PSYCH 212 Chapter 9 Notes
PSYCH 212 Chapter 9 Notes Psych 212
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Monday June 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 06/06/16
Aspects of physiological development Bodily growth and change At age 3, children develop slender athletic appearance. Abdominal muscles develop, potbelly tightens, trunk, arms, and legs grow longer At 3 years, girls typically 38 in, 30 lbs. Boys are a little taller and heavier Boys have more muscle and girls have more fatty tissue Annually children grow 2-3 in and 4-6 lbs. Muscular and skeletal growth makes children stronger o Cartilage turns to bone at a faster rate than before, bones become harder, giving child firmer shape and protecting internal organs Increased capacity of respiratory and circulatory systems build physical stamina Developing immune system keeps children healthier Sleep patterns Children sleep more deeply than they will later in life In US, average is 11 hours of sleep by age 5 Bedtime may bring a form of separation anxiety o Consistent sleep routines can minimize problems o Transitional objects: favorite toys or blankets that help a child shift from dependency of infancy to independence of later childhood Children accustomed to falling asleep while rocking or feeding may find it hard to sleep on their own Sleep disorders o 1/10 parents of preschoolers say their child has a sleep problem o May be caused by accidental activation of brain’s motor control system, incomplete arousal from a deep sleep, disordered breathing, restless leg movements, ineffective parenting practices o Tend to run in families and are associated with separation anxiety o Most cases only occasional and usually are outgrown. Persistent problems may indicate an emotional, physiological, or neurological condition o Night terrors: child awakens abruptly early in the night from a deep sleep in a state of agitation. Child may scream, sit up, breathing rapidly and staring, or thrashing about. He is not awake, quiets down quickly, and next morning remembers nothing Mostly ages 3-13 Boys more often than girls o Sleep walking/ talking are common in early and middle childhood Best not to interrupt because it could confuse and frighten the child o Nightmares common in early childhood Usually toward morning Brought about by staying up too late, eating heavy meal close to bedtime, overexcitement Frequent nightmares that make child fearful or anxious during waking hours may signal excessive stress o Enuresis: repeated urination in clothing or in bed 10-15% 5 year olds, mostly boys. More than half outgrow bedwetting by 8 Fewer than 1% have physical disorder Runs in families Many children are lacking in antidiuretic hormone, which concentrates urine during sleep. As a result, they produce more urine than their bladders can hold Treatment most effective if delayed until child can understand instructions Enuresis alarms have less than 50% success rate Demopressin: a synthetic replacement for the hormone that reduces urine Tolterodine: bladder control drug If it persist past 8-10 may be related to poor self-concept or other psychological problems Brain development At 3 years, brain is 90% of adult weight. By 6, 95% 3-6 most rapid brain growth occurs in frontal areas that regulate planning and goal setting Synapses connecting neighboring neurons continue to form and density of synapses in prefrontal cortex peaks at 4 Myelin: fatty substance that coats the axons of nerve fibers and accelerates neural conduction o Myelination of pathways for hearing is completed 6-11, rapid growth occurs in areas that support associative thinking, language, and spatial relations Corpus callosium: thick band of nerve fibers that connects both hemispheres of the brain and allows them to communicate with each other o Continues to be myelinized until age 15 allowing for more rapid and efficient integration between hemispheres and improves coordination of the sense, attention and arousal, and speech and hearing Motor development Systems of action: increasingly complex combinations of skills that permit a range of movement and more control of the environment Gross motor skills: physical skills that involve the large muscles o 3-year-olds 2.5 years begin to jump with both feet Cannot turn or stop suddenly or quickly Can jump a distance of 15-24 in Can ascend a stairway alternating feet, unaided Can hop, using largely an irregular series of jumps with some variations added o 4 year olds Have more effective control of stopping, starting, and turning Can jump a distance of 24-33 in Can descend a long stairway alternating feet, if supported Can hop 4-6 steps on one foot Begin to gallop o 5 year olds Can start, turn, and stop effectively in games Can make a running jump 28-36 in Can descend a long stairway alternating feet, unaided Can easily hop a distance of 16 ft. Gallop