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EDUC Weeks 1-15 Lecture notes

by: Sophia Carter

EDUC Weeks 1-15 Lecture notes 29535-009

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These are notes from the lecture given in class during Fall 2015. It is great for the other teachers classes and future classes for Education in a Democratic Society.
Education in a Democratic Society
Ruth Joy
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Carter on Friday June 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 29535-009 at Kent State University taught by Ruth Joy in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Education in a Democratic Society in Culture at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 06/10/16
Lecture 1: 9/2/15 -achievement gap -determinism -zip code -charter schools +public school +less rep tape +on-site decision making (hiring teachers themselves) +non-union -Teachers union +AFT +NEA +Don’t like charter schools +Give a lot of money to democratic party however Obama likes charter schools -Plato -Education should be a moral enterprise -happiness is affected by someones education -morality deals with how we treat others +in our daily lives +in the government political theory -education helps find the truth -Athens?? -healthy mind in a physical body -justice -what kind of state? -how to educate people (good life, well being) -what should be in the curriculum? -educators must care deeply about the welfare of their students -education makes up for the accidents of birth (situations you are born into) -life-long learning -Arts & P.E. -early education -3 through 6 year olds should play games of their own choosing -Education is hope for a better future -Virtue +can it be taught? -most important function of government is education -equity- helping people with what they need to do such as, a child not being able to reach his cubby to place his lunch in it so you put a step stool in front of his cubby so he can then reach it. Lecture 2: 9/4/15 “Building on Success, One Individual at a time….” Mission Statement: Our mission is to educate all students to be lifelong learners and responsible  citizens. Common Core (Standards)­People who are for it say it is only standards, not curriculum or not  how to teach. People who are against it say that standards determine the curriculum.  Originate­ People for it say it was state­led, people against it say it wasn’t state led, they  say it was imposed.   We cant agree what it is or where it came from.   Is it imposed by the federal government? ­no its voluntary ­yes $  Race to the top ­billions of dollars ­competition against the states for money ­certain ways or advantages to get points: ­first way is to sign up for common core  Diane Ravitch  All kids learn differently which is not taken into consideration  Common tests are they good or bad? School Lunches  Federal Government  Big waste amount for veggies and fruits  Schools keep doing it for the money even though the kids are wasting the food and  throwing it out  Local vs Federal issue  Health and nutrition issue  Local control or not  Parent issue with pack lunches The Declaration of Independence  This is who we are as people.  This is what we hope to be.  Colonial period 150 years  What is the proper role of the state in education?  What is the relationship between religion and education?  What are the merits of equal education and opportunity?  Natural rights not from government o Could not be taken away by the state o People could be able to participate in the government  o Democracy  Weren’t able to get books, they were limited and extremely expensive so the most popular books they bought were the bible, essay of a man (alexander pope), and Shakespeare. New England­Massachusetts o Compact or covenant theory o “we shall be as a city upon a hill” – we will be an example of how society should be, a  moral society o based their religion on the understanding of the nature of man­ born sinful  o the need for moral or virtuous citizens o education laws o education is a matter of public concern o they all came from England, they all spoke the same language, they all had the same  religion, same customs, etc.  o education would keep you from being tricked by the devil. o Education is important for salvation and for a good community o Political sovereignty rests in the people it belongs to the people and not to the king or  ruler. o 1642 law that all children must be educated but didn’t necessarily mean they had to go to  school but that you had taught them how to read and write. o They had to know religion and the laws of the colony. o This would make them good citizens of their church and good citizens of the state, this  would also be good for their personal self so they would be successful in life and not be a beggar or poor.  o 1647 law Massachusetts Education Act required a teacher for reading sometimes called  the Old Deluder Satan Act, giving the state the authority to promote education o If children were not educated, then you would be fined o It is important so that the devil wouldn’t overcome you, you would be a good citizen, and you would be successful in life by not being poor or having to be a criminal.  