Anatomy and Physiology 1: Lab Notes
Anatomy and Physiology 1: Lab Notes 1223
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Blackson on Friday June 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1223 at Temple University taught by Dr. Anne Russ in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in KINES at Temple University.
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Date Created: 06/10/16
Kinesiology 1223: Anatomy and Physiology Introduction Directional Terms: Anatomical Position (Patient Oriented): When referring to the human body you will orient the body in anatomical position. In this position, the body is upright, facing forward, arms and legs straight, palms facing forward, feet flat on the ground and eyes open. Anterior (Ventral): To the front; ex. The toes are ventral/anterior to the heel. Posterior (Dorsal): To the back; ex. The spine is dorsal/posterior to the sternum. Superior: Above; ex. The nose is superior to the chin. Inferior: Below; ex. The stomach is inferior to the head. Medial: Toward the midline; ex. The sternum is medial to the shoulders. Lateral: Toward the side; ex. The ears are lateral to the nose. Superficial: Toward the surface; ex. The skin is superficial to the heart. Deep: Toward the core; ex. The lungs are deep to the ribs. Proximal: For extremities, meaning near the trunk (joint); ex. The elbow is proximal to the knee. Distal: For extremities, meaning away from the trunk; ex. The toes are distal to the knee. Regions of the Body: Cranial: Head Region Cervical: Neckish Region Acromial: Shoulder Region Scapular: Back under shoulder region Axillary: Armpit Pectoral: A Chest Region Brachial: Arm Region Carpal: Wrist Region Thoracic: Entire Chest Region Lumbar: Lower Back Region Sacral: Near Buttocks Coxal: Hip Region Gluteal: Buttocks Region Femoral: Thigh Region Patellar: Front of the Knees Popliteal: Back of the Knee Crural: Leg region Calcaneal: Heal Region Tarsal: Ankle Bone Landmarks Process: Projection from the surface of the bone; ex. styloid process of ulna Tubercle: A relatively small bump on a bone; ex. Greater tubercle of humerus Tuberosity: a relatively large, rough area on a bone; ex. Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Spine: a short, sharp projection; ex. Vertebral Spine Condyle: an irregular, smooth surface that articulates with another bone; ex. Lateral condyle of femur Epicondyle: a bump on a condyle; ex. Medial epicondyle of humerus Head: A hemisphephic projection that articulates with another bone; ex. Head of femur Neck: a constriction below the head; ex. Neck of Rib Crest: an elevated ridge of bone; ex. Crest of the illum Facet: a smooth, flat surface; ex. Articular facets of vertebrae Trochanter: a large bump (on femur); ex. Greater or lesser trochanter of femur Ramus: a branch; ex. Ramus of mandible Foramen: a shallow hole; ex. Foramen magnum of occipital bone. Sinus: a cavity; ex. Maxillary sinus Meatus (Canal): a deep hole; ex. External auditory meatus of temporal bone Fossa: a shallow depression in a bone; ex. Illiac Fossa Notch: a deep cut out; ex. Greater sciatic notch of illum Groove (Sulcus): an elongated depression; ex. Intertubercular groove of humerus Fissure: a long, deep cleft; ex. Inferior orbital fissure. Bone Shapes Short: are more or less equal in all dimensions; ex. Wrist and ankle bones Long: are more long than broad; also most common in the human body; ex. Arm, forearm, fingers, thigh, leg, toe bones Flat: are compressed in one dimension; also there to protect important organs; ex. Cranium, pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle, sternum, rib bones Irregular: these bones don’t fit into any of the other categories; ex. Floor of skull, facial, vertebral bones Sesamoid: small seed shapes bones usually in tendons there to protect by providing friction and lever support; ex. Patella and bone in large toe. Fun Fact: Hip Bone could be both Flat and Long Body Planes: Frontal Plane: Cuts the person in front and back; provides lateral movement Transverse Plane: Cuts the person top and bottom; rotation movement Midsagittal Plane: Cuts the person into left and right; forward and backward movement Axial Skeleton (Skull) Specific Bones of the Skull Frontal: Front of the Skull Occipital: Back of the Skull Sphenoid: ____________________________________________________________________________ Parietal: Top of the Skull Temporal: Bone where temples are Ethmoid: Inner Eye bone Specific Bones of the Face Maxilla: