PSYCH 212 Chapter 10 Notes
PSYCH 212 Chapter 10 Notes Psych 212
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Monday June 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 06/13/16
Cognitive development in Early Childhood Piagetian Approach Preoperational stage: (ages 2-7) second major stage of cognitive development, in which children become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought but are not yet able to use logic Cognitive advances o Symbolic function: ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning. Being able to think about something in the absence of sensory or motor cues Deferred imitation: children imitate an action at some point after having observed it, 18 months Pretend play: play involving imaginary people or situations; also called fantasy play, dramatic play, or imaginary play, children use an object to represent something else Children can imagine that objects or people have properties other than those they actually have o Causality Piaget was incorrect in believing that young children could not understand causality. When tested in situations that are appropriate to overall level of cognitive development, young children do grasp cause and effect Preschoolers see all causal relationships equally and absolutely predictable. (Thinking a child will definitely get sick if they don’t wash their hands before eating) o Identities: concept that people and many things are basically the same even if they change in form, size, and appearance Develops with emerging self-concept o Categorization: requires a child to identify similarities and differences By 4, many children can classify by two criteria, such as color and shape o Number Ordinality: concept of comparing quantities (more, less) begins 9-11 months By 4 they have words for comparing quantities and can solve numerical ordinality problems with up to 9 objects (Jane has 3 apples, Steve has 5, who has more?) Cardinality principle: when asked to count six items, children younger than 3.5 tend to recite the number names 1-6 but not say how many items there are all together By 5, most children can count to 20 or more and know the relative sizes of numbers 1-10 Can intuitively devise strategies for adding by counting on their fingers or by using other objects Number sense Counting: grasping one-to-one correspondence, knowing stable order and cardinality principles, knowing the count sequence Number knowledge: discriminating and coordinating quantities, making numerical magnitude comparisons Number transformation: simple addition and subtraction, calculating in story problems and nonverbal contexts, calculating in the head Estimation: approximating or estimating set sizes, using reference points Number patterns: copying number patterns, extending number patterns, discerning numerical relationships SES and preschool experience affect how rapidly children advance in math Math talk in school and number board games enhance numerical knowledge o Empathy Children become more able to imagine how others might feel o Objects space Age 3 children can grasp relationships between pictures, maps, or scale models and the larger or smaller objects or spaces they represent Older preschoolers use simple maps and can transfer the spatial understanding gained from working with models to maps and vice versa Immature aspects o Centration: tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others Decenter: think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation o Egocentrism: inability to consider another person’s point of view Three-mountain task: child sits facing a table that holds 3 large mounds. Doll is placed on a chair at opposite side of table. Investigator asks how the mountains would look to the doll Young children described mountains from their own perspective When children are given instructions to select one object from a set of objects by an experimenter who could only see one of the objects, they more often selected the object that the experimenter could see, even though the child could see both o Conservation: awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object Irreversibility: a preoperational child’s failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions o Animism: tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive Children attribute animism to items that share characteristics with living things, like things that move, make sounds, or have lifelike features such as eyes o Transduction: preoperational child’s tendency to mentally link particular experiences, whether or not there is logically a causal relationship o Inability to distinguish appearance from reality Theory of mind: awareness and understanding of mental processes o Knowledge about thinking and mental states Piaget concluded that children younger than 6 cannot distinguish between thoughts or dreams and real physical entities and therefore have no theory of mind Between 3-5, children understand that Thinking goes on inside the mind That it can deal with either real or imaginary things That someone can be thinking of one thing while doing or looking at something else That a person whose eyes and ears are covered can think about objects That someone who looks pensive is probably thinking That thinking is different that seeing, talking, touching, and knowing Preschoolers believe that mental activity starts and stops, not until middle childhood do they realize the mind is continuously active Preschoolers have little or no awareness that they think or other people think in words, or that they think while they are looking, listening, reading, or talking Preschoolers tend to believe the can dream about anything they wish. 5 year olds recognize that physical experiences, emotions, knowledge, and thoughts affect the content of dreams. At age 11, children fully realize they cannot control dreams Social cognition: the recognition that others have mental states 4 year olds begin to understand that people have differing beliefs about the world, and that these beliefs affect their actions o False beliefs and deception Understanding that people can hold false beliefs flows from realization that people hold mental representations of reality, which can sometimes be wrong When preschoolers were taught to respond to a false-belief task with gestures th rather than words, children near 4 birthday did better than on traditional verbal- response task Not until age 6, do children realize that