o Establishment of religion means it is supported by the state (govt) o Common school Pennsylvania o diverse population o from different countries o different religion o different languages o different customs o very different from Massachusetts o diversity, many different schools o Founded by William Penn o He called it a holy experiment to see if people could truly get along together South States: Virginia o Founded by mostly people from England o Two tiers of education: Lecture 3: 9/8/15 Salaries  Based on your degrees  Based on seniority  A 20 year bad teacher makes more than a 2  year great teacher  Union rules  Tenure­ you managed note to get fired for 3 years at k­12 level Highly qualified teachers  HQT  Just means that your degree is in the subject that you are teaching, it has nothing to do  with how well of a teacher you are.  Common Humanity  Res publica which means the public thing or the common good Democracy  Why do people hate it?  Freedom Albert Shanker  Multiculturalism   In a civil society there must be some shared values or you do not have a civil society Among Schoolchildren  She has children and a husband  She’s young, around 34  Bright, thinks ahead  Changed/Arranged the desks  Organized  She cares for her students whether they are able to learn or not  Cares highly of her image (dress code) but also to give a good example for her kids  Tiny  Doesn’t judge her students for their backgrounds (looks, where they are from, their  parents, their education)  Doesn’t look at their files from the past, cumulative folders  She has a student teacher  She is firm with her punishments and consistent Lecture 5: 9/11/15 Charter Schools  Public  No tuition Public Schools  Receive money from local, state, and federal   10% federal  45% state  45% local Unions  Pro: protect the rights of the workers (its members)  Con: you have to pay dues, hard to fire unqualified teachers  Your boss is the community when it comes to asking for higher wages  55,000 teacher average  40,000 household average Review of Among Schoolchildren  google  school website  New York times   Washington Post  LA times  KSU library database academic search Common Core  Standards­ standard testing Lecture 7: 9/18/15 Academies Practical Utilitarian­ make use of Taught in English (not Latin) First ones where for boys then later created ones for girls Private hands Control Education  Linked to aims What should be the context Weakened central of education­school districts­responsible to local population 18  century or the 1700s towns and districts  Decentralization Frontier conditions  Population is moving outward Conflicts between groups; urban, rural, agricultural, commercial, etc.  The Influence of the Frontier  Frontier Thesis by Turner  America’s experience with the frontier was the defining quality of the country (1893)  Fluidity of American Life o The Idea of something new  o Promotes democracy  Continuity and development  Adapting to changing situations  Breaks class lines Fresh Start Independence  Owning one’s own home Self­reliance Tolerance Pluralism Sovereignty of the people or where the power lies of the people Setting up political and social organizations. Freedom of opportunity Liberty Democratic Local control Baptist Methodist The ministry was open to those who were good at it. Little training More democratic Circuit riders Lay preachers­shattered the wall that had separated the gentleman from the commoner No social class divide Parent Trigger  School has been documented as failing for 5 years  Parents sign a petition 50%  Changes like a new principal  New teaching staff  New organization   Become a charter school  In poverty areas usually  The petition goes to court to make sure it is valid  The teachers union try to fight this as well Lecture: 9/23/15 Social Capital­ people Regular public schools  Zoned  Assigned  Neighborhood Charter Public Schools Trust relationship in adult’s benefits children (flourishing) James S. Coleman Shared norms relationship network Failing School left behind ­1,2,3 children that want into a charter school Over subscribed  More applicants than open spots Lottery  Some kids get left behind What is the purpose of education in our democracy? Webster­future character of the state will be determined by what happens in the school. ­dictionary, speller­common language and overcome regionalism Thomas Jefferson  education is important in order to protect our freedoms   protect intrusion of the state  safe guard against tyranny  study democracy of the past  study history  importance of an informed public th The 19  century  Horace Mann o What happens in the school room, what happens in the state, the kind of state o Free Public schools obliterate class and social differences o Common schools­common school movement o Good education can eliminate crime or poverty o Democratic ideas o Religion included o Father of public education Common School Movement  Critics said forcing parents to sent their children to a common school is antidemocratic.  Centralization is not democratic  Neutral? o Generic Protestantism o Protestant Bible  Moral education­can you teach it without religion?  