Bone where upper lip is Mandible: Bone where chin is Vomer: Bone where nose is Lacrimal: Crust of the eye bone Nasal: Inner Nose Bone Palantine: Bone of the roof of the mouth Zygomatic: Cheek Bone Boney Landmarks Mastoid Process: Smooth surface near ear hole Styloid Process: Boney Stylus like object near ear hole External Auditory Meatus: Ear Hole Foramen Magnum: Huge Hole in the middle of skull Occipital Condyle: Bone in the lower back of the skull Coronal Suture: Where skull fused from left to right Sagittal Suture: Where the skull is fused from front to back Orbit: Bone where eye socket is located Sella Turcica: “Turkish Seat” close to foreman magnum Axial Skeleton (Vertebrae, Ribs, Sternum) Divisions of Vertebral Column Cervical: Contains 7 vertebrae; including the Atlas (C1) AND Axis (C2) Thoracic: Contains 12 vertebrae; markings on the lateral posterior surface where ribs link up Lumbar: Contains 5 vertebrae; no ribs facets also more horizontal because carrying more weight Sacrum: Large wedged-shaped bone containing 5 infused vertebrae. Coccyx: Terminal portion of the vertebral column; Consist of four fused vertebrae. Can be fused with sacrum. Curves of Vertebral Column Convex: Bowed Forward Concave: Bowed Backward Cervical: Convex Thoracic: Concave Lumbar: Convex Sacral (Pelvic): Concave Lordosis: Swayback; concave; usually found in pregnant women Kyphosis: Hunchback; convex at the top of spine; usually found in old people Scoliosis: Slight curve in back; lateral curve Boney Landmarks Vertebral Body: _______________________________________________________________________ Vertebral Foramen: Large hole in vertebrae Spinous Process: Pointed (stylus) part of the vertebrae Transverse Process: Near spinous process; lateral pointed section of the vertebrae Vertebral Arch: Contains the Pedicle (located inferior to the Transverse Process) and the Lamina (directly next to the Spinous Process) Superior Articular Process: On Lumbar Vertebrae; smooth surface next to lamina Inferior Articular Process: On Lumbar Vertebrae; smooth surface underneath the spinous process. Intervertebral Foramen: ________________________________________________________________ Intervertebral Disc:_____________________________________________________________________ Vertebral Column Bones Atlas C1: Beginning of the Cervical Vertebrae; “Carry the world on your…” Axis C2: Second vertebrae of the Cervical Vertebrae Dens:_______________________________________________________________________ Odontoid:___________________________________________________________________ Cervical Vertebrae:__________________________________________________________________ Thoracic Vertebrae:__________________________________________________________________ Lumbar Vertebrae:__________________________________________________________________ Sacrum:___________________________________________________________________________ _ Coccyx:____________________________________________________________________________ _ Thoracic Cage Bones and Landmarks Hyoid: Floating Bone in Neck; aids movement of tongue. Sternum: Midline Bone of chest Manubrium: Widest part of Sternum; toward the top Body: Underneath the Manubrium; helps to hold ribs in place Xiphoid Process: Directly underneath the Body of the sternum;__________________________ Ribs: We have 12 pairs of Ribs True Ribs: The first seven pairs of ribs; attaches to sternum on its own False Ribs: #8-#12 are considered false ribs; they don’t attach to sternum; they use rib 7 Floating Ribs: #11 and #12 don’t connect by the sternum either; posterior part of the spine Costal Cartilage: attaches at bottom ribs with sternum Bones and Boney Landmarks Pectoral Girdle: Right and Left Scapulae Right and Left Clavicles Provides a movable yet stable support for the upper limb Scapula (Shoulder Blade): roughly triangular in shape and has three borders; superior border, a medial border, and an axillary border. Spine: _______________________________________________________________________________ Acromion Process: left side projected notch; Coracoid Process: underneath the acromion; projects anteriorly from the scapula; Superior Angle: from anterior side on the right highest point (angle); Inferior Angle: the very tip at the end of the scapula; Axillary Border: Anteriorly on the lower left side; Vertebral (medial) Border: Anteriorly on the lower right side; Glenoid Cavity: Underneath the Coracoid Process Supraspinous Fossa: Indentation within the