two people who see or hear the same thing may interpret it differently Deception requires a child to suppress the impulse to be truthful. Some studies have found possible at 2-3, some at 4-5 Piaget maintained that young children regard all falsehoods as lies. However, when 3-6 year olds were told a story about the danger of eating contaminated food and were given a choice between interpreting a character’s action as a lie or mistake, ¾ of children in all age groups categorized it accurately o Distinguishing appearance and reality Piaget said that not until 5-6 do children understand distinction between what seems to be real and what is When 3 year olds were asked questions about the uses of objects such as a candle wrapped like a crayon, 3/10 answered correctly. But when asked to respond with actions rather than words, 9/10 answered correctly o Distinguishing between fantasy and reality 18 months-3 years, children learn to distinguish between real and imagined events 3 year olds know difference between real dog and dog in dream, and between something invisible and something imaginary. They can pretend and tell when someone else is pretending By 2 or 3 they know that pretense is intentional, they can tell difference between trying to do something and pretending to do the same thing 4-6 year olds left alone in a room preferred to touch a box holding an imaginary bunny rather than an imaginary monster, even though most children claimed they were pretending In a replication, the experimenter stayed in the room and clearly ended the pretense. Only 10% touched or looked in either box, and almost all showed clear understanding that the creatures were imaginary Magical thinking: a way to explain events that do not seem to have obvious realistic explanations or to indulge in the pleasures of pretending Tends to decline near end of preschool period Imaginary companions 25-65% of children ages 3-10 create imaginary friends Most often firstborn and only children who lack company of siblings Children can distinguish fantasy from reality Children play more happily and imaginatively than other children and are more cooperative with other children and adults More fluent with language, watch less TV, and show more curiosity, excitement, and persistence during play 4 year olds who reported having imaginary companions did better on theory- of-mind tasks and show greater emotional understanding 3 years later Provide o Wish-fulfillment mechanisms o Scapegoats o A safe way to express child’s own fears o And support in difficult situations o Individual differences Infant social attention is closely linked with theory of mind development Children whose teachers and peers rate them as high on social skills are better able to recognize false beliefs, to distinguish between real and feigned emotion, and to take another person’s point of view A mother’s reference to others’ thoughts and knowledge is a predictor of later mental state language. Children benefit the most when the talk fits the level of understanding Empathy arises earlier in children whose families talk about feelings a causality Families that encourage pretend play stimulate development of theory of mind skills Bilingual children do better of theory of mind tasks Know that an idea can be represented linguistically in more than one way, which may help them see that different people may have different perspectives. They also recognize need to match language to their partner, which may make them more aware of others mental states Tend to have better attentional control, enabling them to focus on what is real or not Those with incomplete theory of mind have a hard time understanding things from a different perspective, difficulty determining others’ intentions, difficult time with social reciprocity Children with autism do not employ theory of mind Information processing approach: Memory Young children tend to focus on exact details of an event, which are easily forgotten, whereas older children and adults concentrate on the gist of what happened Young children may fail to notice important aspects of a situation, such as when and where, which could help jog memory Encoding: process by which information is prepared for long-term storage and later retrieval Storage: retention of information in memory for future use Retrieval: process by which information is accessed or recalled from memory storage Sensory memory: initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information Working memory/Short term memory STM: short term storage of information being actively processed o Brain imaging studies have found that STM is located partly in prefrontal cortex, the large portion of the frontal lobe behind the forehead o Can assess the capacity of working memory by asking children to recall a series of scrambled digits At age 4, children typically remember only 2 digits, at 12 they can remember 6 Executive function: conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems st o Emerges around end of 1 year and develops in spurts with age o Changes in executive function between 2-5 enable children to make up and use complex rules for solving problems Long term memory LTM: storage of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods Central executive: In Baddeley’s model, element of working memory that controls the processing of information o Orders information encoded for transfer to LTM o Retrieves information from LTM for further processing o Temporarily expand the capacity of working memory by moving information into two separate subsidiary systems while the central executive is occupied with other tasks. One subsidiary system holds verbal information, and the other holds visual/spatial images Recognition: ability to identify a previously encountered stimulus Recall: ability to reproduce material from memory o Young children often fail to use strategies for remembering Generic memory: memory that produces scripts of familiar routines to guide behavior o Script: general remembered outline of a familiar, repeated event, used to guide behavior Episodic memory: LTM of specific experiences or events, linked to time and place o Temporary, they last for a few weeks or months unless they recur several times, in which case they would become generic memory Autobiographical memory: a type of episodic memory of distinctive experiences that form a person’s life history o Emerges 3-4, along with language and self concept Influences