Anti­Catholicism  Know­Nothing Party  State government gave money to all the different schools but not to the catholic schools John Dewey  Social aspect  Antipluralistic  Against particularities  Shared activities  Doing stuff  Education is growth (?)  Hands­on  Democracy was not just a form of government, it is also a way of living, a kind of society  Liberal education­well rounded  No subject of more value than another  No hierarchy  No aims  No purpose  Dissolve particularities o They were isolating o Religious groups o Ethnicity  Never clear on goals or priorities  Tracking (sorting) o Social efficiency o Give education for different groups of children o Experts knew “best” o Bagley o Schools should promote social reform Cubberley  Social efficiency  Experts  Not wasting our resources on children on some kids who wont be able to go far in life.  o Poor o Black o Immigrant o Special needs  Assigning future roles  Making decisions for other people’s children   Progressive education  Industrial education­ separate from regular school Horace Kallen  Particularities were good  Metaphor: an orchestra  1920s  Tracking (sorting children)  Used IQ test   Science approves this Dissenters:  Bagley­ tracking basing on IQ test is undemocratic  Kandel­ mediocrity (must be some purpose 4 structure)  Hutchins­  Civil Society  Social institutions outside of the government and outside of the economy   Includes schools, families, churches, organizations: 4h, habitat for humanity, sorority or  fraternity  Fragmentation in society­ how does that affect schools? Lecture 9: 9/30/15 Unions job is to protect the members or in this case protect the teachers Education reform Parent trigger Teachers not helping change the school when they should notice that test scores are extremely  low.  A nation at risk (report) in 1983 Mediocrity Education  Moral enterprise   Civil rights issue  Justice issue  A promise that they will have the tools they need and a fair chance to be successful in life  Unilateral educational disarmament Democratic Society ­education knits together the fabric of society ­shared values ­to participate you need to have a good education Disenfranchised Pluralism Individual freedom Shared culture   Shared Values  Equality  Pursuit of Happiness  Freedom We need to do a better job at teaching: ­science ­technology ­english ­math ­“stem” The humanities are also important ­art ­PE Lecture10: 10/2/15 Exam Question 1.Response 2.Objection to your response 3.Reply to the objection 4.Objection nd 5.Reply to 2  objection 6.Restatement of your response Others might disagree….. Some people might say….. Some might object….. Q: All students should wear uniforms 1.No so that they can be creative 2.Yes they should because it prevents bullying 3.No there are still schools with bullying with uniforms  4.Yes they should because it is makes the school classy 5.No because you can be classy without a uniform  6.No……. Must Include ­mission statement (name of school) ­lectures ­Kidder (;where) 1. Think about the question (stay on topic) 2. Think about your answer 3. Make an outline­ separate sheet 4. Look for the supports to your argument or your position and the objections Work cited: APA Citing class notes: (personal communication. R.Joy, Sept 12,2015) (Kidder, 1989, p.17) Goals ­equity­extra boost ­excellence Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Common bond in pluralistic society­education 1.Content­ curriculum needs to have structure and a purpose 2.Expectations­high  3. Time­ how much time and how you use it 4. Talent­ teachers, how to attract quality, bright teachers? People should be prepared for college careers and citizenship All students need the proper tools and a fair chance ESEA­1960s ­2001: No Child Left Behind or NCLB Elementary and Secondary Education Act No child left behind had support of both parties or bipartisan support (Legislative Branch) 1.Accountability ­Testing every year grades 3­8 and once in high school (reading, math) ­subgroups are doing ­Poor ­Race ­Ethnicity ­Disability ­English Language Learners in 2001 it was said that 100% of kids proficient in the year 2014 States: set their standards set their tests se their cut off score for proficient  AYP: Adequate Yearly Progress 2.Public School Choice ­within your district 3. Greater Flexibility for states, schools ­In how you used your federal grant money 4.Putting reading first –stop misidentifying special ed Waivers come from U.S. Department of Education (Executive Branch) Safe Harbor AYP Group improves by 10% Goal:80% proficient  Actual: 70% proficient Last year: 60%proficient  Lecture: 10/28/15 1923: Meyer vs Nebraska was a spring court case and was a 7:2 vote. Nebraska wanted to teach  in English below 9  grade.  