fairly well Skipping 4-6 years o 6 year olds 6.5 years galloping mastered Ready to take part in organized sports Fine motor skills: physical skills that involve the small muscles and eye-hand coordination o 3-year olds Pour milk into cereal bowl Eat with silverware Use toilet alone Draw a circle and rudimentary person without arms o 4-year-olds Dress with help Cut along a line Draw fairly complete person Make designs and crude letters Fold paper into double triangle o 5 year olds Dress without much help Copy square or triangle Draw more elaborate person Develop best when: o Can be active at appropriate maturation level in unstructured free play o Opportunity to climb and jump on safe properly sized equipment o Providing balls and other toys small enough to be grasped easily and soft enough not to be harmful o Offer gentle coaching when child needs help Handedness: preference for using a particular hand, evident at age 3 o Left hemisphere, which controls right side, is usually dominant, so most people favor right side o In people whose brains are more functionally symmetrical, right hemisphere tends to dominate, making them left handed o Boys more likely to be left handed o Gene variants, LBW, difficult deliveries associated with left handedness Artistic development o Rhoda Kellogg found universal progression reflecting maturation of the brain and muscles 2 year olds scribble, not randomly but in patterns such as vertical and zig zag lines 3 year olds draw shapes and then begin combing shapes into more complex designs Pictorial stage, begins 4-5, switch from abstract from and design to depicting real objects Less adult involvement is better. Asking what drawings mean may encourage greater pictorial accuracy but stifle energy and freedom they show in efforts Not universal o Vygotsky saw development of drawing skills as occurring in the context of social interactions. Children pick up features of adult drawing that are within their zone of proximal development Children learn by looking at and talking about each other’s drawings o Chinese parents provide instructions and models for children and tend to be more artistically advanced Health and Safety Worldwide, 4 major causes of death are pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, and neonatal sepsis. Pneumonia kills more than any other disease In some African countries, AIDS is responsible for 60% child deaths, often children who lost mothers to disease In most countries boys are more likely to die than girls o In china, girls have 33% greater risk of dying due to abandonment, infanticide, or benign neglect Nutrition o By age 2, healthy dies is primarily fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat and nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats o 12% of US 5 year olds are in 95 percentile for BMI, another 12% were above 85 th percentile o Tendency toward obesity can be hereditary but main factor is environment o As growth slows, preschoolers need fewer calories in proportion to their weight than they did before o Each hour of TV above 2/day increased likelihood of obesity at age 30 by 7% o Healthy eating habits 1-2 years old can drink 2% milk if they are at risk of overweight. After 2 they can drink skim Do not force preschoolers to clean plates Should only get 30% of calories from fat, and no more than 1/3 from saturated fat Lean meat and dairy foods provide protein, iron, and calcium Dairy products should be skim or low fat Parents, not children, should choose mealtime Serve portions appropriate to child’s size and age Serve simple, easily identifiable foods Serve finger foods as often as possible Introduce only one new food at a time, along with familiar food the child likes After a reasonable time, remove the food and do not serve more until next meal Give child a choice of foods with similar nutrients: rye or whole wheat bread, peach or apple Encourage child to help prepare food Limit snacking while watching TV, discourage nutrient poor foods Make food appealing for kids with garnishes or toys Don’t fight rituals in which a child eats foods one at a time, in a certain order Have regular family meals. Make mealtimes pleasant with conversation about interesting topics, keep talking about eating itself to a minimum o Undernutrition Food insecurity: availability of future food is uncertain, the amount and kind of food required for a healthy lifestyle is insufficient, or individuals must resort to socially unacceptable ways to acquire food Moderate levels of food insecurity and lower quality diet have been linked to poor health, decreased learning capabilities, lowered motivational levels, and increased anxiety and depression Some effects of malnutrition can be lessened with improved diet but more so with an enriched environment and early education o Allergies: abnormal immune system response to a specific food