on memory retention o When events are frequently repeated, children are likely to incorrectly recall specific details. When events are rare or unusual, or have emotional impact, children remember them better o Attention is focused on central aspects of the situation rather than peripheral details o Preschoolers remember things they did better than things they saw o Social interaction model: model, based on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, that proposes that children construct autobiographical memories through conversation with adults about shared events Children remember events that are frequently rehearsed with parents via conversations about past events Low elaborative style: parents repeat previous statements or questions High elaborative style: parents ask questions that elicit more information Children recall richer memories Provides verbal labels for aspects of an event and giving it an orderly, comprehensible structure. Children learn to interpret those events and the thoughts and emotions connected with them. They build a sense of self as continuous in time, and they learn their perspective may be different from another person o Culture Mothers in middle class Western cultures tend to be more elaborative Intelligence: the ability to learn from situations, adapts to new experiences, and manipulate abstract concepts Psychometric measures o Intelligence tests for 3-5 year olds are more reliable because they include more verbal items o Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: individual intelligence test for ages 2 and up, used to measure knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory Takes 45-60 min Child is asked to define words, string beads, build with blocks, identify the missing parts of a picture, trace mazes, and show an understanding of numbers Fluid reasoning: the ability to solve abstract or novel problems Provides full IQ scale, and separate measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ, plus scores of the 4 cognitive dimensions o Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised WPPSI-III: individual intelligence test for children ages 2.5-7 that yields verbal and performance scores as well as a combined score Takes 30-60 min Measures verbal and nonverbal reasoning, receptive versus expressive vocab, and processing speed Validated for special populations such as children with intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, language disorders, and autistic disorders Influences on measured intelligence o An IQ score is simply a measure of how well a child can do certain tasks at a certain time in comparison with others of the same age o Scores of children in industrialized countries have risen steadily since testing began, forcing test developers to raise standardized norms Due to better nutrition, exposure to educational TV, preschools, better educated parents, smaller families in which each child receives more attention, and a wide variety of mentally demanding games, as well as changes in the test themselves o Twin and adoption studies suggest that family life has strongest influence in early childhood, and this diminishes greatly by adolescence Studies done primarily with white middle class Study of low-income black children showed that the influence of home environment remained substantial o Correlation between SES and IQ Vygotsky o Zone of proximal development ZPD: Vygotsky’s term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help Dynamic tests: measure potential rather than present achievement. Examiners help the child when necessary by asking questions, giving examples, and offering feedback, making the test itself a learning situation Scaffolding: temporary support to help a child master a task Language development Vocabulary o By 3, average child can use 900-1000 words. By 6, child has expressive vocab of 2600 words and passive, or receptive, vocab of over 20000 o Fast mapping: process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation Nouns are easier to map than verbs Children under age 3 can fast map a new verb and apply it to another situation in which the same action is being performed o 3-4 year olds can tell when two words refer to the same object or action. They know that more than one adjective can apply to the same noun and that an adjective can be combined with a proper name Grammar and syntax o Syntax involves the rules for putting together sentences in a particular language o Age 3 Children begin using plurals, possessives, and past tense and know the difference between I, you, and we Can ask and answer what and where questions Sentences are short, simple, and declarative o Ages 4-5 Sentences average 4-5 words and may be declarative, negative, interrogative, or imperative Children string sentences together in long run-on stories Can carry out a command that includes more than one step, but may process the words in the order in which he hears them o Ages 5-7 Longer sentences, with conjunctions, prepositions, and articles Rarely use passive voice, conditional sentences, or the auxiliary verb have Make errors because they have not learned exceptions to rules Pragmatics: practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes o Includes knowing how to ask for things, how to tell a story or joke, how to begin and continue a conversation, and how to adjust comments to the listener’s perspective o Social speech: speech intended to be understood by a listener Most 4 year olds use parentese when speaking to 2 year olds If people cannot understand them, they try to explain themselves more clearly 5 year olds can adapt what they say to what the listener knows, use words to resolve disputes, and use more polite language and fewer direct commands when talking to adults o Private speech: talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others Counts for 20-50% of what 4-10 year old children say 2-3 year olds engage in “crib talk”, playing with sounds and words 4-5 year olds express fantasies and emotions Older children think out loud or mutter in barely audible tones Piaget said that private speech was a sign of cognitive immaturity and a reflection of ongoing mental activity Because young children are egocentric, they are unable to recognize others viewpoints and therefore unable to communicate meaningfully Vygotsky said it served a function in the transition between early social speech and inner speech Increases when child