Was a Luthern school that Meyer taught at and he used a German Bible in History  14  amendment­due process the right to contract, to marry, to have children,  parents rights on how to raise their children 1925: Pierce vs. Society of Sisters Pierce is representative of the state Oregon Ohio All children must be educated in a public school “The state’s children” state interest in education  Overrode­parents’ rights to chose their children’s education Judge: Children are “not the mere creatures of the state” Making school choice for their child was a liberty that was guaranteed by the 14  amendment Parents Civil liberties 1927: State vs Scopes Tennessee Scopes is a science substitute teacher Teaching evolution Tennessee said you may not teach evolution by law John Scopes says that he does teach evolution  Scopes is Guilty They want it to be guilty so that they can appeal it to a higher court, Supreme Court The case was thrown out because the judge gave the fine to Scopes when in reality the jury as to  give out the fine in order to be valid. 1987: Edwards vs Aguillard  Supreme Court case Louisiana law­ equal time for creation science, equal time with evolution, based on bible The law was unconstitutional  2005: Kitzmiller vs Dover School District Federal court case Ruled against teaching the intelligent design Intelligent design is not based on the Bible, it is based on observation Pennsylvania  Social Darwinism­ eugenics Applying the idea of evolution to their social life, Herbert Spencer “scientific” Certain kids were not worth educating and were a waste of resources  If people were poor there was a reason and you deserved it Special needs children, immigrants, and even black children were unteachable.  Into early 1900s Peter Singer ­ethics ­you have a year to decide whether or not your child decided to live.  ­are they worthy? ­Germany did not want him in their country Lecture: November 6, 2015 Talked about the daily link Talked about our reviews for Hirsch and The Knowledge Deficit  Common Core Standards ­60% common curriculum and 40% locally  Teach for America Close the achievement gap and provide a good education for everyone. (participation in a  democratic society) Goals 1.) Put teachers in high­need schools­recruit: college grades, typically not education majors.  For the amount of time of 2 yrs or more. You need to be highly­motivated, goal oriented,  student achievement. They take a boot camp of the topic they have to teach however they do not teach anything near what they have been studying in college. Students tend to do  better than with a normal teacher 2.) After 2 yrs they will be advocates for public education. They will go back to their  original major in college whether it be business, government, think thanks, non­profits,  etc.  Brian Drain­ you get a good education in one place, like ohio and then taking that education and  moving to another place.  Start to talk about the Relentless Pursuit  What makes a good teacher? And how do we know? Does Teach for America revalue teaching as a profession? or not? Is it the quality of the teacher or the quality of the teacher education program? History: 1952: Zorach and Gluck vs. Board of Education 1954: Brown vs. Board –violated equal protection of the law, 14  amendment  ­schools must be integrated with all deliberate speed. 1955: Why Johnny Can’t Read 1957: Integration of Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas. ­Arkansas National Guard to prevent ­Mayor calls the president of the United States (Eisenhower) ­Eisenhower then nationalizes the Arkansas National Guard meaning the Governor  cannot use them. He also sent the 101  airborne division to be outside of Little Rock 9 1957: Civil Rights Act 1958: National Defense Education Act or NDEA ­science, math, engineering, technology or your STEM subjects  ­Identify gifted students  1958: $1 million prep for special education.  1960: types of schools: ­Montessori ­Free Schools Movement, as in do what you want to do not free as in money ­Afrocentric ­Alternative Schools ­Middle Schools ­focus more on the student then on the subject 1962: Engel vs Vitale ­schools sponsored pray was unconstitutional  ­11 states required school sponsored prayer Lecture: 11/13/15  Discussed Daily Link for the Day  History o 1963: School District of Abington vs Schempp  Devotional Bible reading­unconstitutional  Okay to read as literature. Not for prayer.  o 1964: Economic Opportunity Act  “Head Start Program” o 1965: ESEA  Elementary and Secondary Education Act  All children will be proficient by 2014  Title I­ grants for tutoring reading   Money, Title I teacher, equipment and supplies  Their goal was to help poor kids  Money was distributed among children the way that was decided  by the superintendents.  o 1965: Griswold vs. Connecticut  Use of contraception   State cannot make it a crime   Part of the decision was that the parents have the right to educate their  children in the school of their choice whether it be public, private, or  parochial.   They have a right to privacy favoring for Griswold  o 1966: Coleman Report  study of equal education opportunity  most kids went to a school with the majority of their race.   They found a little gap between black and white in the start of school, the  gap increased by the end of school. They figured the small gap was the  family situation but the large gap was the schools doing.   Policy decisions   Housing patterns effect this, if you live in a dominantly black  neighborhood you will have more black children in the schools.   