U.S history since Recon notes for weeks 1,2,3
U.S history since Recon notes for weeks 1,2,3 HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Torie Pierce on Monday June 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878 at Clayton State University taught by Dr. Jelani Favors in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 06/13/16
The Seeds of Big Business Government industry and American Expansion Pt. 1 Prelude to Upheaval o The Marriage of Government and Industry What type of investments America is going to make to pave the way for American Businesses? Key Question: What policies were created by government to support the growth of business? Investments o 18621872: Congress gave railroad companies 100 million acres of land and 64 million dollars in tax break o Homestead Act of 1862: Allowed adult citizen to claim 160 acres of public land for $10 Majority of the land will be owned by the railroad companies o 1864 Congress authorized the importation of foreign workers (cheap labor source) Between 1860 and 1920 28.5 million immigrant came to the United States The Rise of the Railroad o The Robber Barons (the power of a few) took at advantage of workers who worked beneath them. They are: Cornelius Vanderbilt Jay Gould Jim Fisk Collis P. Huntington Changes in the Marketplace o Railroads gave fast, reliable, shipping o Created a national market o Encouraged manufacturers to produce in large quantities The chanllenges of the Early Trade Unions o 1870=2933 national unions o 1873 Panic of 1873 o 18779 national unions Better Pay, Better hours, Better conditions Union ofted face such challenges as: Tough economy: rising tension o Armed guards o Pinkerton Detective Agency Provided spies Private armed forces ti combat labor organizations Haves v have nots ….recurring theme Government,l Industyr and American expansion pt 2 Confilct on the plains o Native AAmericans viewed as roadblocks to westward expansion o 18602865: Number of U.S. troops on the western frontier doubled from 11,000 to 20,000 o 1864: Sand Creek Massacre Nov. 1858: Colorado Gold Rush Land Encroachment 150=200 killed in massacre Attempts to Undermine Native American Culture o New American Policies: o 1867: Congress introduced new policy designed to move all tribes to reservations Destroy the Buffalo o Minimize Buffalo resources Industry’s impact on the Buffalo o Leather Production o Near Destruction of the species In 1869, General William T. Sherman made it military policy to slaughter the buffalo. Between 1872 and 1874, hunters killed well over 4 million Buffalo. Native American Resistance o Tribes: Sioux and Cheyenne o Battle of Little BighornJune 1876 th o U.S 7 Calvary wandered into Sioux territory (Montana) o Custer’s Last Stand 20 vs 3,000 o One of the last great victories over U.S gov’t. The Ultimate Solution Assimilation o White protestants proposed reforms in govt’s N.A policy 1. Sought to suppress Native American religion and undercut tribal authority 2. “Education” and the replacement of NA culture with American protestant values 3. Dawes Severalty Act or Indian Allotment Act of 1887 Broke reservation land up into private owned plots Granted American citizenship to those who were willing to abnandon their way of life. (To be Americanbized or civilized. Deeming Natives as Savages) Government, Industry, and American Expansion pt. 3 The Great Upheaval of 1877 Conflict within the Gilded Age An Emerging American Labor Movement o Chief concerns were: Wages Hours Working Conditions o Early Labor Unions The National Molders Union1859 Led the efforts to shorten the workday to 8 hours Foreign workers brought radical ideas (socialism, anarchism) Birth of the American Labor Movement The Great Upheaval of 1877 o 1877workers on the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) railroad staged a strike to protest wage cuts o Sparked Major violence throughout the country o Most working class people did not want to overthrow capitalism The Knights of Labor o 1869 The Knights of Labor was founded (Umbrella company: other companies came up under it) o 1879 Terrence Powderly elected as president One of the first Labor organization to integrate their workforce (Blacks, Whites, Asians, etc) o Achieved two major victories for better wages against railroad companies Haymarket Square Incident o May 1, 1886: 80,000 protestors marched to advocate an 8 hour workday in Chicago o A twoday clash between police and protestors resulted in death of six men o A trial targeted leaders of the labor movement When Knight Falls o The Haymarket Square incident raised fears about immigrants, radicals, mobs, and lanor organizations. o Knights of Labor (KOL) declined for 2 primary reasons 1. Disunity of Purpose 2. Faulty decisions o 1886between 700,000 and 1million members in the KOL o 19.. about 100,000 members in the KOL Government, Industry, and American Expansion PT. 4 Jacob Coxey The Rise of the AFL (American Federation of Labor) The Rise of the AFL o Skilled vs. Unskilled Many of the Union members hated the broad, social and reform ideas of the KOL Samuel Gompers and the AFL o The AFL refused to admit women blacks and did not support the unskilled worker o Under Gompers and the AFL: Strikes became more numerous More disciplined and more successful WASP (White AngloSaxon Protestant) The Depression of 1893 o A depression in Europe reduced american exports o “The functions of the govt. do not include the support of the people.” – President G Cleveland LaissezFaire “Hands off” (Do nothing) o Coxey’s Army1894. Inspired by Jacob Coxey, an Ohio businessman Led a march to Washington to protest conditions Coxey arrested and march disbanded The Pullman Incident o The Pullman Palace Car Co. fired a third of its employees, and cut wages of the rest by 25 to 40% o Refused to reduce rent for its company housing o Violence erupted after a boycott against Pullman cars (Pullman Strike) o Many labor activists decided to take their fight to the election polls o Leads to the Progressive Movement (Era) The Mine Wars (coal Mining Documentary) Mother Mary Harris Jones Mine Workers of America Union Armed guards monitoring workers from chatting about strikes and asking for better wages Mother Jones found Frank Keeney in west Virginia Keeney worked in mines since he was young Minors were required to mine $0.40 a ton of coal Coal was significant during the beginning of the 20 century. Immigrants 8/10 Coal miners live in town ScripCompany currency Justus Collins Baldwin Thelps Strike Breakers(People who filled in to take the job on the people on strike) Women played critical role in strikes
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