Chapter 12 Reading Notes
Chapter 12 Reading Notes PSYC2012
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Saturday March 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views.
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Date Created: 03/21/15
Thursday March 19 2015 Reading Notes Social Psychology Chapter 12 Aggression Why Do We Hurt Other People Can We Prevent It Aggression intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain to another person Keep in mind it is the attempt to harm someone even if the attempt fails Example if a drunk driver runs you over in street it was NOT an act of aggression because the driver did not intend to harm you Hostile Aggression aggression that stems from feelings of anger aimed at inflicting paininjury Instrumental Aggression aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain In other words the goal is not to harm someone it is something else but harm needs to happen to get to the real end goal Example a lineman will hurt his opponent to stop the blocker and tackle the ball carrier This is instrumental aggression because he will do this no matter what If he inflicts pain because he thinks the opponent has been playing dirty this would be hostile aggression Evolutionary explanation of aggression Men are more likely to be aggressive than women Could be due to males needing to defend their group in order to pass along their genes 2 main theories of why 1 establish dominance over other males and secure highest possible status 2 males aggress out of sexual jealously to ensure mate is not having sex with other men and therefore ensuring their paternity Main question Innate or Learned Innate rats who grow up in isolation will attack other rats when presented Thursday March 19 2015 Innate chimps are known for aggressive behavior based on research on chimps Conclusion we are born with the capacity to be aggressive but how whether when or where we express it is learned and depends on our circumstances and culture Culture of Honora culture that places an emphasis on aggressiveness and vigilance due to being a herding community School shootings are higher in these states Domestic violence occurs more in these states Southern states are usually culture of honor states The Middle East is a culture of honor state Gender and Aggression Men are more likely to be physically aggressive Women are more likely to be relationally aggressive Relational Aggression aggression that harms another person through the manipulation of relationships usually covert acts like gossiping or spreading false rumors Adult women do not differ from men in that their willingness to yell be verbally abusive humiliate or punish their children and express aggression are relatively the same The only main difference between men and women in aggression is in domestic violence 84 of victims of abuse by a spouse or other intimate partner are women Could be due to men s physiology to have a higher average strength Alcohol and Aggression Alcohol increases aggression Why is this Reduces anxiety and social inhibitions making us less cautious than usual Disrupts the way we process information Thursday March 19 2015 This could lead to misinterpretations of situations like someone stepping on your toe that when sober seem to be accidents or just a consequence of being in a crowded area The intoxicated person may think the other stomped on their toe on purpose and punch them if you39re males ThinkDrink Effect when one has certain expectations of what alcohol will do to them it often does If one thinks it will make them more aggressive they will be more aggressive Pain Heat and Aggression These things will all lower the threshold to be aggressive Do not be mislead in thinking that every time someone gets hurt they will lash out Example if you bang your thumb with a hammer you may want to lash out at the nearest object but it does not mean you will do it There have been several studies done whose results show that violent crimesriots are more likely to occur on really hot days versus cold ones How do we know this is not just because more people are outside on hot days leaving more room to commit a crime because there are more targets A study was done where one group was in a room of a normal temperature and another group was in a room that reached 90 degrees Those in the 90 degree room reported feeling more aggressive afterwards and reported higher feelings of hostility towards the other person in the room Even global warming is going to contribute to the rates of violent crimes around the world This is for 3 reasons 1 effects of uncomfortable heat itself on irritability aggression and violence 2 indirect effects of global warming has on the economic and social factors known to put children and adolescents at risk for becoming violenceprone poverty broken families low IQ growing up in violent neighborhoods poor education and living in disorganizedunstable neighborhood 3 effects of rapid climate change on populations whose livelihoods and survival are at risk as a result of droughts flooding famine and war Thursday March 19 2015 Frustration occurs when one is thwarted on their way to reaching a goalgratification FrustrationAggression Theory the theory of frustration perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal increases the probability of an aggressive response Does not mean that frustration always leads to aggression but it often does It seems to produce anger and annoyance and a readiness to aggress One factor is that the closer the goal the greater the expectation of pleasure that is thwarted higher chance of leading to aggression Another factor that increases aggression is a large discrepancy of what one expects to happen versus what is actually happening It the perception that you or the group have less than you deserve less than what you have been led to expect or less than what people similar to you have there is a greater chance of aggression Provocation and Reciprocation If you are sure that the provocation was not intentional you are less likely to reciprocate Aggressive Stimulus object that is associated with aggressive responses Example A study was done in which there were 2 gourps one group who was angered with a gun on the table near by and one group who was angered with a badminton racket on the table near by Those angered in the presence of the gun were more likely to administer greater shock levels when asked if they wanted to to a fellow students Social Learning Theory theory that people learn social behavior such as aggression in large part by observing others and imitating them Bandura Bobo Doll Study A child watched an adult knock around a Bobo doll and was then sent in to the room with the Bobo doll alone Those children who watched the adult be violent with the Bobo doll were more likely to imitate the acts they saw Violence and the Media Most research has reported playing violent video games increases levels of aggressive behavior angry emotions and hostile thoughts However research is not consistent and some have found little or no link at all Thursday March 19 2015 Study One group was made to watch a very violent police drama show and another was made to watch