Drugs and Crime Week Five Notes
Drugs and Crime Week Five Notes CCJ 3651
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Tuesday June 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 3651 at Florida State University taught by Mark Feulner in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Crime in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 06/07/16
CCJ 3651 Drugs and Crime Chapter 6 Key Terms Addictive Personality A psychological vulnerability for drug abuse Adolescence/Adulthood A stage in life where the individual experiences a dramatic reawakening of genital interest and awareness and becomes capable of reproduction. Anal StagePeriod in early childhood when the anus becomes the center of erotic interest AnomieA condition characterized by estrangement from society, the result of being unable to achieve financial success through legitimate avenues Autonomy Independence of external restraint Behavior Modification Treatment approach based on learning theory BehaviorismMajor school of psychology based on learning theory Conformity A way people respond to anomie where most people scale down their aspirations and conform to conventional social norms. Dependent Drinking A type of drinker who is addicted to alcohol and suffers from many consequences, like the inability to function normally either socially, intellectually, or physicially. Differential Association Explains how criminal behavior is transmitted, it complements learning theory. Disease ModelExplanation for drug use based on deficiencies or abnormalities in a person's physical or psychological makeup. Ego Psyche's contact with reality that maximizes gratification with a minimum of difficulties Electra Complex During the genital stage where girls experience strong attachment to their fathers. Excitement Thrills, Risk, Danger External Restraints Includes social disapproval linked to public shame and/or social ostracism and fear of punishment. Fate Being lucky Genital StageChildhood period when erotic interest is focused on sexual organs in anticipation of adulthood Heavy Drinking A type of drinker that uses alcohol to escape IdMass of powerful drives, wishes, urges that are energized in the form of the libido Innovation A way people respond to anomie where Merton defines as the use of illegitimate means to gain success, in particular professional and organized criminality, including drug trafficking Internal Restraints Includes what psychoanalytic theory refers to as the superegothese restraints provide a sense of guilt Labeling A usually negative view by society of certain individuals Learning TheoryConcept that behavior is shaped by its consequences LibidoEmotional energy; sex drive Negative Reinforcement Removal of a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior Oedipus Complex During the gential stage when boys experience strong attachments to their mothers Operant Conditioning Repeated presentation of removal of a stimulus (reinforcer) following a behavior to increase the probability of the behavior. If the probability of a behavior increases after removal, negative reinforcement has occurred. Positive ReinforcementA stimulus that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Psychoanalytic Theory Belief that unconscious material controls conscious behavior Rebellion A way people respond to anomie where they reject the conventional social structure and seek instead to establish a new social order through political action or alternative lifestyle. Retreatism A way people deal with anomie which explains drug abuse; where the individual abandons all attempts to reach conventional social goals in favor of a deviant adaptation Smartness Ability to con others, shrewdness Social Control Theory Drug use is influenced by the strength of an individuals bond to conventional society Social DrinkingA type of drinker where alcohol is used to enhance pleasant social situations. Superego Psychic mechanism exercising a critical influence; a sense of morality that controls behavior Symbolic Interactionism Sociological perspective whose focus is on how particular people or behaviors are labeled. Toughness Physical prowess, daring Unconscious According to psychoanalytic theory, repressed feelings and experiences that exert an influence over the conscious behavior. Zero Tolerance A strategy that imposes sanctions for the slightest violation. Chapter 6 Review Questions 1.What limits scientific testing in the social or behavioral sciences? Everyone is socially different and behaviorally responds differently to a multitude of different stimuli. This limits/makes scientific testing difficult because there is too many variables and not enough constants to make an accurate measure. 2.What has research determined with respect to the 'addictive personality'? The scientific research involving addictive personalities relating to drug abuse "has not been fruitful". 3.How is each of the first three stages of psychosexual developmentoral, anal, and genital linked to adult drug abuse? While the individual is experiencing these stages of development, corresponding psychic phenomena develop. For example, heroin and other powerful depressants suppress a sexual drive that is specific to the genital stage. Depressants help the person deal with guilt provoking feelings that were not fully resolved during that stage, meaning as an adult they turn to drug use to substitute for sex and to overcome the unconscious guilt provoking feelings they never learned in the genital stage. 