CDFR 3306 Week 4 notes
CDFR 3306 Week 4 notes CDFR 3306
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Baumann on Friday June 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 3306 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Hedge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Guiding Children's Behavior in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 06/10/16
Chapter 8 Helping Children Understand and Accept Limits Consequence – provide effective and immediate results compatible with long-term, positive outcomes Emphasize and clarify limits; they help children learn through experience which behaviors are useful and which are not Helps children reflect on the results of their actions Helps develop the personal responsibility necessary for self-discipline and moral autonomy 1. Be sure that inappropriate environment, expectations, or role models are not causing the problem, and that misbehavior hasn’t been reinforced accidentally 2. Make sure that the child is physically, intellectually, and emotionally capable of the desired behavior and has the necessary skills Piaget – The Moral Judgement of the Child – argues that the consequence should help the child understand how the misdeed affects others 1. Natural Consequences: the child experiences the direct result of his or her own behavior. Ex. a child who has a cold room as a result of breaking his or her own bedroom window 2. Exclusion: a child who hits another child is asked to find something else to do until the he or she feels ready to be appropriately 3. Deprivation: the child may not have access to materials that have been abused or misused until the child feel ready to behave appropriately 4. Restitution: the child pays for, or replaces, that which has been damaged or lost; the child assists a person injured through that child’s fault 5. Reciprocity: what the child has done to another is done back to the child. Piaget is very clear that this response doesn’t not mean an adult doing evil for evil, such as biting a child who bit another. He says the action is not only a poor model, but also absurd. Instead, he refers to a response such as not doing a favor for a child who is not helped with assigned chores. Thus, if the child doesn’t help you, you don’t help the child. Dreikurs – Children: The Challenge Natural consequences: those that automatically result from the child’s behavior with no intervention from an adult Logical consequences: those imposed by an adult, but linked to the child’s actions Punishment vs consequences – consequences, whether natural occurring or imposed, are directly related to the action. Children only come to understand the relationship between their actions and the consequences if they are truly related Book Related consequences: describe imposed consequences; designed to help children think – think about why certain behaviors are unacceptable and why others are desirable Natural Consequences Related Consequences Punishment Happen without an Imposed without anger. Causes physical or imposed intervention. They are directly linked to a emotional pain in an effort They are often powerful behavior and are intended to change behavior teachers to teach reasons for desired behaviors Natural Consequences Recommend the use of natural consequences when possible, allowing children to experience the results of their actions Learn from natural consequences because the results are immediate and directly related to the action The teach by keeping the focus on the child’s behavior, because no adult has done anything to create resentments and anger, which undermine learning Releases teachers from the need to deliver reminder and reprimands or constantly nap about what will happen Young children’s reactions to one another’s behavior may be considered natural consequences, because they tend to be spontaneous rather than planned The real world offers much more opportunity for natural consequences than school does – school is an artificial environment that doesn’t allow much opportunity for natural responses Related Consequences Piagetian perspective -- Doing to the child what the child has done is appropriate for teaching children how a behavior can break trust or the relationship bond Exclusion Ex. Zach isn’t ready to play with Sam, so this upsets Sam and so he hits Zach. Teacher tells Sam that Zach is hurt and that he needs to find some other activity to do until Sam is ready to play. – He excluded Sam from contact with Zach, not contact with everyone and everything Timeout banishes t he child from all activities and all of the children in the group Exclusion permits the child to remain a member of the group, but removes him or her from the person the child offended. The intent is to teach the child that his or her actions broke the relationship bond Deprivation Ex. not being allowed to use materials that were misused Telling Ahmed, he may not play in the block area until he decides he can play without knocking over blocks is very different from making him sit in timeout. Asking him to decide when he is ready to return gives him the message that you have faith in his ability to make the necessary adjustments in his behavior Restitution Ex. cleaning up the mess you make If Dylan is throwing rocks and one accidentally hits Logan, Dylan learns much more about the danger of rock throwing by holding a cold cloth to Logan’s head than by being banished to the principal’s office When Consequences Become Punishment Consequences respond to a behavior problem in a way designed to solve the problem rather than to punish the child If the adult expresses anger about the behavior, the result will come through as a retaliation rather than a consequence – effective consequences involve adult intervention without anger or recrimination Often it is better to say nothing at all – let the consequences speak for themselves Enforces necessary limits while you work on the cause of a behavior problem Effective consequences strive for adult