a nonviolent sporing event Each groups was then allowed to play with another group of children later The group ho watched the violent show were more likely to be aggressive while playing 3 Reasons 1 increases physiological arousal and excitement 2 triggers automatic tendency to imitate the hostile or violent characters 3 primes existing aggressive ideas and expectations Scripts ways of behaving socially that we learn implicitly from our culture Movies and games prime our social scripts Repeated exposure to violence causes a numbing effect on our sensitivity to these events Study done One group watched violent police show and another watched a nonviolent volleyball game They then watched 2 preschoolers have an aggressive interaction Those who watched the violent show were less emotional about it than those that watched the volleyball game Longitudinal Studies studies done over a long period of time allow scientists to measure the affects of what children are really being exposed to throughout their life The downside with these is that it gives the researcher less control of other factors One study followed 3rd5th graders for a year They measured how much TV they watch in relation to their likelihood of aggression in three type verbal relational and physical They found hat children s consumption of media violence predicted higher rates of all three kinds of aggression and less prosocial behavior Another study showed that those who watch more than 4 hours of TV a day are more likely to feel that violence is more prevalent and to feel it is more likely that they will be personally attacked than those who watched less than 2 hours a day Cause and Effect Problem Could be that aggressive people are more likely to watch violent TVvideo games Thursday March 19 2015 Could be an outside factor affecting both One study involved 2 groups one who watched a violent show and another who watched a violent show The kids then played a game of floor hockey Those who had watched the violent show were more likely to be aggressive However those students who had been ranked as aggressive by their teachers beforehand were also more likely to be aggressive whether they watched the violent of nonviolent show Studies have also shown aggression is high in children predisposed to violence and those who experienced violence as a young child One study in which participants had to watch either a neutral violent or sexually explicit movie The ads were the same for all three groups Right after watching the viewers were asked to recall the ads and then again 24 hours later Those who watched the neutral movie remembered more ads than both the sexually explicit group and violent group Conclusion media violence does have an impact on average children and adolescents but is most impactful on those already prone to violent behavior 5 distinct reactions that explain why media violence exposure may increase aggression 1 If they can do it so can I 2 Oh so thats how you do it 3 Those feelings I am having must be real anger rather than merely my reaction to a stressful day 4 Hohum another brutal beating What s on the other channel 5 I had better got him before he gets me Sexual Violence Against Women 85 of all rapes or attempted rates do not involve assaults by a stranger but are instances of acquaintance rape or a date rape Victim knows assailant Those who commit these are often narcissistic unable to empathize with women may feel hostilitycontempt towards women and feel entitled to have sexual relations with whatever woman they chose Thursday March 19 2015 Sexual Scripts major complicating factor in defining date rape these vary from person to person adolescents learn these as part of their gender roles in society How to reduce aggression Punishment and Aggression Need to give a mild punishment instead of a harsh punishment If a parent yells or spanks a child when they get tired or have had enough they are teaching the child that that is what they should do when the child gets third or has had enough Punishment can only act as a deterrent if two things are met 1 The punishment must be prompt It must come right after the violence occurred 2 The punishment must be certain It must be unavoidable Take the criminal justice system for example It is not that effective at deterring behavior because there is always a chance that one will not be caught or may not be caught for a long while Places that do not have the death penalty do not have a higher murder rate than those places who do Catharsis and Aggression Catharsis the notion of blowing off steam by performing a verbally or physically aggressive behavior or engaging in a fantasy of aggression relieves built up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behaviors This belief stems from Freud it is often oversimplified Is this catharsis hypothesis true Competitive games often make participants more aggressive as shown by an experiment Example Study was done in which it asked a football player their hostility levels one before the season started and one week after it ended The players were more hostile after the season ended than when it started Thursday March 19 2015 If the notion of cathartic release were true their level of aggression would have been less after the season ended Another study was done showing that watching aggressive games also increased aggression Direct aggression against the source of your anger does not reduce your aggression These acts increase the tendency toward future aggression Most research has shown that when you are aggressive towards another person your feelings will become more hostile towards them in general Study Participants were given a physiological test as a doctor made rude comments about the findings Those participants who were later able to vent about how the doctor had acted felt more hostility towards him than did those who were not allowed to vent Costing the doctor his job was a greater consequence than keeping the thoughts to yourself Therefore people justify this by convincing themselves even more that what the doctor was doing was wrong and that he got what he deserved What to do with our anger Sincere apologies seem to help us get rid of anger Counting to 10 or 100 instead of blowing up immediately taking deep breaths Admitting how we feel about a traumatic situation or even in a misunderstanding within a relationship There is a gender gap between what women feel warrants an apology versus men as shown by studies In an experiment where children watched another child respond peacefully to an aggressive statement they later were placed in the situation They were more likely to respond much less aggressively We learn how to deal with anger throughout life that is why those with poor social skills are more prone to violence One way to reduce violence because of this is to teach techniques of how to communicate angercriticism in constructive ways how to negotiate and Thursday March 19 2015 compromise when conflicts arise and how to be more sensitive to the needs and desires of others Actual evidence proving that this does help reduce aggression Building empathy for others also reduces aggression
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