Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes Bio 301
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Nichols on Monday June 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 301 at Calhoun Community College taught by Felecia Ewing in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at Calhoun Community College.
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Date Created: 06/06/16
Principle of Biology - Felicia Ewing 6/2/2016 Important Words or Important People Important Concepts Definitions Chapter 3 Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids (fats), and Nucleic Acids Organic molecules and carbon o All living things are comprised of the same classes of primary molecules o The sameness and diversity is dependent upon carbon Chemistry is essential to all living things Carbon has 4 valence electrons Carbon bonds (ionic and covalent)to: Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Other organic molecules o Must contain both carbon and hydrogen o Inorganic molecules constitute non-living matter CO ,2NaCl, etc o Skeleton and Functional Groups Carbon chains make up skeleton of organic molecules Living things: Sugars (Carbs) Fatty acids (lipids) Amino Acids (proteins) Nucleotides (building blocks of DNA and RNA) Functional Group (FG) – a specific combination of atoms that always react the same way Hydroxyl Group o Sugars, alcohol o Makes things polar Amino Group o Proteins Carboxyl Group o Makes things acidic and polar Phosphate Group o Makes things polar Carbohydrates o Sugar, starch, fiber Glucose, ribose, deoxyribose o Ratio c,h,o 1:2:1 Glucose o Monosaccharides Quickest energy source o Disaccharides Table sugar o Polysaccharides 3 or more sub-units Glucose o Monosaccharide Single sugar energy source Empirical formula C 6 12 6 Transported in the blood of animals Deoxyribose and ribose DNA and RNA o 5 carbon sugars o Disaccharide Double Sugars Transported as sucrose in plants Maltose – beer making Consists of 2 subunits of glucose Called monomers o Polysaccharides Many sugars (3 or more) Structural A series of condensation reactions can produce polymers 3 or more (can have millions of subunits) o Subunits = monomers o Glycogen Stored in muscles and liver Made in our bodies Homeostasis Isomers of Glucose: Brain tells pancreas to release glycogon which Glycogen tells the liver to release glycogen into the blood stream Alpha Glucose Beta Glucose o Alpha Glucose Made by plants Cannot be made by humans Cellulose Fiber Hydroxyl groups are locked in the down position o Beta Glucose Hydroxyl groups are locked in the up position o Cows have bacteria that create enzymes to break down glucose o Enzymes Proteins that speed up metabolic reactions o Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation reactions) Remove H2O and form covalent bonds Anabolism When bonds form they store energy o Hydrolysis (Cleavage reaction) How digesting occurs Water splitting In order to replace the H and OH- Catabolism Breaking bonds releases energy Lipids o Fats, oils, waxes, steroids o Insoluble in water Hydrophobic “Water Fearing” o Functions Long term energy storage Insulation Padding Cell membranes Hormones Saturated Fat: all the o Triglycerides carbons have Hydrogens Storage, insulation and padding Monounsaturated fat: only Insoluble due to hydrocarbon chains Butter, lard, vegetable oil one of the carbons has a 3 fatty acids attached to each double bond glycerol molecule by 3 dehydration synthesis reactions Unsaturated Fat: at least one Fatty acid consists of long of the carbons has a double hydrocarbon chain bond o Carboxyl group o Fatty Acids Polyunsaturated fat: has at Have an even least three carbons that number of have a double bond carbons Carboxyl group *Acids are part of the fat* makes this molecule an acid There are always 3 groups of fatty acids on triglycerides o Ester bonds are the bonds of lipids Saturated Unsaturated Animal fats Usually plant fats/oils Solid at room temperature Liquid at room temperature “Bad” for diet “good” fat No double bonds Double bonds that cause kinks o Phospholipids Cell membranes Always two layers Has glycerol and fatty acids 3 fatty acid group is replaced by a phosphate group Polar heads and non-polar tails o Tails – hydrocarbon chains hydrophobic o Head – glycerol and phosphate group hydrophilic o Steroids No fatty acids Hormones (chemical messengers) Cholesterol Most common Cell membrane components Can accumulate in arterial walls and cause strokes and heart attacks Precursor to other steroids Testosterone Males Governs sexual traits and gamete formation Estrogen Females Governs sexual traits and gamete formation o Waxes Fatty acids tightly packed and linked to alcohols Makes up cuticle that covers above ground plants o Conserves water o Fends off some parasites Bird o Repels water Proteins o Large, nitrogen-containing compounds Carboxyl group and amino group o Largest and most complex molecules in cells o There are more different types of protein molecules than all other types of molecules combined o Functions: Structural: Collagen – the most abundant protein in the body o 75% Actin (thin) and Myosin (thick) help contractions in our muscles Enzyme: Catalysts Urease – helps form urea from NH a3d CO 2 Transport Carrier proteins Hemoglobin o Carries oxygen throughout the body Defense Blood antibodies (gamma globulins) Hormones: Insulin o Regulates blood sugar o Amino Acids Building blocks of protein Amino group and carboxyl group Like the alphabet 20 common amino acids Can be arranged in an almost infinite way to create different proteins Peptide bonds are the characteristic bonds of protein Polypeptide o At least 3 amino acid groups o 2 peptide bonds Dipeptide o 2 amino acid groups o 1 peptide bond Protein Structure Primary o 1° o Linear sequence of amino acids o Pearl necklace Order of beads Secondary o 2° o Alpha Helices Because of hydrogen bonding o β Sheets Because of hydrogen bonding Tertiary o 3° o Folding and twisting that result in the 3D structure o Usually a glob Quaternary o 4° o Two or more tertiary proteins bonded by a cofactor Primary is the most important It determines everything else Hemoglobin o 2 alpha and 2 beta subunits o 600 total amino acids Sickle Cell Anemia Usually, the 6 amino acid is glutamic acid o Non-polar o Likes to be on the outside Replaced with valine o Polar o Wants to be in the inside The primary has changed, so everything else changes too Patients usually die at a young age o Very painful Sickle cells die after 10-20 days o Normal cells last 120 days Nucleic Acid o Abundant in the Nucleus o DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Heredity Stores information to build/operate a cell Double helix Nitrogenous bases (steps) held together by hydrogen bonds o G is always paired with C o A is always paired with T o This allows the strands to pull apart and be used as templates Allows for DNA replication The “railing” is the sugars and phosphate group The information is stored in the “sequence of nitrogenous bases” DNA information is copied into mRNA by transcription Strands are pulled apart and one side is copied into mRNA Translation o Sequence of nitrogenous bases of RNA are translated into the primary sequence of a protein o 3 at a time o RNA Ribonucleic Acid Translator of heredity Translates the DNA information into protein structure o ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Fuel of life Provides the energy required by living cells in their chemical reactions Adenine Ribose 3 phosphate groups o Energy is released when the last phosphate group is taken off o Nucleotide Coenzymes Transfers H+ and electrons in chemical reactions NADP+ / NADPH NAD+ / NADH FAD / FADH 2 o Building blocks called nucleotides 5 carbon sugar molecule DNA o Deoxyribose RNA and ATP o Ribose Phosphate group (PO )4 Nitrogenous base DNA o Adenine o Thymine o Cytosine o Guanine RNA o Adenine o Uracil Never Thymine in RNA o Cytosine o Guanine
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