HIST 1010 Week 2 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan)
HIST 1010 Week 2 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan) History 1010
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World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 Book Notes (pgs. 63-114, 177-204) CHAPTER 3: The Foundation of Indian Society The Land and Its First Settlers • India is divided into Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. - Pakistan is historically important because it enabled invaders to get into India from the Northwest. o The Bronze Age urban culture was there as well. • What is now known as the Indus Valley was known to contain the Harappan civilization. - Harappan: the first Indian civilization. - This civilization extended over 500,000 square miles in the Indus Valley (twice as large as Egypt and Sumer). - Harappan cities were the centers of crafts and trade. o Known as the earliest manufacturers of cloth. • Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa had granaries in which food was stored. - Both these places contained public buildings and large storehouses to store grain. - No tombs have been discovered there. • The Indus flowed through a dry region. • The Aryans became dominant after the fall of the Harappans. - They spoke in Sanskrit. - Means “noble” or “pure” in Sanskrit. - The Nazis thought the Aryans to be the superior race. The Aryans During the Vedic Age v Aryan Dominance in North India • Aryans: dominant people in northern India after the decline of the Indus Valley civilization. • The Harappan culture was all-archaeological, Aryans are based on linguistics analysis of modern languages. • The earliest Veda was the Rig Veda. - Rig Veda: the earliest collection of Indian hymns, rituals, texts, and philosophical treaties. • The key to Aryan success is their superior military technology. - Had 2 wheeled chariots, horses, and bronze swords/spears. - Head of each Aryan tribe was known as a “raja”. - After the raja (in order of importance) was the priest, then the common tribesmen. • Ramayana and Mahabharata were known as “dark skinned savages”. • Brahmins (priests) were the advisors to the kings. - Brahmins: priests of the Aryans that supported the growth of loyal power in return for royal conformation of their own religious benefits. v Life in Early India • Caste systems divided the society into defined hereditary groups. - Caste system: the Indian society of dividing society into hereditary groups whose members interacted primarily within the group, and also married within the group. • Aryans considered the work of Artisans impure. • Brahmins were expected to memorize every bit of the Veda. • Some people would often sell them and their families to slavery in order to pay off debts. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 v Brahmanism • The Brahmins had many gods. - Agni was the god of fire. - Indra was the god of war and the wielder of the thunderbolt. - Rudra was the divine archer. - Dyaus was the father of the gods. - Varuna was the god of order in the universe. - Ushas was the goddess of dawn. o Animal sacrifices were made for these gods. • Ancient Indian cosmology focused on repeating cycles, known as samsara and karma. - Samsara: the transmigration of soul by a continual process of rebirth, “reincarnation”. - Karma: the tally of the good and bad deeds that determines the status of the individual’s next life. o Do good, get good; do bad, get bad. • “Upanishads” was a record of speculation about the mythical meaning of man’s relationship with the universe and the meaning of sacrificial lives. - Moksha was the release from the wheel of life. - “Life is an illusion and the only was to escape it is to realize that reality is unchanging”. • Brahman: the unchanging ultimate reality. - Gave the Brahmins a high status, to which others could look up to. India’s Great Religions • There were 2 very influential teachings, known as Jainism and Buddhism. - Hinduism emerged as a result of these two. v Jainism • Vardhamana Mahvita (the key figure of the Jains) left home to become a holy man. - He accepted the Brahmanic doctrines of karma and rebirth and developed Jainism. o Jainism: Indian religion whose followers consider all life sacred and avoid destroying other lives. o Humans, animals, plants, and objects all have living souls through the workings of karma (according to them). • The Jains were mostly vegetarians to avoid harming animals. v Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama (also known as Shakyamuni, also known as Buddha) was called “the enlightened one”. - He studied with yoga masters but did asterism. - He preached in a language called Magadhi instead of Sanskrit. - He attracted followers mainly from merchants, artisans, and farmers, rather than the Brahmins. • His first sermon was the 4 Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path. - 4 Noble Truths: Buddha’s message that pain and suffering are parts of life that we cant escape, and people can understand and triumph over these weakness by following a simple code of conduct. - Eight Fold Path: the code of conduct that was set by Buddha. • Nirvana is a blissful nothingness and freedom from reincarnation. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 • Buddha formed a circle of disciples. • His teachings were oral until they were written down in scriptures called sutras. - Monks and nuns were formed. • Many traditions formed like, Mahayana. - Mahayana: a Buddhist tradition known as “the great vehicle” which teaches one to be more inclusive. o It taught that reality is empty and that ultimate reality is consciousness. This was kept hidden by its followers. • Bodhisattvas: were “Buddhists to be”, which stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others. v Hinduism • Brahmic religion developed into Hinduism. - High social status was maintained but worshippers had more contact with the gods. • Dharma was the moral law. - Dharma: the Sanskrit word for moral laws that was central to Buddhist and Hindu teachings. • Hinduism believes there are many ways to worship Brahman. - Brahman—the creator. - Shiva—cosmic dancer that created/destroyed. - Vishnu—preserver/sustainer of creation. - Lakshmi—goddess of wealth. - Saraswathi—goddess of learning/music. • The Bhagavad-Gita offered guidance on problems that faced a Hindu. - It emphasized the necessity of action. Western Contact and the Mauryan Unification of North India v Encounters with the West • The Persian emperor conquered the Indus Valley and Kashmir to gain control. - From the Persians, Indians learned the techniques of minting silver coins. - The introduction of Aromatic script also happened. • The Persian Empire got turned to Alexander the Great. v Chandragupta and the Founding of the Mauryan Empire • Chandragupta benefitted the most when Alexander took over and expanded territories as a result of it. - He established a complex bureaucracy. - He governed most of the subcontinent. - The capital was Pataliputra. • Kautilya was a great minister and wrote a treaty called Arthashastra. - It was how a king should seize/hold/manipulate power. v The Religion of Ashoka • Ashoka was Chandragupta’s grandson, and he embraced Buddhism. • He conquered Kalinga, and many were killed and abducted in the process. - Due to this he felt bad, and so he started spreading Buddhism teachings throughout India. o He banned animal sacrifices and took in pilgrimages. • Ashoka inscribed his policies on large rocks and stone pillars. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 - His inscriptions told people about the Mauryan Empire. o Mauryan Empire: the first Indian empire founded by Chandragupta. • He also respected all religions. • The Cholas and the Pandyas were people, which Ashoka kept friendly relationships with, even though he did not rule them. Small States and Trading Networks • After the fall of the Mauryan Dynasty, a city named Taxila was the major center of trade, culture, and education. • The Kushans ruled Afghanistan, Gujarat, and Pakistan. - During the Kushan period, the Greek culture had a huge impact on art. • South India was the center for trade. • Indian sailing technology got very advanced. • Arab traders sold coins, topaz, coral, ivory, silk, etc. • There were many advances in science, math, and philosophy during this time period. • There was period in which Indian law was modified; the Code of Manu was set. - The Code of Manu: the codification of early Indian law that lays down family, caste, and commercial law. CHAPTER 4: China’s Classical Age The Emergence of Civilization in China v The Impact of Geography • Rainfall is less than 20 inches a year, which is good for wheat and millet. • The northern part of China is the coldest, and has a drought problem. • The soil is loess. - Loess: soil that is deposited by the wind, that is fertile and easy to work with. • The Yangzi River is a dominant feature of the south. - Boats were transportation in the south. v Early Age Societies of the Neolithic Age • Agriculture was influenced in China by the developments in south east Asia. • Dogs, pigs, and cattle were domesticated in China. • People of the Neolithic culture are known for their art of black pigments with bold designs. v The Shang Dynasty • The Shang Dynasty was not as urban as Mesopotamia. • The Shang kings ruled for more than 2 centuries in Anyang. - Anyang: one of the Shang Dynasty capitals. - At the center of Anyang there were large palaces, temples, and altars. - Many homes were built below ground level. - Royal tombs here showed that Shang kings were military chieftains. • Shang warriors used bronze tipped spears and battle-axes, which gave them an advantage. • The Shang king was the high priest. - The high god was named “Di”. • Shang royal families lived in large houses. • There was only one royal tomb that wasn’t robbed, and it was Lady Hao’s tomb. • Kingship was passed along patriarchal lines. • Shang families had to work for their lords. