Psych 2300, Week 1 Notes: Friday
Psych 2300, Week 1 Notes: Friday Psych 2300
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadsSwart on Saturday June 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Emanuele Rizzi in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Research Methods In Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 06/11/16
Psych 2300 June 10 , 2016 Scientific Reasoning – Science & Journalism Last time: - Psychology is a science o There is data backing it up o There is research o What is science? – it is a methodology Involving the theory data cycle Science is a rigorous process of investigating things o Psychology is a rigorous approach to addressing psychological phenomena - Hypothesis: prediction that you are trying to test in a specific research design - Claim: an argument you are trying to make related to an idea you have about how things work - Theory o 4 characteristics of a theory Supported by data Falsifiable Parsimony: the simplest theory is probably the better one because it will have more applications Supported by the weight of the evidence; supported by the weight of the data; can change overtime as new data comes in; as data changes - Types of research o Basic Which captures attention more; a flashing light or an unexpected sound o Translational Since humans struggle to visually estimate declaration, break light are tested to signal a vehicle’s slowing to other drivers o Applied To improve employee health, a standing desk is tested in an office stetting psychologist wants to test a new hearing aid design for better fit on older adults Because you are only testing the fit on specific older adults. Translational would need to have prior knowledge about shapes of hearing aids that make them work better; like cylinder hearing aids allow for the sound to be more realistic. - Scientists make it public: the publication process o Per reviewed process: 2-5 other scientists Rigorous –ideally, and ensures scientific merit Conferences- present talks or posters o Journal editors make final decision. There are four things that might come back to you: Accepted Revise and resubmit Saw some problems, investigate in a different light, emphasize something more, revisit some part of it etc. Rejected Desk-rejected Even if all 5 researchers liked your work, the editor can make a final decision if they want to publish it in their paper. o The research you read about, or the stuff you read about in magazines or blogs Telephone o Mozart effect Baby Einstein Subjects who listened to Mozart – scored higher on a SPATIAL TEMPORAL TASK NOTE: does not affect general intelligence nor is it a long lasting effect o The more things you look at in your study, the more likely you are to find something that looks statistically significant, or something easy to latch onto o If you do something for 10,000 hours then you will be a pro at it o Research is meant to be shared Peer reviewed journals allow for scientifically sound conclusions to be shared and scrutinized o Media will often pick up scientific findings However, not always accurate or important False info can easily spread True info might be oversimplified o I take whatever extreme position or stance on something, and find a middle ground Look at both sides, and weigh what you believe Being a good scientists means being good critical thinkers Chapter 2: Sources of Information - Learning objective 1 - Experience and intuition as a source of knowledge o What’s wrong with it o How do we fix it - Knowledge from experience o Anger; anger management; whackyourboss.com o When you release anger have cathartic moment – is it really helping with anger Would you be willing to pay someone to get rid of anger; anger room You need something that is more long term; address the actual issue because bashing things doesn’t solve the problem, the anger may actually cause more anger to surface o Experiences don’t have comparison groups When you think about a situation where your idea worked; you don’t tend to think about situations where it did not work o May be confounded Last time I punched the pillow, I worked things out with my best friend so clearly it’s the punching of the pillow; but maybe you had a heart to heart, went to a therapist, or did something that can also be beneficial. Don’t need to control everything. Not everything is a confound i.e. the season Only things that could potentially serve as other answers are confounds o Does catharsis work? Figure 2.4 in book o Confederate; someone who is working in the scientific group, and the other people in the group do not know that the worker does. Catharsis doesn’t work! People who were in an aggressive state stayed or became more aggressive than people who were not in an aggressive state (aggressive state+ physical activity) o Bloodletting Sickness due to bad blood Put some leaches on them, and they will get rid of the bad blood [see rainy day theory] Take home message: comparison groups allow us to make better conclusions about the effects variables are actually having. Manny must be lazy confound o Trying it out: Confounds and comparison groups I play my best at sports if I am wearing my lucky socks o Comparison: Measure his performance for the number of