Integration of schools  o can be achieved by: busing, magnet schools o Some of it was courted ordered busing but then ended due  to money and white flight o 1968: Bilingual Act (part of the ESEA act of 1965) o 1968: Epperson vs Arkansas –Supreme Court Case­ invalidated the state law that  prohibited teaching evolution  o 1969: Tinker vs Des Moines Schools District   arm bands to protest the war  school said that if you where your arm band then you will be suspended  from school.   Question at hand was does prohibiting the wearing of arm bands in school  violate freedom of speech? (1  amendment) and the answer was yes it  does violate it. School environments can limit some expression but not all  Principals argued that it could cause a conflict in the school or be  disruptive to the learning.   Favored for Tinker  Disruption to school learning environment then usually the court rules in their favor.  Talked about relentless pursuit  Culture as “the way we do things around here” What is a culture of achievement?  What does it look like? Some Signs?  Trophy case  Student of the month pictures   Posting of students’ GPA (3.5 or higher)  Breakfasts for the honor or merit roll students   Presentation or pride, clean and in good condition   Student work displayed  Events of the schools like football games, band and choir events, homecoming etc.   Post Press articles of sports, events, etc.   Sports plaques, send offs, pep rallies, school spirit  Photo of students in their college shirts  Outstanding achievement­ before games   No one is just sitting around   How are the halls between classes.  These things matter because it causes motivation, it shows the that the students are appreciated, it gives pride to the not only the students but the community and faculty as well. It shows that the  school has high expectations for their students.  Lecture: 11/18/15 History: 1970s Accountability Movement –  Schools should say what they are going to be doing and then be held accountable for  those changes in order to make sure they actually happen.   Constructivism­ build your knowledge   Crisis in the Classroom   “Schools are joyless places, they should be more open and have more happiness in them” 1971 Lemon vs Kurtzman  Establishement clause of the 1  amendment   Made a test with what was and wasn’t allowed  1. Government’s actions must have a secular legislative purpose. 2. A Government’s  actions must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion. 3. The  Government’s actions must not result in an excessive government entanglement with  religion.  Lecture 12/2/2015 Socio­economic status vs Correlation or Student Achievement Income of parents .32 Education of parents .19 Occupation  .20 Home Atmosphere ONLY .58  Value education  Interested in what happens in school  1971: Serrano vs Priest   California   Similar: Ohio’s DeRolphe case  Tax base­ equitable funding of schools 1972: Wisconsin vs Yoder  In favor of Yoder  Amish family against sending their children to school until a certain age  1972: Cisneros vs Corpus Christi ISD  Segregation­ students of Mexican origin only   Found for Cisneros because you could not segregate against national origin 1972: Marland Report  Gifted students   Not all giftedness is measurable on a IQ test 1974: FERPA  Only certain information the university can release if you are enrolled  Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act 1975: Goss vs Lopez  Due process for school suspension  You cant suspend somebody without due process 1975: Public Law 92­142  Education of the Handicapped  All students given a fair chance   FAPE  Free Appropriate Public Education  IEP­ Individual Education Plan 1983: ANAR 1984: Mozert vs Hawkins  Favored for Hawkins 1990: IDEA  Individual Disabilities Education Act 1992: Lee vs Weisman  School sponsored prayer at graduation   Supreme court says no to sponsored prayer 1993: Religious Freedom Restoration Act 2001: NCCP 2007: Parents involved in community schools vs. Seattle School District Number 1  They were assigning kids to different schools based on their race   In order to give racial balance in the schools  2007: INTASC   Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium  2008: Ohio Code of Conduct for Teacher  Lecture 12/4/2015  Constitution permitted these guidelines (handout given in class) you do not have to do it  but you can if you want to.  They were made in 2003   You cannot favor or be hostile  You must be neutral and cannot favor nonreligious over religious   “heckler’s veto” –when someone disagrees with what you are doing so you just stop even though you have the right to do  religious expression in public schools deals with the 1  amendment   When you are in public school you are wearing two hats one hat is a private actor and the other is a state actor. A student is always a private actor and never a state actor  Private speech state and government speech   Students do not lose freedom of speech rights at the school house gate  Alliance Defending Freedom watches out for people’s 1  amendment rights  Schools do not endorse all speech they do not censor


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