewer effects than children in advantaged families o A diverse study during first 3 years suggest that the economic and social benefits may outweigh any disadvantages resulting from reduced time with child o Mothers who are temperamentally prone to be sensitive and to provide stimulating warm environments, find ways to do so whether or not they are employed  Early child care o Shy and insecurely attached children in child care experience greater stress, as shown by cortisol levels than sociable children o Boys more vulnerable to stress o Quality of care  Structural characteristics: staff training, and ratio of children to caregivers  Process characteristics: warmth, sensitivity, and responsiveness of caregivers and the developmental appropriateness of activities  Low turnover is important, infants need consistent caregiving to develop trust o 2-3 year olds who experience more than one regular child care arrangement are at increased risk of behavior problems and are less likely to help and share  Choosing good care o Is facility licensed? Does it meet standards for health and fire safety o Facility clean and safe, adequate indoor and outdoor space o Facility has small groups, high adult to child ratio, and stable, competent, highly involved staff o Caregivers trained in development o Caregivers warm, affectionate, accepting, responsive, sensitive. Authoritative but not too restrictive o Balance between structured activities and free play o Promote good health habits o Educational toys and materials o Nurture self-confidence, curiosity, creativity, and self-discipline o Encourage children to ask questions, solve problems, express feelings and opinions, and make decisions o Foster self-esteem, respect for others, and social skills o Help parents improve child-rearing skills o Promote cooperation with public and private schools and community


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