Social Influence & Aggression Class Notes
Social Influence & Aggression Class Notes PSYC2012
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Saturday March 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views.
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Date Created: 03/21/15
Class Notes Social Psychology Social Influence Influence the end state of a change in attitude or behavior Persuasion fits here Social influence change in someone39s cognition attitude or behavior which has it39s origin in another person or group Raven s Socially Dependent Power Bases Reward influencer can reward target for complying Coercive influencer can punish target for not complying Legitimate target accepts that influencer has right to give orders Expert influencer has superior knowledge or ability Informational this is influence that is based on information or logical arguments Referent target wants to be similar to influencer Story There was an evil Emperor who was confronted by a few men These men said they could make him the most amazing clothing ever made When they came to show the Emperor their progress on his clothing the Emperor could not see anything but did not want to seem foolish so he said it was amazing He turned to his assistant to ask what he thought and he could not see anything either but he said it was amazing Then the Emperor walked out in what he thought were the garments and a little boy in the crowd yelled Mommy why is the Emperor out in his underwear Conformity convergence of individual responses toward group norms to go along with the group Public Conformity overt behavior that is consistent with the group norms but is not privately accepted Going along with group because it is easierwant them to like youetc you may not necessarily agree with it seriously What you state publicly would NOT be the same thing you state privately Private Conformity private acceptance of group norms Truly accept the group norms have internalized the group norms What you state publicly would be the same thing you state privately Why do people conform To be liked Normative Social Influence we want to gain approval or avoid disapproval of other people To be right Informational Social Influence the behavior of other people provides useful information to us Use information gathered from other people who may know more than we do Likely to lead to Private Conformity Example You walk into a funeral and see that everyone is lined up behind the casket and kneeling by it for a second when it is their turn You will get in line now because you see everyone else is doing it Information Social Influence Now you will know to do this at other funerals you go to Private Conformity Normative Social Influence is normally paired with Public Conformity Can lead to Private Conformity Example All of your friends like a new band but you don t You just tell your friends your like it because it is easier Public Conformity You want to gain approval which is why you are conforming Normative Social Influence But you are with them all the time and hearing the band because you are there too Maybe by the Mere Exposure Effect you begin to like the band leading to Private Conformity Example Study E put a participant into a black room and shined a small dot of light on a wall in front of the participant He then flashed the light again and asked the participants how far the dot had moved from its original position Answers ranged from 2 to 12 inches even though it was not moving at all Then he put participants all in a room and asked them to decide on an answer If the group said 4 inches then when the participant was alone again they gave the answer of 4 inches not their original belief When we are likely to use Informational Social Influence If a situation is ambiguous you are often going to look around to other to gain clarity for that specific situation When you perceive other people as experts or more wellversed in the situation than you are In a crisis look to others When we are likely to use Normative Social Influence Group Size conformity usually increases as the size of the unanimous majority increases Plateaus at about 34 people in a group Once you surpass this number it is less likely to keep affecting conformity level CohesivenessCommitment in a situation where the group is of great importance ofus Example If you have played soccer your whole life and then come to GW and join the soccer team you will be with these people all the time You are more likely to conform in a situation with your team versus a situation with say other people who live in your dorm Unanimity a unanimous group opinion against just one person is a very powerful influence source Once one other person goes a different way than the group even if it isn t the same thing as you think you are less likely to conform lmmediacy the closer you physically are to that group the more likely they are to exert influence If you are sitting in a group meeting it will be more likely to influence you than say if the meeting was just an email thread Example Study on Conformity Asch line test is a famous study about conformity A participant thinks they are going into a room of other participants when in reality they are going into a room of actors They are asked to say which line A B or C looks like the target line The answer is clearly A but everyone before the participant says C It is now the participants turn to answer and in at least one of the trials 76 of participants went along with what the group said When do people NOT conform Something that affects conformity the opposite waythat actually decreases conformity is Desire for lndividuation a desire to be individuals We want to be similar to others but not exactly like them Some people have a higher need to be like this than others Will see this across cultures Minority Influence process by which dissenters produce change within a group How can this happen Example The movie 12 Angry Men is about jurors who all believe someone is guilty accept for 1 of them The whole movie is about this one juror slowly bringing everyone to his side Consistency must consistently state their opinion without appearing to be too rigid or inflexible Cannot overwhelm people by saying I will never listen to your side I am right and you are wrong because this will make people think this person is just a stubborn person who is annoying You cannot waver you cannot say well okay maybe you39re rightetc Stick to your guns Confidence must have confidence in their opinion Degree of Difference from Group single minorities exert more influence than double minorities Single Minority differs in view but is a member of the group Double Minority differs in both Arguing in line with Evolving Social Norms if the norms are moving in the direction of the minority opinion equal rights the minority has a better chance at influence Not minority in something like race or gender but someone who has an unpopularuncommon opinion as compared to the rest of the group Minority member is most likely going to use the Information Power Base Or maybe if they are an expert on the subject they could use the Expert Power Base Compliance publicly acting in accord with a direct request but between equals not an authority