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 - This made them “serfs”. - They lived in small compact villages that were surrounded by fields. - They raised silk worms. v Bronze Metalworking • China mastered working with bronze. - The decorations on them say interesting things about the Shang culture. - An animal face called a taotie, was used as decoration, and also known as a problematic image. o Taotie: an animal face that is seen on Chinese bronze. v The Development of Writing • The writing inscribed on bones from Shang tombs told people of major elements in Chinese culture. - It helped in keeping records. - The Chinese script was called logographic. o Logographic: a system of writing in which one word is represented by a symbol. The Early Zhou Dynasty v Zhou Politics • The Book of Documents described the Zhou conquest of the Shang. - The Book of Documents: a Chinese book that contained documents, speeches, and historical accounts about the Zhou rule. - It also showed that Zhou recognized Shang as owning the center of the world. • Zhou kings sacrificed to their ancestors and Heaven. - Mandate of Heaven theory developed by the Zhou rulers as propaganda. o Mandate of Heaven: the theory that heaven gives the king a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interest of the people. • Zhou rulers set up a decentralized feudal system. - Domains became hereditary. - This was dangerous because the lords wouldn’t obey the kings. v Life During the Zhou Dynasty • During this period, aristocratic attitudes and privileges were strong. • Inherited ranks went from kingsàrulers of states (dukes/marquis)à hereditary officials of statesà shià ordinary people. - Shi: lower ranks of Chinese aristocracy. • The Book of Songs: Chinese poetry that showed glimpses of what life and different social lives was like. • Farming incorporated hunting and planting. • Women were distrusted in politics because of practicing concubine. • Iron technology promoted economic expansion. - Iron was being widely used for farm tools and weapons. • Some people had more powers than others due to inherited powers/status. • Social mobility also increased. • There was a practice in which the alive were burned with the dead, but that certain practice soon decreased. • In the state of “Chu” new cults appeared. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 - The “Songs of Chu” was a book of poems of shamans that flew through the spirit world. The Warring States Period • The Warring States Period was the period of time in which the states fought each other one after the other. v New Technologies for War • The crossbow developed. - Crossbow: a mechanical bow. - To defend against them, soldiers wore armor and helmets. • “War is the way of deceit”. • Rulers wanted to increase their populations so that they could get more soldiers. • They wanted to increase the agricultural output. - Rulers surveyed their land and taxed farmers. • Infantry armies developed, therefore needing a new type of general. v The Victorious States • By the third century, only 7 states remained. - Before the end of the third century a state named Qin took over all the rest. Confucius and His Followers v Confucius • Confucius was one of the 1 men with ideas. - He set out with some students to near by states to find a ruler to take his advice. • Confucius’ ideas were ethical ad saw 5 relationships at the base of society. - Between ruler and subject. - Between father and son. - Between husband and wife. - Between elder and younger brother. - Between two friends. o The senior was supposed to lead/protect. o Junior was supposed to support and obey. § Friends were an exception. • He redefined the term gentleman to mean man of moral cultivation instead of a man of noble birth. • He though the ultimate virtue was ren. - Ren: a Confucian virtue that means perfect goodness, benevolence, humanity, human-heartedness, and nobility. • He encouraged people to master poetry, rituals, and historic traditions. v Spread of Confucius’ Ideas • Mencius was one of Confucius’ followers, and he offered advice to rulers of different states. - He proposed political/financial measures to improve people’s lot. - Argued strongly for human nature. o Xunxi took the opposite view. § He was a more rigorous thinker. § He didn’t want to stop traditional rituals, but saw them as a good way to maintain order. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 • The Confucian vision was that we owe our existence to our parents, and so therefore we should respect them. - Filial piety: was the reverent attitude of children to their parents. Daoism, Legalism, and Other Schools of Thought • Daoists thought that the act of striving to impose society made it worse. v Daoism • Daoists disagreed with Confucists. - They defended private life and wanted to leave people alone. - They didn’t make human beings/actions the centers of concern but instead the larger scheme of things known as Dao. o Dao: what Daoists refer to as natural order, and what Confucists refer to as moral order. • The Laozi and Zhuangzi were books containing Daoist teachings. - Laozi—people would be better off living simply. - Zhuangzi—was filled with fiction between historical characters. • Daoism is a “response” to Confucianism. • Confucianism was more for males, but Daoism was both for males and females, since