4.How can depressants and stimulants enable a person to deal with guilt provoking incestuous feelings that were not adequately resolved during the genital stage? Stimulants enable the user to overcome genital stage based unconscious guilt provoking feelings, and depressants suppress the sex drive fixated in the genital stage region. 5.What is the conncection between id, ego, and superego, and drug use? Drug abuse is connected to id because the craving for pleasure that needs to be immediately satisfied will cause the user to do anything to settle those cravings. Drug abuse is connected to ego is either ego constricting or ego expanding- constricting meaning they take drugs to seek and be content with a quiet lonely life, and expanding meaning they take drugs to grow out of a self directed intensely competitive personality. Drug abuse is connected to superego with a dual purpose, drugs can reduce the anxiety caused by unresolved inner conflicts, and the deleterious aspects of drug abuse proves external punishment. 6.Why is drug use connected to adolescence? "Psychoanalytic theory views drug use as a symptom of neuroses that manifest themselves during adolescence." Meaning during this time in life, the brain is developing rapidly and different sections of the brain are growing faster and slower than others. Adolescents are more vulnerable to drug abuse than the adult brain as well. 7.What is the basic belief from which learning theory flows? A person is simply the sum product of his or her experience or learning, and learning is based on operant conditioning. 8.What is operant conditioning? Positive and negative reinforcement 9.What is the chronological order of positive and negative reinforcers? Positive reinforcers follow the behavior they reinforce, while negatice reinforces precede the behavior they reinforce. A person works to receive a positive reinforcer and works to escape a negative reinforcer. 10.What is learned helplessness? Through inappropriate reinforcement, the drug abuser learns that he or she can neither escape nor avoid the stimulus leading to drug use. 11.What is the connection between classical conditioning and drug cues? …. 12.Why is it important to separate drug use that is situational and transitional from drug dependence? It is important to separate these because it reminds us that because a young person has tried any illicit drugs does not mean that they will necessarily develop a pattern of long term misuse. 13.What are the three stages on the path to alcoholism? Goes through social drinking stages, heavy drinking stages, and dependent drinking stages to reach alcoholism. 14.What is the 'aging out' phenomenon? Deals with maturation, where after a certain life stage the use of drugs fades out, turns into sporadic use, or stops completely. 15.What is the relationship between drug use and age? Adolescents are the most likely to use drugs, while the older one gets the more mature they get, decreasing their use. 16.What are the five stages of heroin addiction? Experimentation, initiation, commitment, dysfunction, and maturation. 17.What are the typical steps involved in becoming cocaine dependent? Experimental use, compulsive use, and dysfunctional use. 18.What has research found in respect to crack cocaine? Research shows that crack cocaine presents a different progression because the speed with which this substance can lead to compulsive use. Crack users often report the inability to stop using. 19.If heroin users recognize the dangers involved, why do they continue to use heroin? They use it because it allows the addict to expand time and energy on achieving the goal of getting high. 20.Who is the usual source of a drug for the first time user? ... 21.According to the theory of anomie, what are the four ways to which people react to economic strain? They react with conformity, rebellion, innovation, and retreatism. 22.How does retreatism explain drug use? Retreatism abandons all attempts to reach conventional social goals in favor of a new, exciting, deviant adaptation. 23.How does 'access' conflict with other explanations for drug use? ….. 24.How does the theory of differential association explain drug use? Differential association explains how criminal behavior is transmitted. It states criminal behavior is learned, and the principal learning occurs in intimate personal groups. The effectiveness of learning depends on the degree of intensity, frequency, and duration of the association. 25.How does social control theory explain drug use? Social control theory focuses on why, despite its reqrds, only relatively few people engage in deviant behavior; the answer is the strength of an individual's bond to society. 26.What is the relationship between subcultures and drug use? Subcultures are patterns of values, norms, and behavior which have become traditional among certain groups. Certain lower class subcultures negate middle class values and this serves as a severe handicap because middle class cultural characteristics are necessary to succeed in our society. The norms of some lower class subcultures are simply not conducive to conventional types of achievement, so they turn to drugs. 27.How does labeling impact the issue of drug use? Those who indulge in drugs earn the label of deserving punishment, and it creates the user to self identify with that, and continue doing the drugs. 28.What is the danger of a policy of 'zero tolerance'? While it may be politically viable, it can significantly limit a young persons social and economic options in a way that doesn't encourage conforming behavior as an adult.
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