figure telling you what to do Higher for an equal status person if 1 Target is in positive mood people are more likely to comply when in a good mood Example Org Fair in the beginning of a semester Some of the groups probably have out little bowls of candy or possibly free give aways 2 You appear to reciprocate if you do something for them they are more likely to do something for you Example You ask someone to take notes for you and say you will take notes for them when they miss class They are more likely to comply now 3 You give reasons if someone gives you a reason for why you should comply you are more likely to Example A study was done at a copy machine An actor went up to a person at a copy machine and said one of three things The first thing was Can I use the machine to make 5 copies The second thing was Can I use the machine to make 5 copies because I am late The third thing was Can I use the machine to 5 copies because I need to make copies The first statement only led to about 23 compliance The other two went up to about 94 compliance Obedience performance of an action in response to a direct order this is a step higher than compliance Relies on legitimate authority Classic Milgram Study is an example Power Bases in Milgram s Experiment Expen Legitimate Could argue RewardCoercive because of the money given for participating Aggression Aggression behavior that is intended to harm others either physically or psychologically INTENT to harm not just an accident Overt behavior does not always match what we are feeling If we are feeling aggressive usually thought of as feeling angry that is different than an aggressive behavior Sometimes aggressive behavior stems from anger but anger does not always lead to aggression Prosocial Aggression aggressive act dictated by social norms Socially accepted not rejected by society Like a police officer killing a terrorist Required by the social norms of individuals in certain jobs or situations Antisocial Aggression an aggressive act that clearly violates social norms Unprovoked attacks raping beating murders assault and battery etc Most similar to Hostile Aggression as defined in the book Sanctioned Aggression aggressive acts not required by social norms but that still fall within the bounds of these norms Selfdefense is the most common example Not required to hit someone breaking into your house with a bat but it is socially acceptable to do so Theories of Aggression Instinct aggression in an innate tendency it is essential part of human nature to aggress Humans were born ready to aggress it is how we are programmed to be Freud two powerful instincts sex and aggression Evolutionary genetically based theory suggests that aggression has aided in evolution Males who were aggressive over the years were more likely to get a mate and become a father There is research to back this up but most common belief is that this is not always true Do not take into account incredible variability in the world If it was a pure instinct of humans there would be a more uniform distribution around the world of aggression How when and where we aggress seems to be learned not innate Even if these two theories are correct Negative Affect exposure to aversive events leads to negative affect and that these negative emotions trigger either fight or flight Aversive Event gt Negative Affect gt Fight aggressive OR Flight walk away There are several circumstances that can determine whether we go to fight or to flight Excitation Transfer residual arousal adds to our affect when we are subsequently angered Example Everything in your day goes completely wrong wake up late do not have any clean clothes late for your basketball game someone from the other team taunts you leads to you punching this kid out This is what excitation transfer your arousal from all the bad things going on had not dissipated and it built up to this point Drive Theories external conditions produce an aggressive drive which leads to aggressive behavior FrustrationAggression Hypothesis frustration is what produces aggression frustration is anything that blocks your goals First hypothesis All frustration leads to aggression and all aggression is caused by frustration This was shown to be incorrect Revised FrustrationAggression Hypothesis frustration can be an aversive event and can contribute to negative affect Such events can be Unexpected Example have a flight at 10 but are concerned about traffic so you decide to leave at 6 to avoid rush hour Nonetheless you hit a massive traffic jam This will probably lead to some frustrationaggression Illegitimate No explanation is given for something that is causing more workfrustration for you this will probably lead to aggression Suitable Target It is less appropriate to aggress towards your boss than your sibling Social Learning Theory we learn aggressive behavior by observing behavior in others or being reinforced Reinforcement behaviors that are rewarded continue ClassicalOperant Conditioning Modeling learning vicariously by observing others This means you did not need to directly engage in behavior but just watch someone else Bandora Bobo Doll studies transition period between traditional approach to new cognitive learning theories Hostile Attribution Bias exists more in boys than girls when one does not even consider that something bad happened on accident and not because someone is just being meanunfair Example A boy works for hours on his homework and he is so excited to hand it in As he goes into school it blows out of his folder and Billy runs by and steps right on the paper leaving a muddy footprint The boy is so mad now so he turns around and punches Billy in the face and then gets sent to the principle s office He then says he destroyed my paper Why am I going He has the hostile attribution bias Men vs Women in aggression Men have shown to be more physically aggressive Testosterone levels are higher Maybe feel as though they have the strength to fight someone off even when faced with possible retaliation Women have shown to be more psychologically aggressive Maybe less physically aggressive because they do not feel strong enough to punch someone onedefend oneself Alcohol and Aggressivity Increased aggressivity when intoxicated due to Deindividuation opposite of selfawareness you are less aware of your own personal beliefs When you are highly selfaware you are more likely to behave according to your attitudes When you less aware you are less aware of your attitudes Often blamed for things people do in groups that they would never do alone Reduced lnhibitions alcohol also reduced inhibitions It is easy to forget that aggression is not supposed to be acted upon when drinking Difficulty in perceiving intent alcohol can diminish our ability to determine why someone acted a certain way Alcohol can decrease ability to determine why someone acted the way they did HOWEVER alcohol does not immediately increase aggression It is not inevitable when you are drinking to avoid aggression More likely if there is social pressure to be aggressive Example Someone taunts you and then all your friends are yelling at you to fight back or what not you are more likely to be aggressive
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