scapula; before the scapular spine Infraspinious Fossa: Lower smooth portion of the scapula from posterior view Subscapular Fossa: Anteriorly smooth portion of the scapula Clavicle (Collarbone): between the scapula and sternum; Sternal End: One end of the clavicle Acromial End: Other end of the clavicle closest to the conoid tubercle Humerus: Long bone that articulates with the scapula at its proximal end and with the radius and ulna at its distal end. Head: Hemisphephic structure that correspond with the shoulder blade. Anatomical Neck: Directly underneath the Head of the Humerus. Greater Tubercle: Near the head of the Humerus (the one on top) Lesser Tubercle: Near the head of the Humerus (the one on the bottom) Intertubercular Groove: __________________________________________________________ Deltoid Tuberosity: slight projection of the humerus Medial Epicondyle: Slight projection on the lowest end of the humerus Medial Condyle: Lateral Epicondyle: Opposite side of the Medial Epicondyle Trochlea: Directly underneath Medial Epicondyle; articles with the Ulna Coronoid Fossa: Between Medial Epicondyle and Trochlea Capitulum: Opposite side of the Trochlea Olecranon Fossa: Posterior view; space above Trochlea Ulna: Medial bone of the lower arm (anatomical position) Olecranon Process: Head of the Ulna Trochlear (Semilunar) Notch: Directly underneath the Olecranon Process Coronoid Process: Slight projection toward the top of the Ulna Radial Notch: Space between Ulna and Radius Ulnar (medial) Styloid Process: Very end of the Ulna Radius: Lateral bone of the lower arm Head: Very top of the Radius Radial Tuberosity: Slight projection of the Radius; touches the ulna near the Tuberosity of Ulna Ulnar Notch: On the Radius but touches the bottom of the Ulna Hand: Emma you know what your hand is! Carpals: Bones in the Wrist Scaphoid: biggest in the wrist Lunate: Neck to the Scaphoid Hamate: bone underneath ring finger Metacarpals: Bones in the palm Base: articulates with the carpal bones Head: articulates with phalanges Phalanges: Fingers Proximal: articulates with the head of metacarpals Middle: Above the Proximal phalange Distal: Tip of the finger (phalange) Bones and Boney Landmarks Os Coxae (Pelvic Girdle): More simply hip bones Ilium: most superior part of the hip bone Iliac Crest: long, crescent-shaped ridge of the ilium Anterior Superior Iliac Spine: Process that jut form the ilium in the front (the one up top) Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine: Process that jut form the ilium in the front (the one up top) Posterior Superior Iliac Spine: backside of the bone; slight depression Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine: backside of the bone; slight depression (lower than the superior iliac spine) Greater Sciatic Notch: Large depression within the Posterior Inferior and Superior Iliac Spine Ischium: Inferior to the Ilium; where you sit Ischial Spine: Sharp projection on the ischium; sticks out if you look on the lateral side Lesser Sciatic Notch: Underneath the Ischial Spine; almost indented like Ischial Tuberosity: Bottom Ridged edge from lateral view of the Ischium Ramus of Ischium: Very bottom of the Ischium Pubis: Lower end of the Hip Bone Superior Ramus: Top of the pubic bone Body of Pubis: Biggest part of the pubic bone; most medial Pubic Symphysis: articulates with body of pubic bone body Inferior Ramus: beneath the superior ramus Acetabulum: Lateral View; where femur would attach Obturator Foramen: Large hole in Pubic Bone Patella: bone formed in tendon that runs from the quadriceps muscles on the thigh to the tibia; sesamoid bone Tibia: Largest bone of the leg; weight bearing bone of the leg inferior to the femur. Medial Condyle: Very top of the tibia; Lateral Condyle: Posterior view; most lateral condyle of the tibia toward the top Intercondylar Eminence: Anterior View; middle of the medial condyle Tibial Tuberosity: Notch on the Tibia; ridges on the bone Anterior Crest: __________________________________________________________________ Medial Malleolus: almost point like object most medial to the body on the Tibia Femur: LONGEST AND HEAVIEST Bone in the Body; only bone of the thigh Head: spherical part of the femur Fovea Capitis: hole like indentation of the head of the femur Neck: Directly below the Head of the femur Greater Trochanter: Pac Man looking bone near the Neck Lesser Trochanter: Bottom of the Pac Man feature of the bone Gluteal Tuberosity: roughed area along the