Symptoms range from tingling in mouth, hives, shortness of breath, death 90% of allergies are to milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, soy, and wheat More prevalent in children than adults, and children often outgrow these allergies Increase in food allergies over past 10 years Changes in diet, how foods are processed, decreased vitamin D based on less exposure to sun have suggested contributors Theory that society is too clean and children’s immune systems are less mature because they are not exposed to enough dirt and germs Oral health o By 3, the primary (baby) teeth are in place and permanent teeth are developing o Permanent teeth begin to appear at age 6 o If children stop sucking on thumbs before age 4 their permanent teeth will not likely be affected o Fluoride and improved dental care have reduced incidence of tooth decay since 70s but disadvantaged children have more untreated cavities than other children o Tooth decay in early child usually stems from overconsumption of sweetened milk ad juices in infancy together with a lack of regular dental care Worst effects found in children who take bottles to bed with them Accidental injuries and deaths o Some children are risk prone A study of 5-6 year olds who tended to take risks in a gambling game were more likely to say it was safe to cross a busy street between cars without a traffic light or crosswalk o Airbags increase the risk of fatal injury to children under 13 who are riding in front seat o Most deaths from injury’s occur in the home: fires, drowning in tub, suffocation, poisoning, falls o US laws for childproof caps, regulation of product safety, car seats, mandatory helmets, safe storage of fire arms and medicines have improved safety Environmental influences o SES and Race The lower the SES, the greater risk of illness, injury, and death Poor children are more likely to have chronic conditions, activity limitations, lack health insurance, and to have unmet medical and dental needs Medicaid: government program that provides medical assistance to eligible low income persons and families State Children’s Health Insurance Program SCHIP 1997, to help states extend health care coverage to uninsured children in poor and near-poor families. In 2009 this was extended and became CHIP Access to quality healthcare is particular problem for black and Latino children Asian American children are better in health than white children but are less likely to access and use healthcare o Homelessness Families now makeup 33% of homeless population. Many headed by single mothers in 20s, often felling domestic violence Children are more likely to suffer more health problems and die in infancy. 3x more likely to lack immunizations and 2-3x more likely to have iron deficiency anemia Higher rates of diarrhea, respiratory, skin, eye, and ear infections, asthma, and other chronic diseases Severe depression and anxiety Neurological and visual deficits, developmental delays, behavior problems, and learning difficulties Half of children do not go to school, and if they do they tend to have problems Do poorly on standardized reading and math tests, likely to repeat grade or be placed in special classes o Exposure to toxins Potential damage caused by exposure to tobacco smoke is greatest in early years of life Increased risk of respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia, ear problems, worsened asthma, and slowed lung growth Air pollution associated with increased risks of death and chronic respiratory disease May play role in certain cancers, neurological disorders, ADHD, mental retardation In 2006, 55% of US children up to age 17 lived in counties that failed to meet national air quality standards Children more vulnerable than adults to chronic pesticide damage Exposure is greater in children in agricultural and inner-city families More than half of all pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than 6 Children can get elevated concentrations of lead from lead-contaminated food or water, airborne industrial wastes, putting contaminated fingers in their mouths, or from inhaling dust or playing with paint chips in homes or schools with lead based paint No safe level of exposure to lead Can interfere with cognitive development and lead to neurological and behavioral problems Very high levels may cause headaches, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, agitation, or lethargy and eventually vomiting, stupor, and convulsions Median blood lead levels have dropped 89% in US since 1980 due to laws mandating removal of lead from gasoline and paints and reducing smokestack emissions Longitudinal study showed that treatment of lead-exposed children decreased blood concentrations but proved ineffective in improving psychological, behavioral, and cognitive functioning
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