withdrawal from power rather than an application of power Respect children If you take away a child’s dignity as you deal with his or her behavior, you damage that child. Sarcasm and humiliation have no role in teaching better behavior. Instead of trying to avenge a wrong, the helpful approach is to work on a solution to the problem Punishment convinces a child that he or she is “bad” and damages self-esteem; consequences aim to empower children in their efforts at self-control and to help them see themselves as good people Prevention of problems is the lest intrusive approach to discipline Tristan is playing with three other children in the sand box. He gets angry and throws the truck. Natural Exclusion Deprivation Restitution The Wheel breaks The teacher asks Mrs. Jensen calmly Mrs. Jensen and Tristan can no Tristan to leave the tells him he’ll have discusses the longer drive it. sandbox until he to find something consequences of feels ready to play else to play with. throwing the truck there safely and not She puts the truck and helps him fix it. throw anything. in the shed. Allie pokes Megan during shared reading. Natural Exclusion Deprivation Restitution Megan cries out, The teacher has Mrs. Jensen says, “If Mrs. Jensen says, “Ouch!” and pokes Allie go back to her you can’t keep your “Allie, it looks like Allie back. seat for the rest of hands to yourself, you hurt Megan. shared reading you’ll have to go to Maybe you could time. the library and read help her feel better by herself. of you brought her an ice pack.” When Imposing a related consequence, the connection between the child’s behavior and the results must be clear to the child Dreikurs (1964) if the consequence isn’t related to the action, children will nor learn how their behavior affects others. Instead, they come to see adults as unjust, and often seek retaliation to the injustice by engaging in power struggles Selecting Reasonable Consequences Discipline solutions are of questionable value if they are not based on the cause of the behavior as determined by information about the nature of the individual child, the particular situation, and the relationship between those involved (Goodman, 2006) You need to think of a consequence that matters to kids Needs to be something that you can live with and are actually willing and able to implement Using Consequences Implementing 1. A teacher analyzes an ongoing problem, trying out various hypotheses about the cause 2. When it becomes clear that the cause is not unrealistic adult expectations, missing skills, or unmet needs, the adult may decide that the cause is the child’s lack of understanding 3. Teacher must decide whether natural consequences will suffice or whether relation consequences are required 4. If related consequences are needed, the adult’s challenge is to figure out something that will demonstrate the link between the behavior and the outcome\ Chapter 9 Beyond behaviorism Behavior Modification Skinner believed that behavior could be conditioned through a system of positive or negative reinforcers and punishments A change in environment conditions does cause a change in behavior Reinforcement According to behaviorist thinking, behavior is changed through positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment Positive means to add – increases good behavior by adding something the child finds good or pleasurable each time he or she shows a desired behavior Negative means to subtract or remove – increases good behavior by removing something the child finds bad or unpleasant Positive Reinforcement Giving children rewards for good behavior Tangible rewards (stickers, stars, points, food) Praise (can be verbal, such as saying “Good job,” or nonverbal, such as a smile) Privileges (things like having a party, taking a trip, watching a movie, or playing a game) When children are first learning an expected behavior, adults give praise or a tangible reward after each instance of good behavior. As children come to behave as expected, they receive fewer rewards or praise. Negative Reinforcement Involves removing something unpleasant to motivate children to complete a task or behave a certain way Ex. telling students that you will not assign homework if they behave when a visitor is in the classroom Punishment Punishment through aversives is the addition of an unpleasant experience to decrease the child’s use of an undesirable behavior Includes physical or emotional punishment such as spanking or scolding Behaviorists believe that physical and emotional pain remind children to act appropriately Response-cost punishment is the removal of something the child enjoys in the hopes of increasing positive behavior In response-cost systems, positive reinforcers (stickers, candy, privileges, praise) are withheld or removed as a means of controlling behavior ***DON’T ACCIDENTLY REINFORCE INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR, RESULTING IN MISLEARNING FOR THE CHILD*** Ignoring undesirable behavior is a powerful way to stop it Why Not Behavior Modification? Autonomy Destroyed Moral autonomy: a person will make decisions based on internally constructed convictions about right and wrong Both moral and intellectual autonomy require that a person be skilled in thinking about issues and coming to personal conclusions With behavior modification, the child’s thinking centers around how to get the reward or avoid the punishment, not about that is right under the circumstances By taking responsibility for the child’s behavior, the adult denies the child the opportunity to learn by experience and by reflection on those experiences The message to the children is that they are not capable of making good decisions themselves Self-Discipline Limited When adults force children to behave appropriately, they deny children the opportunity to learn healthy self-discipline Reliance on external controls can become a habit; even if the external “shoulds” are internalized, they are likely to be liked to