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U.S history since Recon notes for weeks 1,2,3

by: Torie Pierce

U.S history since Recon notes for weeks 1,2,3 HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878

Torie Pierce
Clayton State
GPA 2.67
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About this Document

These notes are going to cover what is going to be on the first exam
History 2112
Dr. Jelani Favors
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Torie Pierce on Monday June 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878 at Clayton State University taught by Dr. Jelani Favors in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.

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Date Created: 06/13/16
The Seeds of Big Business Government industry and American Expansion Pt. 1  Prelude to Upheaval o The Marriage of Government and Industry What type of investments America is going to make to pave the way for American  Businesses? Key Question: What policies were created by government to support the growth of  business?    Investments o 1862­1872: Congress gave railroad companies 100 million acres of land and 64  million dollars in tax break o Homestead Act of 1862: Allowed adult citizen to claim 160 acres of public land  for $10  Majority of the land will be owned by the railroad companies o 1864­ Congress authorized the importation of foreign workers (cheap labor  source)  Between 1860 and 1920­ 28.5 million immigrant came to the United  States  The Rise of the Railroad o The Robber Barons (the power of a few) took at advantage of workers who  worked beneath them. They are:  Cornelius Vanderbilt  Jay Gould  Jim Fisk  Collis P. Huntington   Changes in the Marketplace o Railroads gave fast, reliable, shipping o Created a national market o Encouraged manufacturers to produce in large quantities   The chanllenges of the Early Trade Unions o 1870=2933 national unions o 1873­ Panic of 1873 o 1877­9 national unions Better Pay, Better hours, Better conditions  Union ofted face such challenges as: Tough economy: rising tension o Armed guards o Pinkerton Detective Agency  Provided spies  Private armed forces ti combat labor organizations   Haves v have nots ….recurring theme Government,l Industyr and American expansion pt 2  Confilct on the plains o Native AAmericans viewed as roadblocks to westward expansion o 1860­2865: Number of U.S. troops on the western frontier doubled from 11,000  to 20,000 o 1864: Sand Creek Massacre  Nov. 1858: Colorado Gold Rush  Land Encroachment  150=200 killed in massacre  Attempts to Undermine Native American Culture o New American Policies: o 1867: Congress introduced new policy designed to move all tribes to reservations   Destroy the Buffalo o Minimize Buffalo resources  Industry’s impact on the Buffalo o Leather Production o Near Destruction of the species  In 1869, General William T. Sherman made it military policy to slaughter the buffalo.  Between 1872 and 1874, hunters killed well over 4 million Buffalo.  Native American Resistance o Tribes: Sioux and Cheyenne o Battle of Little Bighorn­June 1876 th o U.S 7  Calvary wandered into Sioux territory (Montana) o Custer’s Last Stand­ 20 vs 3,000 o One of the last great victories over U.S gov’t.    The Ultimate Solution­ Assimilation o White protestants proposed reforms in govt’s N.A policy   1. Sought to suppress Native American religion and undercut tribal  authority  2. “Education” and the replacement of NA culture with American  protestant values  3. Dawes Severalty Act or Indian Allotment Act of 1887  Broke reservation land up into private owned plots  Granted American citizenship to those who were willing to  abnandon their way of life. (To be Americanbized or civilized.  Deeming Natives as Savages) Government, Industry, and American Expansion pt. 3  The Great Upheaval of 1877 Conflict within the Gilded Age  An Emerging American Labor Movement o Chief concerns were:  Wages  Hours  Working Conditions o Early Labor Unions  The National Molders Union­1859  Led the efforts to shorten the workday to 8 hours  Foreign workers brought radical ideas (socialism, anarchism)  Birth of the American Labor Movement  The Great Upheaval of 1877 o 1877­workers on the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) railroad staged a strike to protest wage cuts o Sparked Major violence throughout the country o Most working class people did not want to overthrow capitalism  The Knights of Labor o 1869­ The Knights of Labor was founded (Umbrella company: other companies  came up under it) o 1879­ Terrence Powderly elected as president  One of the first Labor organization to integrate their workforce (Blacks,  Whites, Asians, etc) o Achieved two major victories for better wages against railroad companies  Haymarket Square Incident o May 1, 1886: 80,000 protestors marched to advocate an 8 hour workday in  Chicago o A two­day clash between police and protestors resulted in death of six men o A trial targeted leaders of the labor movement  When Knight Falls o The Haymarket Square incident raised fears about immigrants, radicals, mobs,  and lanor organizations. o Knights of Labor (KOL) declined for 2 primary reasons  1. Disunity of Purpose  2. Faulty decisions o 1886­between 700,000 and 1million members in the KOL o 19..­ about 100,000 members in the KOL Government, Industry, and American Expansion PT. 4  Jacob Coxey The Rise of the AFL (American Federation of Labor)  The Rise of the AFL o Skilled vs. Unskilled  Many of the Union members hated the broad, social and reform ideas of  the KOL  Samuel Gompers and the AFL o The AFL refused to admit women blacks and did not support the unskilled  worker o Under Gompers and the AFL:  Strikes became more numerous  More disciplined and more successful  WASP (White Anglo­Saxon Protestant)  The Depression of 1893 o A depression in Europe reduced american exports o “The functions of the govt. do not include the support of the people.” – President  G Cleveland Laissez­Faire “Hands off” (Do nothing) o Coxey’s Army­1894. Inspired by Jacob Coxey, an Ohio businessman  Led a march to Washington to protest conditions  Coxey arrested and march disbanded  The Pullman Incident o The Pullman Palace Car Co. fired a third of its employees, and cut wages of the  rest by 25 to 40% o Refused to reduce rent for its company housing o Violence erupted after a boycott against Pullman cars (Pullman Strike) o Many labor activists decided to take their fight to the election polls o Leads to the Progressive Movement (Era) The Mine Wars (coal Mining Documentary)  Mother Mary Harris Jones­ Mine Workers of America Union  Armed guards monitoring workers from chatting about strikes and asking for  better wages  Mother Jones found Frank Keeney in west Virginia  Keeney worked in mines since he was young  Minors were required to mine $0.40 a ton of coal  Coal was significant during the beginning of the 20  century.  Immigrants  8/10 Coal miners live in town  Scrip­Company currency  Justus Collins   Baldwin Thelps  Strike Breakers(People who filled in to take the job on the people on strike)  Women played critical role in strikes


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