it was more accepting to feminine principles. v Legalism • Rulers got scared about their states falling. - Legalists: emphasized the need for laws and that a strong government depended on the quality/morals of the ruler. • Qin reformed itself along legalist lines. - Qin migrated people from other states to increase population. - To get farmers to work/improve land, the farmers were allowed to sell it. • Han Feizi was what the legalists found their greatest exponent in. - He warned rulers of political pitfalls. - Thought that Confucian notion that government could be based as virtue to be a naïve thought. • Legalist laws gave constrains to both officials and commoners. • They saw no value in intellectual debate/private opinion. v Yin and Yang • Philosophers developed the idea of yin and yang, which was described in the book of changes. - Yin and Yang: a concept of complementary poles, one that represents feminine, and the other that represents masculine. - Yin was feminine. - Yang was masculine. - They were complementary to each other. CHAPTER 7: East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism The Age of Empire in China: The Qin and Han Dynasties v The Qin Unification • The Qin adopted legalist policies. • The king of Qin didn’t think the title of king was enough, so he came up with emperor. • The first emperor, along with his legalist minister, Lisi, wanted to centralize china. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 - Told the nobles to leave their land and move to the capital. • The first emperor also wanted a census due to a need of estimating the cost of public works and tax revenues to pay for his people. • The first emperor was known as a cruel maniac. • The Great Wall was built between the Qin and Xiongnu. - The Great Wall: a wall that was built along the northern border of China. • Many people tried to kill the first emperor, so he wanted to become immortal. - When he eventually died. The Qin state unraveled. v The Han Dynasty • Liu Band (Emperor Gaozu) was the victor of power of the Qin Dynasty. - He kept the centralized government, removed harsh laws, lowered taxes, and due to all this, the population increased. • The Han Dynasty was supported by the taxes and labor of the farmers. • Emperor Wu took land, increased taxes, etc. in order to pay for military campaigns. v Han Intellectual and Cultural Life • Han promoted Confucianism. - Confucian Classics were books that contained wisdom of the past. o Confucian Classics: ancient texts that were recovered during the Han Dynasty that Confucian scholars had created. • Natural disasters were viewed as the emperor was failing to maintain balance with heaven and earth. • When Daoism emerged, the paranormal world became of interest. • Sima Qian wrote a comprehensive history of China, the result of his research was the Records of the Grand Historian. - Records of the Grand Historian: a comprehensive history of China that was written by Sima Qian. - His work set the standard for Chinese historical writing. v Inner Asia and the Silk Road • Chinese civilization didn’t spread easily to the grasslands of North China. • The Xiongnu formed a great tribe and raided within 100 miles of the Chinese capital. - Emperor Wu decided to push them back. • Central Asia was called the Silk Road. - Silk Road: the trade routes across Central Asia that linked China to western Eurasia. • China developed a tributary system to be able to contact foreign powers. - Tributary system: a system that was established during the Han Dynasty to regulate contact with foreign powers. - This was a financial burden, but decreased the coast of defense. • To maintain military power from the center of China was quite expensive, so governments set up self-supporting military colonies. v Life in Han China • Those that lived in Chang’an/Luoyang had a nice life. • Markets were lively places of the city. - People also went to the market, fortunetellers and even executions for entertainment. • The Chinese knew how to liquefy iron and pour it into molds, which provided tools with a higher carbon content. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 - Iron replaced bronze in tools. • The peasants made up the bulk of the Han population. - In order to fight peasant poverty, taxes were kept low. • In Chinese farms, males had increased authority, parents arranged children’s marriages, and brides joined the husband’s family. • “Biographies of Exemplary Women” told stories of women who gave their husbands good advice. - It also contained warning tales of scheming and jealousy. v China and Rome • Both places reached people through taxation. • Had similar frontier problems as well. • They both recruited barbaric soldiers. • Roman empire was more culturally and linguistically diverse. v The Fall of the Han and the Age of Division • Child emperors needed reagents to rule in their position, until they reached maturity. - They then turned to eunuchs for help once grown. o Eunuchs: castrated males that played roles as palace servants. • The period after the fall of the Han Dynasty is known as the “Age of Division”. - Age