performs a difficult task without adult supervision Brightest children use it earliest Many individual differences Delayed language development o 5-8% of children show speech and language delays o Hearing problems, head and facial abnormalities, premature birth, family history, SES, and developmental delays are associated o Heredity plays a major role o Boys more likely than girls to be late talkers o Children may have problems fast mapping o Many children who speak late eventually catch up. But 40-60% of children with early language delays, if left untreated, may experience cognitive, social, and emotional consequences Preparation for literacy o Emergent literacy: preschoolers development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that underlie reading and writing o Two types of prereading skills: oral language skills (vocab, syntax) and specific phonological skills (linking letters with sounds) Longitudinal study of British schoolchildren found the development of word recognition appeared crucially dependent on phonological skills, whereas oral language skills such as vocab and grammatical skills were more important predictors of reading comprehension o Social interaction promotes literacy o Preschool children pretend to write by scribbling o Reading is one of most effective paths to literacy Media and cognition o By 3, children are active media users, able to pay greater attention to dialogue and narrative o Exposure to TV during first years of life may be associated with poorer cognitive development, but children over 2 exposed to programs that follow an educational curriculum have demonstrated cognitive enhancement o Using media responsibly Limit screen time to least amount possible Set guidelines for appropriate viewing Protect children from inappropriate media Remove media from bedrooms Watch programs together and discuss what you are watching Limit products purchased for child that are linked to TV programs Early childhood education Montessori Method o Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Sequin inspired educators to consider alternatives to traditional teaching methods o Maria Montessori was Italy’s first female physician and started a school for underprivileged children living in the slums of Italy. She opened Casa dei Bambini in 1907 o Based on the belief that children’s natural intelligence involves rational, spiritual, and empirical aspects o Stresses importance of children learning independently at their own pace, as they work with developmentally appropriate materials and self-chosen tasks o Grouped in multiage classrooms. Infancy-3 years is “unconscious absorbent mind”, and 3-6 is “conscious absorbent mind” Teachers serve as guides and older children help the younger ones o Curriculum is individualized but has scope and prescribed sequencing o Teachers provide environment of calm productivity, and classrooms are organized to be orderly and pleasing o Study found that 5 year olds in Milwaukee were better prepared for elementary school Reggio Emilia Approach o In late 40s, a group of Italian educators devised a plan to revitalize WWII society o Loris Malaguzzi, the school’s founding director, was a social constructivist influenced by Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, and Montessori o Encouraged nonviolent dialogues and debates, developing problem-solving skills, and forging close, long-term relationships with teachers and classmates o Less formal than Montessori o Teachers follow children’s interest and support them in exploring and investigating ideas and feelings through words, movement, dramatic play, and music o Teachers ask questions that draw out children’s ideas and then create flexible plans to explore these ideas with the children o Classrooms carefully constructed to offer complexity, beauty, organization, and a sense of well-being Compensatory preschool programs o 2/3 of children in poor urban areas in US enter school unprepared. Since 60s, large scale programs have been developed to help children compensate for what they have missed o Project Head Start: federally funded program launched in 1965. Goal is to enhance cognitive skills and improve physical health and foster self-confidence and social skills Provides medical, dental, and mental health care, social services, and at least one hot meal a day 1/3 are from non-English speaking homes, and majority are single mother homes Effect and quality continues to improve Gains closely related to parental involvement o Less likely to be placed in special education or repeat a grade and more likely to finish high school than low-income children who did not attend o Early Head Start: beginning in 1995, offering services to low-income families with infants and toddlers 2-3 they scored higher on standardized developmental and vocab tests 3 they were less aggressive, more attentive to playthings, and more positively engaged with their parents Parents were more emotionally supportive, provided more learning and language stimulation, read to their children more, and spanked less Programs that offered a mix of center-based activities and home visits show best results o PK-3 approach: systematic program offering prekindergarten to all 3 and 4 year olds, require full-day kindergarten, and coordinate and align educational experiences and expectations from prekindergarten through grade 3 through a sequenced curriculum based on children’s developmental needs and abilities Universal preschool: a national system for early care and education that makes access to preschool similar to kindestarten by using the public schools o School of the 21 century (21C): created by Edward Zigler, provides all-day, year- round, developmentally appropriate care for 3-4 year olds as well as before and after school care for older children Kindergarten o Children spend more time working on worksheets and preparing to read and less time on self-chosen activities o Full day kindergarten associated with greater growth of reading and math skills from fall until spring, but overall these advantages tend to be small to moderate o Preschool experience helps children adjust better and prepares them more academically for kindergarten o Emotional and social adjustment predicts school success. The ability to sit quietly and listen is crucial o 5% of children repeat kindergarten, but these children still have lower reading and math st skills at end of 1 grade than those who only did 1 year