femur; hold gluteal muscles Linea Aspera: Thin Boney part of the Femur posterior side Medial Condyle: Bottom of the Femur on the bump (towards the midline) Medial Epicondyle: bone directly above the Medial Condyle; sticks out a bit (toward the midline) Lateral Condyle: Toward the sides of the body in anatomical position; toward the bottom of the femur Lateral Epicondyle: Directly above the Lateral Condyle Intercondylar Fossa: In-between the medial and lateral condyles Fibula: Smaller than the Tibia; lateral to the tibia Head: Top of the Fibula Lateral Malleolus: Bottom of the Fibula Foot: Emma you know what a foot is! Tarsals: 7 tarsal bones of the foot Talus: Articulation with leg Navicular: Directly above talus Calcaneus: Heel Bone Metatarsals: Bone before the Toes Base: articulates with tarsals Head: articulates with phalanges Phalanges: Toe bones Synovial (Diarthrotic) Joint Structures Synovial Joint: Joints that allow for extensive movement Joint Capsule: Made from an outer fibrous capsule the outermost on the synovial joint Articular Cartilage: Bone of the joint ends in a hyaline cartilage cap Bursa: are small synovial sacs between tendons and bones or other structures Joint Cavity: __________________________________________________________________________ Labrum: _____________________________________________________________________________ Meniscus:_________________________________________________________________________ ___ Ligaments: are fibers that bind bone to bone Tendons: are modified synovial structures, such as those encircling the tendons that pass through the palm of the hand Diarthrotic Joint Classifications Gliding: Hinge: allows for angular movement, such as in the elbow, in the knee, or between the phalanges of the fingers. You can increase or decrease the angle of the two bones with this joint Pivot: allows for rotational movement between two ones, such as in the movement of the atlas and the axis when moving the head to indicate “no”. They also occur at the proximal radius and ulna. Condyloid: allows significant movement in two planes. Condylar joints consist of a convex surface paired with a concave surface. The junction between the radius and scaphoid bone is a good example. Saddle: have two concave surfaces that articulates with one another. An example of a saddle joint is that between the trapezium and the first metacarpal of the thumb. This provides for more movement in the thumb than the condylar joint of the wrist Ball and Socket: consist of a spherical head in a round concavity, such as in the shoulder and the hip. There is extensive movement on these joint, yet they are inherently less stable due to the freedom of movement that they afford. Joint Actions Flexion: is a decrease in the joint angle from anatomical position. If you bend your elbow, you are flexing forearm Extension: is a return to anatomical position of a part of the body that was flexed. If you are looking at your toes and lift your head back to anatomical position, you are extending your head. Hyperextension: Extension of the part of the body beyond anatomical position Abduction: is movement of limbs in the coronal plane aeay from the body (abduct=to take away). Abduction is taking away a part of the body in a lateral direction Adduction: is the return of the part of the body to anatomical position after abduction. In doing “jumpjacks”, you are abducting and adducting in series. Lateral Rotation: moves the anterior surface of the limb toward the lateral side of the body Medial Rotation: turns the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline Circumduction: is the movement of a muscle in a conical shape, with the point of the cone being proximal Supination: is a lateral rotation of the hand. The hands are supinate when the body is in anatomical position Pronation: is medial rotation of the hands. When you turn your palms posteriorly from anatomical position, you are pronation your hands. Inversion: refers to movement of the feet. Turning the soles of the feet medially so they face each other is known as inversion Eversion: means turning the soles if the feet laterally. Protraction: is a horizontal movement in the anterior direction, as in jutting the chin forward Retraction: is the reverse of protraction. The jaw that moves from anterior to posterior is retracted. Elevation: means to move in a superior direction. Elevation of the shoulders occurs when you shrug your shoulder. Depression: is the opposite if elevation; it