of Division: the period after the fall of the Han Dynasty in which China was politically divided. • In the south, there was a hereditary aristocracy in which marriage happened within families of equal pedigrees. The Spread of Buddhism out of India v Buddhism Path Through Central Asia • Central Asia refers to the area between Persia, India, and China. - Buddhism spread to Central Asia. • There was a form of Buddhism called Mahayana that spread to China, Japan, and Korea. • First translators of Buddhist texts into Chinese were Parthians, Sogdians, and Kushans. v The Appeal and Impact of Buddhism in China • Women turned to Buddhism as readily as men did in China. • Women that didn’t want to marry would join a nunnery. • Empress Wu showed people how Buddhism brought new understanding to gender. • Some people that didn’t believe in it would be labeled as immoral. - In the north, monasteries were told to close twice, but ended up staying open. The Chinese Empire Recreated: Sui and Tang v The Sui Dynasties • Yang Jian founded both the Sui Dynasty along with overseeing the renovation of China. • The biggest achievement was the construction of the Grand Canal. - Grand Canal: a canal that was built during the Sui Dynasty, which connected the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. • The Sui Dynasty only lasted for 2 reigns. v The Tang Dynasty st • Gaozu and Taizong were the 1 2 rulers of the Tang Dynasty. • Empress Wu and Consort Yang Guifei were 2 women that rose to positions of political power. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 - The Empress took the title after her husband’s death. - She was a very effective leader. • An Lushan rebellion was a devastating time in the Tang Dynasty. - Calling on the Uighurs restored the peace. v Tang Culture • The cities of Chang’an and Luoyang were great metropolises. - The two cities were laid out in rectangular grids. - In these cities, knowledge of the outside world came from those who visited their city. - Many religions were practiced due to many incoming people—Nestorian, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Islam, and Judaism. • The Tang Dynasty was the great age of Chinese poetry. • Merchants kept their money in monasteries for safekeeping. • There were 2 schools that thrived during this period in time—The Chan and The Pure Land. - The Chan: a Buddhist school that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed the superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of Buddhist truths. - The Pure Land: a Buddhist school that taught by calling on the Buddha Amitabha. • Buddhism at this time was also opposed and many monasteries and temples were destroyed. - The ban was lifted, but what was lost was lost. • Han armies brought culture to Korea and Vietnam. v Vietnam • Vietnam is subtropical with abundant rain and rivers. • The Vietnamese would dip their brown arrowheads in poison to kill large animals. • The collapse of the Qin Dynasty had an impact on this area. • Trieu Da made himself the ruler of this place. • Chinese art/architecture/music had a huge impact on Vietnamese counterparts. v Korea • Korea is a peninsula and it is linguistically not related to the Chinese. • It adopted bronze ad iron technology from China. • Buddhism was introduced. - It connected Korea to societies across Asia. - Buddhist monks would go back and forth from China to Korea. v Japan • The easiest form of communication was the inland Sea. • Female rulers were Japan’s most distinct features. • Korea brought the language that eventually evolved into Japanese. - They also brought silk making, bronze swords, crossbows, etc. • Clans were a warrior aristocracy in which they wore helmets and armor. - Each clan had it own chieftain. • The Yamato rulers established the chief shrine of the sun goddess. - There were groups that formed to other gods, which was a religion known as Shinto. o Shinto: Japan’s native religion, the way of the gods. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 o They could only do this as long as they viewed their god subordinate (below) to the sun goddess. • Prince Shotoku built a temple that was staffed with monks from Korea. - He also opened direct relations with Korea. • The city of Nara was Japan’s first long term city. - Nara: Japan’s capital and first true city. • Since Japan was geography isolated, it wasn’t as immune to disease, so when people visited that had a disease, the people in Japan didn’t have the immunity to fight it if it got to them. • The largest temple of the Nara period was the Todaiji. Lecture Notes LECTURE #4: 6/01/16 (Ancient India) Harappan Civilization Harappa and Mohenjo Daro are the 2 archaeological places that India is known for. They are also the origins of Indian culture. We know what we know today from archeological artifacts found in Harappa. The Harappans experienced the Neolithic Revolution, which happened along the banks of the Indus River. Harappa went from being a very urban place, to spreading out into farming. The population of Harappa dispersed and settlement went down. This was known as Dravidian. Archaeological