guilt, fear, and low self-esteem They have no opportunity to develop inner controls when adults are imposing external controls People who perform only for rewards perform at lower levels External controls cause students to become passive and withdraw their interests and investment in learning All discipline approaches should target “children’s ability to communicate their emotions in appropriate ways, regulate their emotions, solve common problems, build positive relationships with peers and adults, and engage in and persist in challenging tasks” Need to be individualized Teachers need to understand the relationships among children’s social and emotional development, cognitive development, communication skills, and problem behavior Behavior modification programs do not focus on teaching children why certain behaviors are more desirable than others or which behaviors to use in specific situations. Instead, they use rewards and punishment as a means of quickly stopping children’s misbehavior Getting rewards means you are dependent on someone else to judge you worthy of getting something you want Such an inauthentic relationship cannot foster the trust and genuine caring that inspire students to do their best The process of judging and rewarding is not respectful; it emphasizes the power and status differences between the person giving the reward and the person hoping to get one Intrinsic Motivation Destroyed Intrinsic Motivation: doing something for its own sake The value lies in the behavior itself, and the reward is how you feel about it (internal) It is possible to destroy existing intrinsic motivation by rewarding behavior that a person was originally doing for personal satisfaction Extrinsic Motivation: doing something for a reward The value lies not in the behavior, but in what you get as a result of the behavior The reward is external what it comes from someone else, not from your satisfaction in a job well done Behavior modification relies on extrinsic motivation Goes against the development of healthy self-discipline and autonomy – rewards teach people to expect them to perform only for them Necessary Motivation Ex. If you like your job and care about what you do, the pay just makes it possible for you to follow your intrinsic motivation. It frees you from having to do something else to support yourself. If you work is boring or unpleasant, the reward of a paycheck is necessary motivation (James Hymes, 1996). People work less effectively if they work only for the payoff. But Pay according to the level of output damages productivity the most. Common Forms of Behavior Modification Rewards and Punishment Most children come to accept the rewards/punishment system and come to believe that they need it in order to do the right thing Not getting a hoped-for reward is a form of punishment A reward can be a punishment (ex. “good behavior ticket”) Packaged Programs Group Contingency Program: all children behave for a specified time to get the reward. During a specified amount of time, the group is expected to collect a certain number of tokens for good behavior. If the class acquires the required amount of tokens, they get a prize. This type of positive reinforcement is designed around the premise of peer pressure. If one child forgets the rules, the whole group loses tokens. This jeopardizes the group’s chance for receiving the prize and their relationships with peers. Flip You Card This system uses a set of cards of difference colors for each child, with a pocket chart to display the cards, plus a list of class rules. If a child breaks a rule they are told to “flip your card.” This is continued till the child gets into serious trouble. This punishment system is supposed to be balanced with the use of rewards for not flipping your card. But the children’s needs are ignored in favor of a quick-fix approach. Kids who are always flipping their cards are quickly labeled by others as “troublemakers” and don’t have friends. Timeout Is a pervasive school tradition “Calm down” version: Is designed to deal with the problem rather than punish; gives children personal power to decide when they are ready to rejoin the group (related consequence) Use of a “cozy” area Praise Considered a nontangible reward Same effects on performance, self-esteem, moral autonomy, self-discipline, and intrinsic motivation as any other reward system Praise doesn’t say, “You are important and lovable because you are you.” Instead, it says, “I approve of you because you are smart of pretty or capable” Instead of making kids feel confident, praise makes them insecure and fearful of rejection When you praise someone, you are setting yourself up as an authority who knows that is best, and implies that you are able to evaluate others’ performance better than they can Is condescending because it implies a power imbalance: rarely does a lower-status person praise a higher-status person Encouragement is an Alternative to Praise Encouragement (specific praise/descriptive praise) describes children’s behavior, asks important questions about their work, or offers genuine thanks for their participation Doesn’t evaluate; it shows genuine interest in and appreciation for children’s behavior It teaches children that what they do and think is important Praise Encouragement I’m proud of you I noticed that you helped Bryce with his coat. You got all the books in your backpack by yourself! You hit the ball hard! It almost made it to the fence. Good job! The end of your story made me laugh. You went pee in the potty! Yes, the work pumpkin starts with a “P” I like how Emily is Thank you for your help cleaning up Emily. (spoken cleaning up (public privately to Emily) statement to all) Encouragement can be a form of reflective listening Responds to the message sent by what the child says or does Encouragement can be a form of positive “I messages” Chapter 13 Meeting Diverse Needs: Academic, Social, Cultural, & Linguistic
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