is movement in the inferior direction. Lateral Flexion: ________________________________________________________________________ Rotation: is the circular movement of a part of the body Plantar Flexion: movement of the foot in which the foot or toes flex downward toward the sole Dorsiflesion: flexion in a dorsal direction; especially: flexion of the foot in an upward direction Joints of the Body Shoulder Joint: is known as the glenohumeral joint because the glenoid fossa articulates with the head of the humerus. Glenohumeral Joint: Shoulder Joint Glenoid Labrum: a cartilaginous ring that surrounds the cavity Acromioclavicular Ligament: _____________________________________________________________ Biceps Tendon:________________________________________________________________________ Elbow Joint: is a complex joint having both hinge and pivot characteristics. The ulna locks into the humerus tightly but the annular ligament that wraps around the radius is commonly torn from the radial head when the forearm is abruptly pulled. Hand: ________________________________________________________________________________ Metacarpal: __________________________________________________________________________ Acetsbulofemoral Joint: ________________________________________________________________ Acetabular Labrum: a fibrocartilaginous ligament that forms a rim around most of the acetabulum of the hip joint and serves to increase the depth and surface area of the socket articulating with the head of the femur Iliofemoral Ligament: a ligament that extends from the anterior inferior iliac spine to the intertrochanteric line of the femur and divides below into two branches of which one is fixed to the distal part and the other to the proximal part of the intertrochanteric line Ligamentum Teres______________________________________________________________________ Tibiofemoral Joint: also known as the knee joint, largest most complex joint of the body Collateral Ligaments: any of various ligaments on one or the other side of a hinge joint (as the knee, elbow, or the joints between the phalanges of the toes and fingers) Medial Ligaments:______________________________________________________________________ Lateral Ligaments:______________________________________________________________________ Cruciate Ligaments: any of several more or less cross-shaped ligaments: as a: either of two ligaments in the knee joint which cross each other from femur to tibia Anterior Cruciate Ligaments (ACL): a cruciate ligament of each knee that is attached in front to the more medial aspect of the tibia, that passes upward, backward, and laterally through the middle of the knee crossing the posterior cruciate ligament to attach to the femur, that functions to prevent hyperextension of the knee and to keep the tibia from sliding forward in relation to the femur, and that is subject to sports injury especially by tearing Posterior Cruciate Ligaments (PCL): a cruciate ligament of each knee that is attached medially in back between the condyles of the tibia, that passes upward and forward through the middle of the knee crossing the anterior cruciate ligament to attach to the medial aspect of the femur, that functions to prevent hyperflexion of the knee and to keep the tibia from sliding backward in relation to the femur when the knee is flexed, and that is stronger and less subject to sports injury by tearing than the anterior cruciate ligament Patellar Tendon: the part of the tendon of the quadriceps that extends from the patella to the tibia Patellar Ligament: ____________________________________________________________________ Meniscus: a fibrous cartilage within a joint: a: either of two crescent-shaped lamellae of fibrocartilage that border and partly cover the articulating surfaces of the tibia and femur at the knee : semilunar cartilage: (1): one mostly between the lateral condyles of the tibia and femur—called also external semilunar fibrocartilage, lateral meniscus, lateral semilunar cartilage (2): one mostly between the medial condyles of the tibia and femur. Ankle: Talocrural joint, is formed from the tibia, the fibula, and the talus. The lateral malleolus of the distal fibula and the medial malleolus of the distal tibia are on each side of the talus, and all three bones share a joint capsule. Calcaneal Tendon: _____________________________________________________________________________________
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