evidence suggests that this happened due to weather problems. It was almost like a type of “Katrina” like flooding that happened repeatedly and destroyed the way life. The Aryan Migration People that migrated from the North to India were the Aryans. They were Indo European and ethically looked different than the Indians already in India. Their homeland was in the caucuses. They migrated into Iran and Europe, and eventually became Persians and Greeks. Through intermarriage the populations found different civilizations. Before they migrated they were pastoralists and semi nomadic. Being semi nomadic gave them the advantage of the horse, which resulted in a huge military advantage. The Aryans were a more war like group of people. There was conflict, but their advantage of horses helped them. Their language was Indo European—Sanskrit. They were able to both read it and write it. They had their own religious tradition that was transmitted orally. Eventually it was written in the Vedas, which became the center of their religion. The Vedas was a series of 4 books; the first one was the Rig Veda. There were distinct patterns of settlement. The Aryans came in large tribal units that were each headed by a chieftain or a prince. Even after all this, India still didn’t have political entity. Rajas were local princes. Aryan Society The Aryans brought to India the caste system, which was a hierarchal social system. Varna was the word for caste. This system was very strict and there was no room for social mobility. The caste you were born in was essentially your whole life, you would do everything within that caste and never out of it. After the Jati developed (sub caste) which were more specific organizations/levels within the caste, the caste became a little more flexible. There were 4 main castes—The Brahmans whose lives revolved around religion and many people looked up to them. The sons born into a Brahman caste became priests. The Kshatriyas were the warriors. The Vaishyas were the merchants, which were important to the World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 economy and made it tick. The Shudras were the workers. The Untouchables were considered dirty due to the jobs they had (burying the dead, butchering animals). The Aryans also introduced a very patriarchal society. In this, men control the lives of women; the women also cannot inherit/own anything, and are often left without an education. Sati is not widely practiced, but it happened when a widow, whose husband just died, would commit suicide at his funeral in honor of him. Aryan Religion Hinduism emerged from Aryan religious traditions. Hindus were polytheistic and worshipped many gods. Indra was the god of war who brought weather disasters. Varuna watched morals from above and would throw down punishment if they did anything bad. Varuna was also a symbol of moral conduct. There were ritual sacrifices, in which animals were sacrificed, so that the gods could be happy. Overtime people got turned off by sacrificing animals and eventually turned to mysticism. Mysticism is an evolved process to discern things that are. A mystic is someone who seeks to communicate with one god or many gods. This communication is done through prayer or meditation. Dravidians believed in reincarnation, which is when a person/thing dies, its soul is reborn into another body. Karma is the concept of what goes around comes around, the moral sum total of what you do. The things you do in this lifetime determine how you are born in your next life. A person’s caste was a reflection of their previous life. The Upanishads are important religious texts of Hinduism. The focal point of Hinduism is the concept of Brahman, which is the universal soul. They think there is a unity to this world known as “Brahman”/ Hinduism wants a release from the cycle of reincarnation, and Brahmanism is the answer. Asceticism was the answer to getting to the point of Brahmanism, and it is when someone gives up everything they have to live a simple and spiritual life. Jainism Mahavira was the founder of Jainism. He wanted to know how to find the way out to Brahmin. The Jains thought ones soul was encrusted in karma, so to find a way out of that, you had to de-crust the karma. Mahavira wanted to lead a life of extreme Asceticism and practice a life of non-injury. The Jains owned nothing and would often give up food as well. Buddhism India was also the birth of Buddhism. Buddha was from an elite family. He wanted to know how to end the cycle of rebirth. He thought the suffering of life was due to desire. He also believed that the nature of the universe is change and that nothing would stay the same. He then came up with the 4 Noble Truths—1) Existence is suffering 2) Suffering springs from desire 3) Cure is the extinction of desire 4) Middle way is the answer. Buddha was very practical and knew to give things up was hard, so that is how he came up with the middle way. The state of desirelessness was known as nirvana, and it required spiritual/meditative existence. Mauryan Dynasty Chandragupta Maurya began the process of establishing a government. He played a role in India’s politics. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 Ashoka was Chandragupta’s grandson, who also became an emperor and converted to Buddhism. His reign was very important to the development of Buddhism. There are many conversions that people made to Buddhism thanks to Ashoka. The Bhagavad Gita was a story of how Arjun (a warrior) and his chariot driver Krishna were on their way to war. Krishna told Arjun to focus on his dharma (a caste’s responsibility). Dharma became another way to get out of the cycle of reincarnation. LECTURE #5: 6/03/16 (Ancient China) Ancient China The dynastic cycle was something that the Chinese relied on. It was a way of explaining the different chapters in Chinese history. The dynasties came to power strictly for political reasons and often happened to in the midst of crisis. A dynasty is on a mission to make things better and help people. Often the dynasties would fall due to the emperor forgetting the reason he came to power and becoming too selfish with the power. It would cause economic distress, rebellion, mayhem, etc. and things would just end up falling apart. The Shang Dynasty The Shang Dynasty was a war like group of people. They were also equestrians, which made them very good warriors, and got them to the power they were at. Their ruler was said to be semi divine (had religious powers and was crucial to the people’s well being). There was a tradition of a very authoritarian government. It was also a period of many technological achievements, especially with bronze. They worshipped a collection of deities and their religious lives focused a lot on fertility of their crops. A lot of their religious lives involved rituals and ceremonies to enhance fertility of their crops. The rituals would sometimes offer human sacrifices as well. They also developed a system of writing, which may have emerged for religious reasons. They would write on turtle shells and old bones. They would read the cracks in the bones/shells and then write what they saw. This was also the way that symbols developed. The Chinese invented paper as well. In the Shang Dynasty, feudalism was practiced. This is a system that involves personal ties based on friendship/loyalty. Vassals were people that the ties were made with. They were each responsible for a certain job. Those that did their job and remained loyal were rewarded, those that didn’t, were punished. The Zhou Dynasty The Zhou Dynasty is important because they were the innovators. They introduced the political concept of “The Mandate of Heaven” (the heavens chose these people, which gave them religious justification and a proof of legitimacy). Anyone that didn’t believe in the people that claimed “Mandate of Heaven” would be thought of as being from hell. The Mandate of Heaven power could be taken away if the opponent said so. They introduced shi (bureaucrats), which were people that kept records. They were like vassals to the Zhou. China would eventually write the book on bureaucratic states. China would eventually enter the “Warring States” period, in which 3 classical philosophies were established—Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism. Confucianism was the most important due to it impact on China. The founder was Confucius, and one his followers, Mencius was the one that made his teachings so popular. Analects was their book. Confucius thought that human beings were social creatures by nature and that being together was much more beneficial that being apart. He called human nature “Jen”. He called acting accordingly “Yi” (the right action towards others). He though that World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 2 hierarchy was good (superior/inferior relationships). Filial Deity was the idea that the inferiors differ to their superior. Bowing was a public display of respect. Daoism was the “get back to nature” philosophy. The founder of it was Lao Tzu, and he thought that civilization was the one that was causing problems that are unnatural to nature. He talked about the individual living in natural ways. Daoists thought that society was making people bad. They also wanted a minimalist approach to government. Legalism was often known as the Chinese law and order philosophy. It said that China needed more rules and regulations, law enforcement, and that punishment severity wasn’t important, but the certainty was. It put a lot of power in the Chinese emperor’s hands, which is why so many of them liked it. Laissez Faire meant hands off. Buddhism spread from India to China and became more popular in China than it was in India. Mahayana Buddhism was the kind that was practiced in China. People that believed in this kind of Buddhism would worship Buddha himself, because it made it easier to practice (this was known as devotional focus). The bodhisattvas were people, which were like disciples/saints, who would do every possible thing in order to reach the state of nirvana, but not crossover to it. They would instead stay back and help others crossover.
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