games wearing the socks and number of games not (keeping into consideration the weather if it is an outdoor sport, and the referees as well); control for practice by making sure that they have the same amount of practice, or take note of the hours before each game. Their mindset can be addressed by not telling them what socks they are wearing. o Confound: Take count of the number of hours of sleep he got the night before as a possible alternative reason for doing well at the game; amount of practice before each situation; the skill level of who you are playing The osu football team plays better when I go watch them live at the stadium o Comparison: a game when you are not there a whole season for each-possibly multiple seasons in case their skill level is different. Do you need to be there in person or just watching the game? o Confound: the weather, the practice, if you’re judging if they played better or not-you may have a bias based on fan base, teams usually do better at home, when you watch them play well, you remember it more vs. you want to forget the bad games. Base rate of performance overall. Thousands of people at the stadium, could be anyone of those people instead of you. Opposites attract in the relationships o Comparison: measure a brand new relationship, someone who has been dating a while, and some who are married. The attributes you are measuring. o Confound: meeting someone in class vs. a party would change your expectations of that context. How much time do you spend with each other – maybe the time actually spent together is more important than the attributes; they are opposite but they spend a lot of time together, so have a lot of common ground. Knowledge from intuition o A natural ability or power to know something without any evidence or support. Music while you study that has lyrics is bad; but without lyrics is good - False intuitions o Learning is fast; it is not fast o Learning is composed of isolated fast; learning is the ability to connect fast in a complex and meaningful way o Notecards promote learning; they don’t connect the ideas together o Highlighting helps me learn better; as an activity, it does not-however, there are highlighting techniques so that they are very beneficial o Intelligence is inborn; we may be born with different level of innate smarts but you can learn anything o Multitasking; you cannot spread your attention that thin o I am confident that I know the material; metacognition – the ability to truly evaluate your own knowledge- your confidence in the material does not reflect how well you actually know the material. Want to know whether you know something? You need to test yourself. - Three forms of thinking the easy way o Intuition is swayed by a good story You use only 10% of your brain – LUCY – when FMRI data misread The myth’s durability, stems from people’s conceptions about their own brains; they see their own shortcomings as evidence of the existence of untapped gray matter – I’m not bad, I just not using my whole brain! Learning styles If you represent the learning material in someone’s learning style Research shows that you have a preference, but it doesn’t mean that you learn better that way, or that you can’t learn other ways Are you doing beneficial things? Excuse of ‘I only learn in my style’ is just an excuse o Availability heuristic The more readily an example pops up in your mind, reflects its truth value The more easily a thought or memory is to retrieve, the more believable it is School shooting deaths will come more easily to mind than people dying of asthma o Present/present bias See manny’s rainy day theory Where the treatment and expected outcome are both present depending on where you focus in the data. Looking at all of the data vs. just a subset of the data. Both treatment and expected outcome are present so you only look at instances where they both are, and fail to see the instances where one or both are not Rule: - If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has to have an even number on the other side o Wason selection task: How many of the following cards do we need to flip over to test this A 2 5 R Flip over A and 5 45% of people would pick A &2 Only 4% would choose A and 5 Picking 2 is not important because it would not add any information to our belief. You have to test for the ODD numbers. You’re testing the two things that solidify your conclusions, not negate it Knowledge from intuition - Three forms of ‘thinking what we want’ o Cherry picking evidence Yeah there is evidence against my belief but it’s not as good as the evidence for my belief or argument o Ask biased questions Confirmatory hypothesis testing Asking questions that will lead to the answers you want; or will lead to other questions that will thus tap into topics or answers you want The problems with these sentences: I was taught that the way of progress was neither swift nor easy I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work. There’s nothing wrong. You’re in confirmatory hypothesis testing mode. You get into the mindset that there is something wrong, so you are looking for something to support that; thinking what we want. o Bias blind spot
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