Psych 2300: Research Methods in Psychology Week 2: Wednesday Notes
Psych 2300: Research Methods in Psychology Week 2: Wednesday Notes Psych 2300
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadsSwart on Wednesday June 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Emanuele Rizzi in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Research Methods In Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 06/15/16
Psych 2300: Psychology Research Methods 6/15/16 Chapter 3: Claims and Validities Tools for Interrogating Research Part 1: Variables Variable: anything that takes on multiple (at least 2) levels Independent variable: taking on multiple levels manipulated by experimenter: manipulated Dependent variable: taking on multiple levels affected by the independent variable; measured Constant: has more than one level, but is SET TO ONLY ONE LEVEL Independent: Left handed or right handed Dependent: Handwriting Constant: writing on college ruled paper or papyrus [Variable=paper type can take on multiple levels; setting it to one level] Conceptual variables : variables that cannot be measured out directly; they are abstract - [CONSTRUCT]: job satisfaction, company growth, stress, coping, focus etc. - Since it’s not measurable directly, we set it to something related that we can measure Operational variables : measurable or manipulated variable that the conceptual variable is matched. o How well a pill works symptoms decreased from taking pill o Stress scale 1(not at all) – 5(very) o Fear eye dilation, sweat Measured Operational Variable o 2 levels: left handed or right handed o CANNOT CHANGE o However, can alter how it is measured Left handed and right handed, but can add in ambidextrous as third level option Manipulated Operational Variable o Infinite amount of levels: what you write on: papyrus, college ruled, canvas, chalkboard o So you limit to just one for the experiment/text: college ruled *NOTE: Variables = Categories & Levels = Subcategories Variables = Handedness, Paper type Levels = right handed, left handed, ambidextrous & papyrus, college ruled, canvas, etc.* Conceptual definitions: defining the conceptual variable by giving it observable values - How can you tell the difference between a picture of a sad, mad or frustrated person? - “When someone is stressed, they will have physical actions such as…” Conceptual Variable: Emotion Conceptual Definition: Psych 2300: Psychology Research Methods 6/15/16 - State of mind [nothingness, calling that relaxed], a response to a trigger [social or chemical], having social context [not always observable by others] - Tomkins : emotions are motivational amplifiers o Emotion causes us to behave in a specific way that is different from how we would act without that emotion: Sadness, fear, hunger, pain Conceptual or Operational? ‘Researchers may strongly suspect grief only when certain conditions are met’: 1. Animals choose to spend time together beyond survival-oriented 2. When one animal dies, the survivor alters his or her normal behavior routine a. Reducing the amount of time devoted to eating or sleeping b. Adopting a body posture or facial expression c. Generally failing to thrive Operational . - Measure time spent together: just spending time together for survival or time in addition to? - Measure of behavior prior to animal passing and after, observe differences o What behaviors are we interested in? reduction in eating and sleeping study animal postures; giving it a value or define it generally failing to thrive; set standard of thriving Identifying Variables Practice: Operational = independent 1. Researchers examined the effects of red or blue lighting at a club on alcohol consumption a. Conceptual definition: any type of lighting source that has an effect on behavior; mood lighting; blue is calming, red is agitating b. Theory: blue lighting will increase alcohol consumed Conceptual Operational Measured or levels variable definition manipulated Effect of red or Color of light Manipulated [because Red or blue blue lighting being used in the we are looking for light club effect of lighting] Dependent variable: alcohol consumed, measured, might have many levels [# of drinks, qty in oz, etc.] 2. Researchers used a special punching bag to record the amount of force with which subjects hit it a. Conceptual definition: stress can be shown by a scowl, tense body language, or lack of verbal communication, or short responses; strength can be shown by the amount of weight one can lift or which b. Theory: the higher the level of stress, anger etc., the harder they will hit the bag Conceptual Operational Measured or levels variable definition manipulated Psych 2300: Psychology Research Methods 6/15/16 Stress, strength