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Principles of Biology I, Week 1

by: Atara Schein

Principles of Biology I, Week 1 BIOL 111 102

Marketplace > New York University > Biology > BIOL 111 102 > Principles of Biology I Week 1
Atara Schein

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These notes cover the material on the first exam
Principles of Biology I
Professor Small
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Atara Schein on Monday June 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 111 102 at New York University taught by Professor Small in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at New York University.

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Date Created: 06/06/16
Midterms Friday October 9  h Midterm 25% Midterm 25% Final 25% Recitation assignment 20% Recitation participation 5%  A. Read pages 2­3, 34­40, 44­50 I. The Study of Life A. We can look at life from different perspectives. 1. Examples: a) Ecosystem b) Communities c) Environment of a forest d) Population e) Organisms (animals) f) Organs g) Cells h) Tissues i) Organelles j)  Molecules.  B. This is the basic organization for the biological world. The order of these examples is getting smaller and smaller.  1. We don’t know exactly how many parts there are, and more importantly we don’t know how they all fit together. This is what makes biology interesting.  2. There is always more to learn.  C. Scientific Inquiry  1. Steps in Scientific Inquiry: 1) Observe 2) Propose an idea 3) Test your idea (experiments) 4) Interpret the results 5) Refine the question, and repeat  2. Example – How are embryos formed from single cells? - How are different cell types formed? Do genes control this? How many genes? How do they work? - The experiment can be to make different cell types (muscle, liver, blood, bone, skin, pigment) - What makes each cell different?  -  Different cell types (Nerve cell, muscle cell) - We looked at the steps in muscle development in class - You can then perform cell transformation experiments and come up with new questions.  - Answering a question always leads to more questions  Water and Life – 70% of the earth is covered in water, and there is  no question that life could not exist, as we know it in the absence of  water. In searching for life on other planets, people generally search  for evidence for the existence or pre­existence of water. There are  several properties about water that are critical for sustaining life on  earth, and we will review them now. These properties derive directly from the structure of water, which is shown on the next slide. All  water: 300,000,000 cubic miles (sphere is 860 miles in diameter) A. Structure of water  1. Water contains two hydrogen’s bonded to a single oxygen molecule.  2. The water structure is a single covalent polar bond. Therefor it is a bent shape rather than linear.  3. Orbital – a space where there is a 90% chance of finding an electron   4. Oxygen has 8 electron   ­ 1S  2S  2P  4 a) Electrons can move between sub orbitals and we end up with 4 dumbbell shapes coming out of the atoms, a process called hybridization.   Hybridization of orbitals gives Oxygen a tetrahedral shape. This molecule has polarity, meaning that one end of the molecule is slightly different than the other.  5. Oxygen is a lot more electronegative than hydrogen. The electrons that are associated with the oxygen nucleus are associated a lot more often than the molecules associated with hydrogen.   This causes Water to have a partial negative side and a partial positive side.   Cohesive bonds are formed, meaning that the positive charge of the hydrogen bond attaches to the negative side for the oxygen forming a POLAR COVALENT BOND.   A hydrogen bond, between hydrogen’s are a lot weaker than polar covalent bonds.  B. Properties of water   1 .     Cohesion and Adhesion  a) Hydrogen bonding creates “cohesion”, seen as surface tension. It is temperature dependent and changes as the temperature of water changes   Example – Water bugs can walk on water because of the cohesion on the surface of water b) Adhesion – water is adhesive to surfaces that bonds with a partial positive and partial negative side.  Example ­ Water going up the trunk of a tree. There is an adhesion between the water and the molecules in the tree  2 .     Moderation of Temperature  a. It takes tons of energy to break these bonds.  b. Water has a very high specific heat.  c. Heating water breaks H bonds and cooling water reforms H bonds.  d. It requires a lot of energy to change the temperature of water   Example ­ Large bodies of water stabilize ocean temperatures –conducive to life  3 .     Floating of ice on water a) Liquid water – H bonds are constantly made and reformed  b) Frozen water – Each H O is bound to four others – rigid lattice (10% less 2 dense)   4 .     The solvent of Life  a) When other molecules are in solution, the water molecules can form hydration shells around them   Example – Hydration shells – Dissolved NaCl and Solid NaCl  - Partial positive charges of H parts of water are attracted to negative ions.  - Partial negative charges of O parts are attracted to positive Na ions.    Example – A soluble protein in water  Recitation Words to know Biology as a series of questions Approaches to answering questions Electronegativity Polarity Water’s characteristics Structure of Water  “Electron Orbital” – The space where there is a 90% chance of finding an electron.  Each orbital can contain up to 2 electrons  Oxygen has 8 electrons (6 Valence electrons)  “Hybridization” of orbitals gives oxygen a tetrahedral shape  Each   H­atom   must   bond   by   sharing electrons   with   one   of   the   hybridized orbitals  What is the expected angle between H atoms? 109.5  What is observed? Why the discrepancy?  The free pairs of electrons are closer to the nucleus. They repel each other more strongly, which pushes the H’s together P Polarity of Water 0 is more electronegative than H. What controls this? The Structure of a single water molecule : One O bonded to two H’s.  O Is one of the most electronegative elements, much more  electronegative than H. Because of this, the shared electrons  spend more time with O. This causes polar covalent bonds  with partial positive and negative charges. This causes  individual water molecules to interact with each other. HOW?  There are two factors that control electronegativity:  1) The atom’s  atomic number  (number of protons, positive charge of the nucleus) 2) The distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus Heat of vaporization Water has a high specific heat  What does this mean? You need a lot of heat raising temperature  Why does water have a high specific heat?  This is directly related to the cohesive property of  liquid water, which is a direct result of its polar  structure and H bonding.  Facts about Water: 1) Water has high specific heat 2) Heating water breaks H bonds –they move quicker 3) Cooling water reforms H bonds –they move slower 4) Water temp is the average kinetic energy. What happens when all the H bonds of a single water molecule are broken?  It depends on where the molecule is. If it is not close to the surface, it will quickly form more H bonds with other molecules. If it is close to the surface, then it can escape as gaseous water (water vapor).  When water is released as vapor, what happens to the temperature of the material left behind? The temperature becomes cooler: For example, when your body cools down the sweat evaporates. Another example is that the earth gets cooler when water evaporates from the What happens at the surface of condensation?  The temperature heats up very quickly at the surface. Steam burns. 


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