Psychology 2300: Research Methods Week 1 Notes
Psychology 2300: Research Methods Week 1 Notes Psych 2300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadsSwart on Wednesday June 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Emanuele Rizzi in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Research Methods In Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 06/08/16
Psychology 2300: Research Methods Chapter 1: Psychology is a Way of Thinking Phrenology - Franz joseph gall - Measure head/lumps on head - Understand person’s size of brain/traits/which parts of brain are larger and more prevalent Claim vs. method - Claim: argument you want to find support for - Truth value: not what makes it scientific - False claim: don’t completely negate o Flat earth (astronomy) o Vitalism (chemistry) living things are made up of different compounds than non-living Psych is rigorous study of psychological phenomena - Gathering data to quantify things you can’t see Producers & Consumers of Science & Research - Skills to evaluate theories and make claims with data empiricism - Empiricism: observable by everyone Scientific Skepticism - Is it well supported The Scientific Approach - Empiricists test theories (theory data cycle) - Scientists tackle applied and basic problems - Dig deeper- make it public (publication process - Talk to the world: from journal to journalism Empiricists - Empirical method: evidence from sense or instruments that assist senses - Systematic, rigorous and verifiable Scientists Are Empiricists - Phrenology and brain region specificity Scientists Test Theories - What constitutes a theory - Theories not proven wrong or right - Weight of the evidence Psychology 2300: Research Methods Theory Data Cycle Theory Leads researchers to pose particular… Supporti Research Questions Data ng data Lead to an appropriate… that strength does not en the support Research Design leads to In the context of the design, researchers formulate…ed theories c or Hypotheses improve d Researchers then collect and analyze… c Data Which feeds back into the cycle The Relationship Claim: I am able to study while watching tv Theory: attention can be split without affecting learning Hypothesis: if I asked people to do two different tasks at once, they should be as good at doing it as people who do each task independently. - Find that hypothesis not true o Reformulate theory: attention can be split but it will affect learning. Theory Data Cycle: Attachment Harlow’s Monkeys - Wire mom has milk/Comfortable towel mom does not have milk - Monkey chooses to bee with comfortable mom over food - Showed that child needs mom for more than nourishment; comfort and security connection Theory Data Cycle: Cheating Dr. Arielli - When someone reads something morally founded (such as the Bible, the Torah etc.) before going into the study, they were much less likely to cheat o Does Support Rationalization Theory: How much can I cheat and still live with myself Psychology 2300: Research Methods - When we see a person in ‘our group’ [the group of which we identify] cheating, we are more likely to cheat - People were not sensitive to economic incentives o Getting $.10 or $10 per right question did not increase the likelihood of cheating o Not Support Gain and Loss Theory: If I go out of my way to cheat, and don’t get caught, is it worth money/extra points etc.? If I cheat and get caught is it worth punishment? Good Theory - Supported by data - Falsifiable o Refutable/reversible o New knowledge comes in, and we can change our theory - Parsimony o The simplest solution is probably the best one o More generalizable, and can encompass more people - Weight of Evidence Types of Problems Tackled by Scientists Basic research translational research applied research - Basic: Under what conditions do people experience a rubber hand as their own hand - Translational: lessons from rubber hand illusion be applied to design prosthetic hands - Applied: Which prosthetic hand design works best for our clients BOHR: BASIC PASTEUR: TRANSLATIONAL -Atomic structure/ -Use-inspired: use from general knowledge quantum theory -Need specific conditions for mold to form, so -fundamental specific conditions would keep it from knowledge forming. Keeping mold from forming can QUES-Basic research make milk last longer. FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING EDISON: APPLIED LOW HIGH -Practical inventions -Problem/solution -Basic craft and knowledge available, conduct fundamental research when needed -Solve problem at hand as quickly and efficiently as possible LOW HIGH CONSIDERATION OF USE Basic: team analyzes neurotransmitters in the brain to assess their functional relationship to major depressive disorder Psychology 2300: Research Methods Translational: serotonin drug is investigated in the management of depressed patients when lower levels of this neurotransmitter were found to be related to the disorder Applied: After diagnosing a patient with major depressive disorder, a psychiatrist prescribes a medication containing serotonin re-update inhibitors. Basic: Can a 2 month old infants discern difference between four and six objects? Translational: Social engagement has been linked to lower instances of depression, a new group therapy approach is tested on depressed patients Translational: Children learn languages faster when they are younger; what teaching methods facilitate their learning? Applied: Can a new training program improve free throw shots made by basketball players? Applied: Do neurotransmitter boosting soft drinks really work? Digging Deeper Conclusions in one context need to be explored in other contexts - Andrew Elliott (2007) o Students solving anagrams did worse if their booklet had a red cover o People associate red with negative outcomes; pressure, and reduced performance o What if red wasn’t bad? Girl in red shirt and girl in blue shirt: going on date, or having interview with Measured how fast they walked to the end of the hall (where she was waiting) Those going on a date with the red shirt walked faster because red is associated with fire, passion, and love
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