Amount of force measured Infinite levels; Amt etc. of newtons = specific level Dependent variable: this is the dependent variable; it is measured. [either the strength or the force] 3. Researchers had subjects either sit, jog, run, or jump for 5 minutes before doing a memory task a. Conceptual Definition: physical activity or arousal; state of being after movement; state of being evoked or awakened b. Theory: increased exercise with increase memory Conceptual Operational Measured or manipulated levels variable definition physical Type of activity Manipulated [you cannot 4 levels: activity/arousal being done before measure arousal, but you can sit, run, doing a task categorize types of physical jog, jump activity] Dependent variable: task performance, measured, many levels Constant: amount of time each exercise was done Variable operationalizing ‘texting while driving’ Conceptual Variable: Frequency of texting while driving Operational Variables: - Self-report questionnaire - Direct observation - Friends’ observations o Construct validity issues: how do you know that your operationalized variable is a good way to measure what you are trying to get at? o Can also change the levels in which you measure it in Do you text while driving? yes or no How much did you text on your last drive? none, a little, moderately, a lot How many texts per hour does your provider report on your phone? – infinite Depression operationalized two ways 1. BAD Operational Definitions a. Social engagements b. Number of friends c. Going out 2. GOOD Operational definitions a. Suicidal thoughts b. Serotonin in brain c. Specialized questionnaire Operationalizing Practice Intelligence2 & 3 levels Psych 2300: Psychology Research Methods 6/15/16 - 2: Pass/Fail on exam measuring intelligence - 3: distribution of scores: low, average, and high performers Sleep deprivation 5 levels: - Set intervals: 0-2 hours; 2-4 hours; 4-6 hours; 6-8 hours; 8+ hours Attention infinite levels: - Responding quicker to something you’re attending to ; reaction time Claims Claim: a statement or assertion that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof; stating that something is the truth – typically one that is disputed or in doubt Frequency - Descriptive; Describes rate of occurrence for a single variable - Variables measured NOT manipulated - Just tell you the statistics; instances, but don’t tell you the connectedness Associative - Find the relationship between LEVELS of a variable o Certain levels are related to other levels - One level of variable is associated with level of a different variable - 2 variables related - Both or all variables are measured - Shown through scatterplots o Positive: Mirror relationship Scatterplot: low on left = low on bottom; high on left = high on bottom High of one = high of other Low of one = low of other o Negative: flipped relationship Scatterplot: on left = low on bottom; low on left = high on bottom High of one = low of other Low of one = high of other o Zero: no relationship Scatterplot: straight line across - EXAMPLE OF ASSOCIATIVE: o Obama won 2012 election with 303 electoral votes Nate silver [statistician]: Obama would win 2012 election with 313 Newt gringrich [politician]:Using experience, said Romney wins by 300 o Study followed Canadians showing that trait perfectionism predicted earlier death. Most likely not directly correlated [perfectionism and time of death] Do not know the strength of the correlation BUT- [tie to last week’s class on journalism] there is probably an article or paper out there with the title “Perfectionism shown to Psych 2300: Psychology Research Methods 6/15/16 cause earlier death.” Even though that might not necessarily be true Causal - Strongest of the 3 claims - One variable is responsible for the other o Covariance: each of the variables effect each other o Temporal Precedence: one variable must come before the other variable o Internal Validity: there is no other explanation for the change in the second variable other than the change in the first variable EXAMPLES: o Dominos The Game: 1. Pushing a domino causes the next one to fall over; they are related 2. The first domino must fall for the last one to fall; one comes before the other 3. The last domino fell only because the first domino fell; o Domino’s The Pizza: 1. If I order a pizza, I receive a pizza; if I don’t order, I don’t receive 2. I have to order before I receive 3. Nothing else caused me to receive a pizza other than me ordering the pizza Frequency Association Causal 1 variable 2 + variables 2+ variables Measured Measured At least 1 manipulated Prevalence Covariance Covariance - - Internal validity & Temporal precedence
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