Particles & Spin
Particles & Spin PHY 11030-011
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Sunday June 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 11030-011 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Jonathan Secaur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see 7 Ideas That Shook The Universe in Physics 2 at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 06/05/16
PARTICLES & SPIN ● What are you made of? ○ Energy ○ Empty space ○ Atoms ○ Protons, neutrons, and electrons ○ Quarks ○ Fermions ● 3 families, grouped by mass ○ Leptons = lightweight particles ■ Electrons and their relatives ○ Mesons = middleweight particles ■ All very short-lived ○ Baryons = heavy weight particles ■ Many very short-lived ■ Protons, neutrons, and relatives ● The best way to organize them = by spin ● Particles act as if they are rotating ○ Called intrinsic angular momentum ● A fundamental property of a particle that never changes ● Particles are born with a fixed spin ● Rotation rate is the most important attribute of a particle Sorting by Spin ● Particle spins fall into one or two groups ○ Particles with fractional spins ■ Worked out by Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirae ■ Called fermions ○ Particles with whole spins ■ Worked out by satyendra bose and einstein ■ Called bosons ● All particles in the universe are either fermions or bosons ● Fermions make up everything ○ Protons, neutrons, electrons, quarks ○ Baryons and leptons ● Bosons bind fermions together ○ Mesons and photons ● Fermions are accounted for or conserved ● Fermions can only be created or destroyed in pairs ○ One particle and its anti particle ● Bosons are made or destroyed at will This gives the illusion that matter endures ● Fermions obey the exclusion principle ○ No two fermions can be at the same place at the same time ● Bosons don’t ○ Any number of bosons can be in the same place at once ● This gives the illusion that matter takes up space Superconductivity ● Electrons are fermions and bump into each other as they move along wires ● At very low temperatures, electrons from adjacent atoms pair up to form cooper pairs ● Two-half spin particles make a whole-spin (a boson) so cooper pairs can move freely with no resistance Black Holes ● Remnants of dying stars so massive that not even light can escape ● All the mass of a giant star collapses into one point ● Gravitation crushes the electrons into the nucleus, making a ball of neutrons ● Neutrons might pair up to make bosons ○ All the bosons in the star can then fit together
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